262 relations: Acne, Active metabolite, Adam's apple, Adipose tissue, Adolf Butenandt, Adrenal gland, Agnatha, Agonist, Alcoholism, Allosteric modulator, Anabolic steroid, Anabolism, Androgen, Androgen receptor, Androgen replacement therapy, Androstane, Androstenedione, Androsterone, Antiandrogen, Antisocial personality disorder, Anus, Arnold Adolph Berthold, Aromatase, Aromatization, Athlete, Beard, Bile, Biological activity, Biosynthesis, Biotransformation, Birth defect, Blood plasma, Blood proteins, Blood–brain barrier, Body hair, Body mass index, Body odor, Bone, Bone age, Bone density, Brain, Breast cancer, Breastfeeding, Buccal administration, Cardiovascular disease, Cell (biology), Cell nucleus, Challenge hypothesis, Charles-Édouard Brown-Séquard, Chemical synthesis, ..., Chess tournament, Chest hair, Cholesterol, Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, Chromosome, Circulatory system, Clitoris, Cream (pharmaceutical), CYP17A1, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, Cytochrome P450, Cytoplasm, Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, Dementia, Developmental biology, Digit ratio, Dihydrotestosterone, Ecdysone, Endoplasmic reticulum, Endorphins, Enzyme, Epiandrosterone, Epididymis, Epietiocholanolone, Epiphysis, Erection, Estradiol, Estrogen, Estrogen receptor, Etiocholanolone, Excretion, Facial hair, Feces, Feedback, Female, Female sexual arousal disorder, Fertility, Final examination, First pass effect, Fish, Follicle-stimulating hormone, Food and Drug Administration, GABAA receptor, Gdańsk, Gdańsk University of Technology, Gel, Gender, Gene, Generic drug, Glucuronidation, Glucuronosyltransferase, Gnathostomata, Gonadotropin-releasing hormone, Growth hormone, Gynecomastia, Hair follicle, Health system, Hepatotoxicity, Hormone replacement therapy, Hormone response element, Human height, Human penis, Human serum albumin, Human voice, Hydroxy group, Hydroxylation, Hyperandrogenism, Hypoactive sexual desire disorder, Hypogonadism, Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, Hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis, Hypothalamus, International unit, Intramuscular injection, Jaw, Ketone, Ketosteroid, Lamprey, Late-onset hypogonadism, Leg hair, Leopold Ružička, Leydig cell, Libido, Life extension, Ligand (biochemistry), Liquorice, List of androgen esters, List of androgens/anabolic steroids, Live Science, Liver, Low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor, Luteinizing hormone, Male, Male reproductive system, Mammal, Medication, Megakaryocyte, Membrane androgen receptor, Menstrual cycle, Metabolism, Metabolite, Methods in Molecular Biology, Mitochondrion, Moustache, Muscle, Myelin, Nasal administration, Navel, Nerve growth factor, Neuroscience of sex differences, Neurotrophin, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Novartis, Nucleotide, Oral administration, Organon International, Osteoporosis, Ovary, Ovulation, Oxytocin, Penis, Performance-enhancing substance, Phallus, Pituitary gland, Placenta, Plasma protein binding, Platelet, Postpartum period, Pregnancy, Pregnenolone, Prostate, Prostate cancer, Protein, Pubarche, Puberty, Pubic hair, Rapid eye movement sleep, Receptor (biochemistry), Receptor antagonist, Redox, Reversible reaction, Rugae, Schering AG, Scrotum, Sebaceous gland, Secondary sex characteristic, Seminal vesicle, Sertoli cell, Sex hormone-binding globulin, Sex organ, Sex steroid, Sexual differentiation, Sexual dimorphism, Side effect, Sideburns, Sigma receptor, Sigma-1 receptor, Skin, Sparrow, Spearmint, Sperm, Sperm competition, Spermatogenesis, Spermatogonium, Steroid, Sterol, Subdermal implant, Suffix, Sulfation, Sulfotransferase, Swelling (medical), Testicle, Testosterone (medication), Testosterone (patch), Testosterone and the cardiovascular system, Testosterone glucuronide, Testosterone sulfate, Testosterone undecanoate, The Lancet, Theca, Thromboxane A2, Tissue (biology), Transdermal, Transdermal patch, Tropomyosin receptor kinase A, Underarm hair, Urethra, Urine, Vasopressin, Vertebrate, Virilization, Vitamin A deficiency, Vitamin D, WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, William S. Boyd School of Law, Word stem, Zinc deficiency, 11-Ketotestosterone, 17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 3α,5β-Androstanediol, 3α-Androstanediol, 3α-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 3β,5β-Androstanediol, 3β-Androstanediol, 3β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 5α-Reductase, 5β-Dihydrotestosterone, 5β-Reductase. Expand index (212 more) » « Shrink index
Acne, also known as acne vulgaris, is a long-term skin disease that occurs when hair follicles are clogged with dead skin cells and oil from the skin.
