61 relations: Acetylation, American Medical Association, Androgen insensitivity syndrome, Androgen receptor, Anti-Müllerian hormone, C-terminus, Chromosomal crossover, DAX1, DNA, Dopamine, Embryo, FGF9, Gene, Gene duplication, Gene expression, Genetic recombination, Gonad, High-mobility group, HMG-box, International Olympic Committee, Intron, Karyotype, Klinefelter syndrome, Leydig cell, Monotreme, N-terminus, New Scientist, Nuclear localization sequence, Olympic Games, Ovarian follicle, Parkinson's disease, Positive feedback, Protein, Protein–protein interaction, Schizophrenia, Seminiferous tubule, Sertoli cell, Sex, Sex cords, Sex organ, Sex reversal, Sex verification in sports, Sex-determination system, SOX gene family, SOX3, SOX9, Sp1 transcription factor, Steroidogenic factor 1, Testicle, Testosterone, ..., Theca of follicle, Theria, Transcription factor, Type I and type II errors, WT1, XX male syndrome, XY gonadal dysgenesis, Y chromosome, Zinc finger, 1996 Summer Olympics, 2000 Summer Olympics. Expand index (11 more) » « Shrink index
Acetylation (or in IUPAC nomenclature ethanoylation) describes a reaction that introduces an acetyl functional group into a chemical compound.
The American Medical Association (AMA), founded in 1847 and incorporated in 1897, is the largest association of physicians—both MDs and DOs—and medical students in the United States.
Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is an intersex condition in which there is a partial or complete inability of many cells in the affected genetic male to respond to androgenic hormones.
The androgen receptor (AR), also known as NR3C4 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 4), is a type of nuclear receptor that is activated by binding any of the androgenic hormones, including testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in the cytoplasm and then translocating into the nucleus.
Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), also known as Müllerian-inhibiting hormone (MIH), is a glycoprotein hormone structurally related to inhibin and activin from the transforming growth factor beta superfamily, whose key roles are in growth differentiation and folliculogenesis.
The C-terminus (also known as the carboxyl-terminus, carboxy-terminus, C-terminal tail, C-terminal end, or COOH-terminus) is the end of an amino acid chain (protein or polypeptide), terminated by a free carboxyl group (-COOH).
Chromosomal crossover (or crossing over) is the exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes that results in recombinant chromosomes during sexual reproduction.
DAX1 (dosage-sensitive sex reversal, adrenal hypoplasia critical region, on chromosome X, gene 1) is a nuclear receptor protein that in humans is encoded by the NR0B1 gene (nuclear receptor subfamily 0, group B, member 1).
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.
Glia-activating factor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FGF9 gene.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Gene duplication (or chromosomal duplication or gene amplification) is a major mechanism through which new genetic material is generated during molecular evolution.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
Genetic recombination (aka genetic reshuffling) is the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent.
A gonad or sex gland or reproductive gland is a mixed gland that produces the gametes (sex cells) and sex hormones of an organism.
High-Mobility Group or HMG is a group of chromosomal proteins that are involved in the regulation of DNA-dependent processes such as transcription, replication, recombination, and DNA repair.
In molecular biology, the HMG-box (high mobility group box) is a protein domain which is involved in DNA binding.
The International Olympic Committee (IOC; French: Comité International Olympique, CIO) is a Swiss private non-governmental organisation based in Lausanne, Switzerland, which is the authority responsible for the modern Olympic Games.
An intron is any nucleotide sequence within a gene that is removed by RNA splicing during maturation of the final RNA product.
A karyotype is the number and appearance of chromosomes in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell.
Klinefelter syndrome (KS) also known as 47,XXY or XXY, is the set of symptoms that result from two or more X chromosomes in males.
Leydig cells, also known as interstitial cells of Leydig, are found adjacent to the seminiferous tubules in the testicle.
Monotremes are one of the three main groups of living mammals, along with placentals (Eutheria) and marsupials (Metatheria).