An active metabolite is an active form of a drug after it has been processed by the body.
The Adam's apple, or laryngeal prominence, is a feature of the human neck, and is the lump or protrusion that is formed by the angle of the thyroid cartilage surrounding the larynx seen especially in males.
In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.
Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt (24 March 1903 – 18 January 1995) was a German biochemist.
The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.
Agnatha (Greek, "no jaws") is a superclass of jawless fish in the phylum Chordata, subphylum Vertebrata, consisting of both present (cyclostomes) and extinct (conodonts and ostracoderms) species.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, an allosteric modulator (allo- from the Greek meaning "other") is a substance which indirectly influences (modulates) the effects of a primary ligand that directly activates or deactivates the function of a target protein.
Anabolic steroids, also known more properly as anabolic–androgenic steroids (AAS), are steroidal androgens that include natural androgens like testosterone as well as synthetic androgens that are structurally related and have similar effects to testosterone.
Anabolism (from ἁνά, "upward" and βάλλειν, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that construct molecules from smaller units.
An androgen (from Greek andr-, the stem of the word meaning "man") is any natural or synthetic steroid hormone which regulates the development and maintenance of male characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors.
The androgen receptor (AR), also known as NR3C4 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 4), is a type of nuclear receptor that is activated by binding any of the androgenic hormones, including testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in the cytoplasm and then translocating into the nucleus.
Androgen replacement therapy (ART), often referred to as testosterone replacement therapy (TRT), is a class of hormone replacement therapy in which androgens, often testosterone, are replaced.
Androstane is a C19 steroid with a gonane core.
Androstenedione, or 4-androstenedione (abbreviated as A4 or Δ4-dione), also known as androst-4-ene-3,17-dione, is an endogenous weak androgen steroid hormone and intermediate in the biosynthesis of estrone and of testosterone from dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).
Androsterone, or 5α-androstan-3α-ol-17-one, is an endogenous steroid hormone, neurosteroid, and putative pheromone.
Antiandrogens, also known as androgen antagonists or testosterone blockers, are a class of drugs that prevent androgens like testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) from mediating their biological effects in the body.
Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD or APD) is a personality disorder characterized by a long term pattern of disregard for, or violation of, the rights of others.
The anus (from Latin anus meaning "ring", "circle") is an opening at the opposite end of an animal's digestive tract from the mouth.
Arnold Adolph Berthold or Arnold Adolf Berthold (26 February 1803 – 3 January 1861) was a German physiologist and zoologist.
Aromatase, also called estrogen synthetase or estrogen synthase, is an enzyme responsible for a key step in the biosynthesis of estrogens.
Aromatization is a chemical reaction in which an aromatic system is formed.
An athlete (also sportsman or sportswoman) is a person who competes in one or more sports that involve physical strength, speed or endurance.
A beard is the collection of hair that grows on the chin and cheeks of humans and some non-human animals.
Bile or gall is a dark green to yellowish brown fluid, produced by the liver of most vertebrates, that aids the digestion of lipids in the small intestine.
In pharmacology, biological activity or pharmacological activity describes the beneficial or adverse effects of a drug on living matter.
Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.
Biotransformation is the chemical modification (or modifications) made by an organism on a chemical compound.
A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.
Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells.
Blood proteins, also termed plasma proteins, are proteins present in blood plasma.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
Body hair, or androgenic hair, is the terminal hair that develops on the human body during and after puberty.
The body mass index (BMI) or Quetelet index is a value derived from the mass (weight) and height of an individual.
Body odor (American English) or body odour (British English; see spelling differences) is present in animals and humans, and its intensity can be influenced by many factors (behavioral patterns, survival strategies).
A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.
Bone age is the degree of maturation of a child's bones.
Bone density, or bone mineral density (BMD), is the amount of bone mineral in bone tissue.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.
Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast.
Buccal administration refers to a topical route of administration by which drugs held or applied in the buccal area (in the cheek) diffuse through the oral mucosa (tissues which line the mouth) and enter directly into the bloodstream.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
The challenge hypothesis outlines the dynamic relationship between testosterone and aggression in mating contexts.
Charles-Édouard Brown-Séquard FRS (8 April 1817 – 2 April 1894) was a Mauritian physiologist and neurologist who, in 1850, became the first to describe what is now called Brown-Séquard syndrome.
Chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.
A chess tournament is a series of chess games played competitively to determine a winning individual or team.
Chest hair is hair that grows on the chest of a person in the region between the neck and the abdomen.
Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.
Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme is commonly referred to as P450scc, where "scc" is an acronym for side-chain cleavage.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
The clitoris is a female sex organ present in mammals, ostriches and a limited number of other animals.
A cream is a preparation usually for application to the skin.
Cytochrome P450 17A1, also called steroid 17α-monooxygenase, 17α-hydroxylase, 17,20-lyase, or 17,20-desmolase, is an enzyme of the hydroxylase type that in humans is encoded by the CYP17A1 gene on chromosome 10.
Cytochrome P450 2C19 (abbreviated CYP2C19) is an enzyme.
Cytochrome P450 2C9 (abbreviated CYP2C9) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP2C9 gene.
Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP2D6 gene.
Cytochrome P450 3A4 (abbreviated CYP3A4) is an important enzyme in the body, mainly found in the liver and in the intestine.
Cytochrome P450 3A5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CYP3A5 gene.
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are proteins of the superfamily containing heme as a cofactor and, therefore, are hemoproteins.
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, abbreviated as DHEA sulfate or DHEA-S, also known as androstenolone sulfate, is an endogenous androstane steroid that is produced by the adrenal cortex.
Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.
Developmental biology is the study of the process by which animals and plants grow and develop.
The digit ratio is the ratio of the lengths of different digits or fingers typically measured from the midpoint of bottom crease (where the finger joins the hand) to the tip of the finger.
Dihydrotestosterone (DHT), or 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT), also known as androstanolone or stanolone, is an endogenous androgen sex steroid and hormone.
Ecdysone is a steroidal prohormone of the major insect molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone, which is secreted from the prothoracic glands.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae.
Endorphins (contracted from "endogenous morphine") are endogenous opioid neuropeptides and peptide hormones in humans and other animals.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Epiandrosterone, or isoandrosterone, also known as 3β-androsterone, 3β-hydroxy-5α-androstan-17-one, or 5α-androstan-3β-ol-17-one, is a steroid hormone with weak androgenic activity.
The epididymis (plural: epididymides or) is a tube that connects a testicle to a vas deferens in the male reproductive system.
Epietiocholanolone, also known as 5β-androstan-3β-ol-17-one or as etiocholan-3β-ol-17-one, is an etiocholane (5β-androstane) steroid as well as an inactive metabolite of testosterone that is formed in the liver.
The epiphysis is the rounded end of a long bone, at its joint with adjacent bone(s).
An erection (clinically: penile erection or penile tumescence) is a physiological phenomenon in which the penis becomes firm, engorged, and enlarged.
Estradiol (E2), also spelled oestradiol, is an estrogen steroid hormone and the major female sex hormone.
Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.
Estrogen receptors (ERs) are a group of proteins found inside cells.