The N-terminus (also known as the amino-terminus, NH2-terminus, N-terminal end or amine-terminus) is the start of a protein or polypeptide referring to the free amine group (-NH2) located at the end of a polypeptide.
New Scientist, first published on 22 November 1956, is a weekly, English-language magazine that covers all aspects of science and technology.
A nuclear localization signal or sequence (NLS) is an amino acid sequence that 'tags' a protein for import into the cell nucleus by nuclear transport.
The modern Olympic Games or Olympics (Jeux olympiques) are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions.
An ovarian follicle is a roughly spheroid cellular aggregation set found in the ovaries.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
Positive feedback is a process that occurs in a feedback loop in which the effects of a small disturbance on a system include an increase in the magnitude of the perturbation.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Protein–protein interactions (PPIs) are the physical contacts of high specificity established between two or more protein molecules as a result of biochemical events steered by electrostatic forces including the hydrophobic effect.
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.
Seminiferous tubules are located within the testes, and are the specific location of meiosis, and the subsequent creation of male gametes, namely spermatozoa.
A Sertoli cell (a kind of sustentacular cell) is a "nurse" cell of the testicles that is part of a seminiferous tubule and helps in the process of spermatogenesis, the production of sperm.
Organisms of many species are specialized into male and female varieties, each known as a sex. Sexual reproduction involves the combining and mixing of genetic traits: specialized cells known as gametes combine to form offspring that inherit traits from each parent.
In embryogenesis, the sex cords, (primitive sex cords or gonadal cords) are structures that develop from the gonadal ridges.
A sex organ (or reproductive organ) is any part of an animal's body that is involved in sexual reproduction.
Sex reversal is the phenomenon whereby organisms developing at sex-specific conditions such as temperatures or karyotypes hatch the opposite sex.
Sex verification in sports (also known as gender verification, or loosely as gender determination or a sex test) is the issue of verifying the eligibility of an athlete to compete in a sporting event that is limited to a single sex.
A sex-determination system is a biological system that determines the development of sexual characteristics in an organism.
SOX genes encode a family of transcription factors that bind to the minor groove in DNA, and belong to a super-family of genes characterized by a homologous sequence called the HMG-box (for high mobility group).
Transcription factor SOX-3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SOX3 gene.
Transcription factor SOX-9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SOX9 gene.
Transcription factor Sp1, also known as specificity protein 1* is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SP1 gene.
The steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) protein is a transcription factor involved in sex determination by controlling activity of genes related to the reproductive glands or gonads and adrenal glands.
The testicle or testis is the male reproductive gland in all animals, including humans.
Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid.
The theca folliculi comprise a layer of the ovarian follicles.
Theria (Greek: θηρίον, wild beast) is a subclass of mammals amongst the Theriiformes (the sister taxa to Yinotheria).
In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.
In statistical hypothesis testing, a type I error is the rejection of a true null hypothesis (also known as a "false positive" finding), while a type II error is failing to reject a false null hypothesis (also known as a "false negative" finding).
Wilms tumor protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the WT1 gene on chromosome 11p.
XX male syndrome is a rare congenital condition where an individual with a female genotype has phenotypically male characteristics that can vary between cases.
Swyer syndrome, or XY gonadal dysgenesis, is a type of hypogonadism in a person whose karyotype is 46,XY.
The Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes (allosomes) in mammals, including humans, and many other animals.
A zinc finger is a small protein structural motif that is characterized by the coordination of one or more zinc ions (Zn2+) in order to stabilize the fold.
The 1996 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXVI Olympiad and unofficially referred to as the Centennial Olympic Games, was an international multi-sport event that was celebrated from July 19 to August 4, 1996, in Atlanta, Georgia, United States.
The 2000 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXVII Olympiad and commonly known as Sydney 2000 or the Millennium Olympic Games/Games of the New Millennium, were an international multi-sport event which was held between 15 September and 1 October 2000 in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.