Etiocholanolone, also known as 5β-androsterone, as well as 3α-hydroxy-5β-androstan-17-one or etiocholan-3α-ol-17-one, is an etiocholane (5β-androstane) steroid as well as an endogenous 17-ketosteroid that is produced from the metabolism of testosterone.
Excretion is the process by which metabolic waste is eliminated from an organism.
Facial hair is hair grown on the face, usually on the chin, cheeks, and upper lip region.
Feces (or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine.
Feedback occurs when outputs of a system are routed back as inputs as part of a chain of cause-and-effect that forms a circuit or loop.
Female (♀) is the sex of an organism, or a part of an organism, that produces non-mobile ova (egg cells).
Female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) is a disorder characterized by a persistent or recurrent inability to attain sexual arousal or to maintain arousal until the completion of a sexual activity.
Fertility is the natural capability to produce offspring.
A final examination, annual, exam, "final interview" or final is a test given to students at the end of a course of study or training.
The first pass effect (also known as first-pass metabolism or presystemic metabolism) is a phenomenon of drug metabolism whereby the concentration of a drug is greatly reduced before it reaches the systemic circulation.
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a gonadotropin, a glycoprotein polypeptide hormone.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
The GABAA receptor (GABAAR) is an ionotropic receptor and ligand-gated ion channel.
Gdańsk (Danzig) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast.
The Gdańsk University of Technology (GUT; Politechnika Gdańska) is a technical university in Gdańsk-Wrzeszcz, and one of the oldest universities in Poland.
A gel is a solid jelly-like material that can have properties ranging from soft and weak to hard and tough.
Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between, masculinity and femininity.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
A generic drug is a pharmaceutical drug that is equivalent to a brand-name product in dosage, strength, route of administration, quality, performance, and intended use, but does not carry the brand name.
Glucuronidation is often involved in drug metabolism of substances such as drugs, pollutants, bilirubin, androgens, estrogens, mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, fatty acid derivatives, retinoids, and bile acids.
Uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, UGT) is a cytosolic glycosyltransferase that catalyzes the transfer of the glucuronic acid component of UDP-glucuronic acid to a small hydrophobic molecule.
Gnathostomata are the jawed vertebrates.
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) also known as gonadoliberin, and by various other names in its endogenous form and as gonadorelin in its pharmaceutical form, is a releasing hormone responsible for the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary.
Growth hormone (GH), also known as somatotropin (or as human growth hormone in its human form), is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth, cell reproduction, and cell regeneration in humans and other animals.
Gynecomastia is an endocrine system disorder in which a noncancerous increase in the size of male breast tissue occurs.
The hair follicle is a dynamic organ found in mammalian skin.
A health system, also sometimes referred to as health care system or as healthcare system, is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.
Hepatotoxicity (from hepatic toxicity) implies chemical-driven liver damage.
Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is any form of hormone therapy wherein the patient, in the course of medical treatment, receives hormones, either to supplement a lack of naturally occurring hormones or to substitute other hormones for naturally occurring hormones.
A hormone response element (HRE) is a short sequence of DNA within the promoter of a gene that is able to bind to a specific hormone receptor complex and therefore regulate transcription.
Human height or stature is the distance from the bottom of the feet to the top of the head in a human body, standing erect.
The human penis is an external male intromittent organ that additionally serves as the urinal duct.
Human serum albumin is the serum albumin found in human blood.
The human voice consists of sound made by a human being using the vocal tract, such as talking, singing, laughing, crying, screaming, etc.
A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.
Hydroxylation is a chemical process that introduces a hydroxyl group (-OH) into an organic compound.
Hyperandrogenism, also known as androgen excess, is a medical condition characterized by excessive levels of androgens (male sex hormones such as testosterone) in the female body and the associated effects of the elevated androgen levels.
Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) or inhibited sexual desire (ISD) is considered a sexual dysfunction and is characterized as a lack or absence of sexual fantasies and desire for sexual activity, as judged by a clinician.
Hypogonadism means diminished functional activity of the gonads—the testes or the ovaries —that may result in diminished sex hormone biosynthesis.
The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA axis or HTPA axis) is a complex set of direct influences and feedback interactions among three components: the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland (a pea-shaped structure located below the thalamus), and the adrenal (also called "suprarenal") glands (small, conical organs on top of the kidneys).
The hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis (HPG axis) refers to the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and gonadal glands as if these individual endocrine glands were a single entity.
The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.
In pharmacology, the international unit is a unit of measurement for the amount of a substance; the mass or volume that constitutes one international unit varies based on which substance is being measured, and the variance is based on the biological activity or effect, for the purpose of easier comparison across substances.
Intramuscular (also IM or im) injection is the injection of a substance directly into muscle.
The jaw is any opposable articulated structure at the entrance of the mouth, typically used for grasping and manipulating food.
In chemistry, a ketone (alkanone) is an organic compound with the structure RC(.
Androstenedione Androsterone Estrone A ketosteroid, or an oxosteroid, is a steroid in which a hydrogen atom has been replaced with a ketone (C.
Lampreys (sometimes also called, inaccurately, lamprey eels) are an ancient lineage of jawless fish of the order Petromyzontiformes, placed in the superclass Cyclostomata.
Late-onset hypogonadism is a rare condition in older men, characterized by measurably low testosterone levels and clinical symptoms mostly of a sexual nature, including decreased desire for sex, fewer spontaneous erections, and erectile dysfunction.
Leg hair is hair that grows on the legs of humans, generally appearing after the onset of puberty.
Leopold Ružička (13 September 1887 – 26 September 1976) was a Croatian-Swiss scientist and joint winner of the 1939 Nobel Prize in Chemistry who worked most of his life in Switzerland.
Leydig cells, also known as interstitial cells of Leydig, are found adjacent to the seminiferous tubules in the testicle.
Libido, colloquially known as sex drive, is a person's overall sexual drive or desire for sexual activity.
Life extension science, also known as anti-aging medicine, indefinite life extension, experimental gerontology, and biomedical gerontology, is the study of slowing down or reversing the processes of aging to extend both the maximum and average lifespan.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.
Liquorice (British English) or licorice (American English) is the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra from which a sweet flavour can be extracted.
This is a list of androgen esters, including esters (as well as ethers) of natural androgens like testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and synthetic anabolic–androgenic steroids (AAS) like nandrolone (19-nortestosterone).
This is a list of androgens/anabolic steroids (AAS) or testosterone derivatives.
Live Science is a science news website run by Purch, which it purchased from Imaginova in 2009.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
The low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor (nerve growth factor receptor (TNFR superfamily, member 16), also called the LNGFR or p75 neurotrophin receptor) is one of the two receptor types for the neurotrophins, a family of protein growth factors that stimulate neuronal cells to survive and differentiate.
Luteinizing hormone (LH, also known as lutropin and sometimes lutrophin) is a hormone produced by gonadotropic cells in the anterior pituitary gland.
A male (♂) organism is the physiological sex that produces sperm.
The male reproductive system consists of a number of sex organs that play a role in the process of human reproduction.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
A megakaryocyte (mega- + karyo- + -cyte, "large-nucleus cell") is a large bone marrow cell with a lobated nucleus responsible for the production of blood thrombocytes (platelets), which are necessary for normal blood clotting.
Membrane androgen receptors (mARs) are a group of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) which bind and are activated by testosterone and/or other androgens.
The menstrual cycle is the regular natural change that occurs in the female reproductive system (specifically the uterus and ovaries) that makes pregnancy possible.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.
Methods in Molecular Biology is a book series published by Humana Press that covers molecular biology research methods and protocols.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
A moustache (mustache) is facial hair grown on the upper lip.
Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
Myelin is a lipid-rich substance that surrounds the axon of some nerve cells, forming an electrically insulating layer.
Nasal administration is a route of administration in which drugs are insufflated through the nose.
The navel (clinically known as the umbilicus, colloquially known as the belly button, or tummy button) is a hollowed or sometimes raised area on the abdomen at the attachment site of the umbilical cord.
Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a neurotrophic factor and neuropeptide primarily involved in the regulation of growth, maintenance, proliferation, and survival of certain target neurons.
Neuroscience of sex differences is the study of the characteristics of the brain that separate the male brain and the female brain.
Neurotrophins are a family of proteins that induce the survival, development, and function of neurons.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.
Novartis International AG is a Swiss multinational pharmaceutical company based in Basel, Switzerland.
Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.
Organon was a pharmaceutical company headquartered in Oss, Netherlands.
Osteoporosis is a disease where increased bone weakness increases the risk of a broken bone.
The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system that produces an ovum.
Ovulation is the release of eggs from the ovaries.
Oxytocin (Oxt) is a peptide hormone and neuropeptide.
A penis (plural penises or penes) is the primary sexual organ that male animals use to inseminate sexually receptive mates (usually females and hermaphrodites) during copulation.
Performance-enhancing substances, also known as performance-enhancing drugs (PED), are substances that are used to improve any form of activity performance in humans.
A phallus is a penis (especially when erect), an object that resembles a penis, or a mimetic image of an erect penis.
An explanation of the development of the pituitary gland (Hypophysis cerebri) & the congenital anomalies. In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing in humans.
The placenta is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, thermo-regulation, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply; to fight against internal infection; and to produce hormones which support pregnancy.
Plasma protein binding refers to the degree to which medications attach to proteins within the blood.
Platelets, also called thrombocytes (from Greek θρόμβος, "clot" and κύτος, "cell"), are a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to react to bleeding from blood vessel injury by clumping, thereby initiating a blood clot.
A postpartum (or postnatal) period begins immediately after the birth of a child as the mother's body, including hormone levels and uterus size, returns to a non-pregnant state.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
Pregnenolone (P5), or pregn-5-en-3β-ol-20-one, is an endogenous steroid and precursor/metabolic intermediate in the biosynthesis of most of the steroid hormones, including the progestogens, androgens, estrogens, glucocorticoids, and mineralocorticoids.
The prostate (from Ancient Greek προστάτης, prostates, literally "one who stands before", "protector", "guardian") is a compound tubuloalveolar exocrine gland of the male reproductive system in most mammals.
Prostate cancer is the development of cancer in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Pubarche refers to the first appearance of pubic hair at puberty.
Puberty is the process of physical changes through which a child's body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction.
Pubic hair is terminal body hair that is found in the genital area of adolescent and adult humans.
Rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep, REMS) is a unique phase of sleep in mammals and birds, distinguishable by random/rapid movement of the eyes, accompanied with low muscle tone throughout the body, and the propensity of the sleeper to dream vividly.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to and blocking a receptor rather than activating it like an agonist.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
A reversible reaction is a reaction where the reactants form products, which react together to give the reactants back.
Rugae is a term used in anatomy that refers to a series of ridges produced by folding of the wall of an organ.
Schering AG was a research-centered German multinational pharmaceutical company headquartered in Wedding, Berlin, which operated as an independent company from 1851 to 2006.
The scrotum is an anatomical male reproductive structure that consists of a suspended dual-chambered sack of skin and smooth muscle that is present in most terrestrial male mammals and located under the penis.
Sebaceous glands are microscopic exocrine glands in the skin that secrete an oily or waxy matter, called sebum, to lubricate and waterproof the skin and hair of mammals.
Secondary sex characteristics are features that appear during puberty in humans, and at sexual maturity in other animals.
The seminal vesicles (glandulae vesiculosae), vesicular glands, or seminal glands, are a pair of simple tubular glands posteroinferior to the urinary bladder of some male mammals.
A Sertoli cell (a kind of sustentacular cell) is a "nurse" cell of the testicles that is part of a seminiferous tubule and helps in the process of spermatogenesis, the production of sperm.
Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) or sex steroid-binding globulin (SSBG) is a glycoprotein that binds to the two sex hormones: androgen and estrogen.
A sex organ (or reproductive organ) is any part of an animal's body that is involved in sexual reproduction.
Sex steroids, also known as gonadocorticoids and gonadal steroids, are steroid hormones that interact with vertebrate androgen or estrogen receptors.
Sexual differentiation is the process of development of the differences between males and females from an undifferentiated zygote.
Sexual dimorphism is the condition where the two sexes of the same species exhibit different characteristics beyond the differences in their sexual organs.
In medicine, a side effect is an effect, whether therapeutic or adverse, that is secondary to the one intended; although the term is predominantly employed to describe adverse effects, it can also apply to beneficial, but unintended, consequences of the use of a drug.
Sideburns, sideboards, or side whiskers are patches of facial hair grown on the sides of the face, extending from the hairline to run parallel to or beyond the ears.
Schematic σ receptor The sigma receptors σ1 and σ2 bind to ligands such as 4-PPBP (4-phenyl-1-(4-phenylbutyl) piperidine), SA 4503 (cutamesine), ditolylguanidine, dimethyltryptamine, and siramesine.
The sigma-1 receptor (σ1R), one of two sigma receptor subtypes, is a chaperone protein at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that modulates calcium signaling through the IP3 receptor.
Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.
Sparrows are a family of small passerine birds.
Spearmint (binomial Mentha spicata, synonym Mentha viridis), also known as garden mint, common mint, lamb mint and mackerel mint, is a species of mint native to much of Europe and Asia (Middle East, Himalayas, China etc.), and naturalized in parts of northern and western Africa, North America, and South America, as well as various oceanic islands.
Sperm is the male reproductive cell and is derived from the Greek word (σπέρμα) sperma (meaning "seed").
Sperm competition is the competitive process between spermatozoa of two or more different males to fertilize the same egg during sexual reproduction.
Spermatogenesis is the process by which haploid spermatozoa develop from germ cells in the seminiferous tubules of the testis.
A spermatogonium (plural: spermatogonia) is an undifferentiated male germ cell.
A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.
Sterols, also known as steroid alcohols, are a subgroup of the steroids and an important class of organic molecules.
A subdermal implant refers to a body modification that is placed underneath the skin, therefore allowing the body to heal over the implant and creating a raised design.
In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.
Sulfation or sulfurylation (not to be confused with sulfonation) in biochemistry is the enzyme-catalyzed conjugation of a sulfo group (not a sulfate or sulfuryl group) to another molecule.
Sulfotransferases are transferase enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a sulfo group from a donor molecule to an acceptor alcohol or amine.
In medical parlance, swelling, turgescence or tumefaction is a transient abnormal enlargement of a body part or area not caused by proliferation of cells.
The testicle or testis is the male reproductive gland in all animals, including humans.
Testosterone is a medication and naturally occurring steroid hormone.
The testosterone patch, brand name Intrinsa among others, was designed to treat female sexual dysfunction.
The predominant androgen in men, testosterone, has shown to substantially decline throughout the aging process.
Testosterone glucuronide is an endogenous, naturally occurring steroid and minor urinary metabolite of testosterone.
Testosterone sulfate is an endogenous, naturally occurring steroid and minor urinary metabolite of testosterone.
Testosterone undecanoate, sold under the brand names Nebido, Aveed, and Andriol among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which is used mainly in the treatment of low testosterone levels in men.
The Lancet is a weekly peer-reviewed general medical journal.
A theca (plural thecae) refers to a sheath or a covering.
Thromboxane A2 (TXA2) is a type of thromboxane that is produced by activated platelets and has prothrombotic properties: it stimulates activation of new platelets as well as increases platelet aggregation.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
Transdermal is a route of administration wherein active ingredients are delivered across the skin for systemic distribution.
A transdermal patch is a medicated adhesive patch that is placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication through the skin and into the bloodstream.
Tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA), also known as high affinity nerve growth factor receptor, neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 1, or TRK1-transforming tyrosine kinase protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NTRK1 gene.
Underarm hair, also known as axillary hair, is the hair in the underarm area (axilla).
In anatomy, the urethra (from Greek οὐρήθρα – ourḗthrā) is a tube that connects the urinary bladder to the urinary meatus for the removal of urine from the body.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
Vasopressin, also named antidiuretic hormone (ADH), arginine vasopressin (AVP) or argipressin, is a hormone synthesized as a peptide prohormone in neurons in the hypothalamus, and is converted to AVP.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
Virilization or masculinization is the biological development of sex differences, changes that make a male body different from a female body.
Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) or hypovitaminosis A is a lack of vitamin A in blood and tissues.
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects.
The WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (EML), published by the World Health Organization (WHO), contains the medications considered to be most effective and safe to meet the most important needs in a health system.
The William S. Boyd School of Law is a law school accredited by the American Bar Association.
In linguistics, a stem is a part of a word.
Zinc deficiency is defined either as insufficient zinc to meet the needs of the body, or as a serum zinc level below the normal range.
11-Ketotestosterone (11-KT) is an oxidized form of testosterone that contains a keto group at the C11 position.
17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17β-HSD, HSD17B), also 17-ketosteroid reductases (17-KSR), are a group of alcohol oxidoreductases which catalyze the reduction of 17-ketosteroids and the dehydrogenation of 17β-hydroxysteroids in steroidogenesis and steroid metabolism.
3α,5β-Androstanediol, also known as etiocholanediol, as well as 5β-androstane-3α,17β-diol or etiocholane-3α,17β-diol, is an endogenous, naturally occurring steroid that is formed as a metabolite of testosterone.
3α-Androstanediol (often abbreviated as 3α-diol), also known as 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol, is an endogenous inhibitory androstane neurosteroid and weak androgen, and a major metabolite of dihydrotestosterone (DHT).
3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3α-HSD), also known as aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C4, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AKR1C4 gene.
3β,5β-Androstanediol, also known as epietiocholanediol, as well as 5β-androstane-3β,17β-diol or etiocholane-3β,17β-diol, is an endogenous, naturally occurring steroid that is formed as a metabolite of testosterone.
3β-Androstanediol, also known as 5α-androstane-3β,17β-diol, and often shortened to 3β-diol, is an endogenous steroid hormone.
3β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-4 isomerase (3β-HSD) is an enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of progesterone from pregnenolone, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone from 17α-hydroxypregnenolone, and androstenedione from dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in the adrenal gland.
5α-reductases, also known as 3-oxo-5α-steroid 4-dehydrogenases, are enzymes involved in steroid metabolism.
5β-Dihydrotestosterone (5β-DHT), also known as 5β-androstan-17β-ol-3-one or as etiocholan-17β-ol-3-one, is an etiocholane (5β-androstane) steroid as well as an inactive metabolite of testosterone formed by 5β-reductase in the liver and bone marrow and an intermediate in the formation of 3α,5β-androstanediol and 3β,5β-androstanediol (by 3α- and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) and, from them, respectively, etiocholanolone and epietiocholanolone (by 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase).
5β-Reductase, or Δ4-3-oxosteroid 5β-reductase (3-oxo-Δ4-steroid 5β-reductase, androstenedione 5β-reductase, cholestenone 5β-reductase, cortisone 5β-reductase, cortisone Δ4-5β-reductase, steroid 5β-reductase, testosterone 5β-reductase, Δ4-3-ketosteroid 5β-reductase, Δ4-5β-reductase, Δ4-hydrogenase, 4,5β-dihydrocortisone:NADP+ Δ4-oxidoreductase, 3-oxo-5β-steroid:NADP+ Δ4-oxidoreductase) is an enzyme with systematic name 5β-cholestan-3-one:NADP+ 4,5-oxidoreductase.
17-Hydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one, 17-hydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one, 17β-Hydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one, 17β-hydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one, 4-Testosterone, 4-testosterone, Androst-4-en-17-ol-3-one, Androst-4-en-17β-ol-3-one, Beta Testosterone, Bioavailable testosterone, Free testosterone, Male testosterone, Testerone, Testosterone (hormone), Testosterone congeners, Testostrone, Total testosterone, Δ4-Testosterone, Δ4-testosterone.