329 relations: Absorption (pharmacology), Acne, Adipose tissue, Adrenal gland, Adrenal insufficiency, Aggression, Agonist, Alcohol, Allosteric modulator, Alzheimer's disease, Anabolic steroid, Anabolism, Anastrozole, Androgen, Androgen deficiency, Androgen prohormone, Androgen receptor, Androgen replacement therapy, Android fat distribution, Androstane, Androstanediol glucuronide, Androstenedione, Androsterone glucuronide, Anorgasmia, Anthropometry, Antiandrogen, Antidepressant, Anxiety, Anxiolytic, Aphrodisiac, Aromatase, Aromatase inhibitor, Athlete, Ben Johnson (sprinter), Benign prostatic hyperplasia, Bicalutamide, Bioavailability, Biological half-life, Biosynthesis, Biotransformation, Blood lipids, Body hair, Body mass index, Body shape, Bone, Bone density, Bone marrow, Brain, Breast cancer, Breast development, ..., Breast pain, Breastfeeding, Buccal administration, Canada, Carbon-12, Carbon-13, Cardiovascular disease, Castor oil, Chemical synthesis, China, Cholesterol, Chris Benoit, Circulatory system, Clinical trial, Clinical urine tests, Cloxotestosterone acetate, CNN, Cognition, Combined oral contraceptive pill, Contraindication, Controlled Drugs and Substances Act, Controlled substance, Controlled Substances Act, Court of Arbitration for Sport, Cream (pharmaceutical), CYP3A4, Cypionic acid, Cyproterone acetate, Cyrillic script, Cytochrome P450, Death, Deep vein thrombosis, Dehydroepiandrosterone, Delayed puberty, Depression (mood), Derivative (chemistry), Diabetes mellitus type 2, Dietary supplement, Dihydrotestosterone, Doping in sport, Double bond, Dutasteride, Dutch language, Elimination (pharmacology), Emotionality, English language, Enzyme, Enzyme inducer, Enzyme inhibitor, Epididymis, Epitestosterone, Erection, Erythropoietin, ESPN, Ester, Estradiol, Estradiol (medication), Estradiol cypionate, Estradiol valerate, Estrogen, Estrogen (medication), Estrogen receptor beta, Ether, Ethnic group, Etiocholanolone glucuronide, Europe, Excretion, Exercise, Facial hair, Fatty acid, Feces, Female sexual arousal disorder, Fertility, Fetus, Finasteride, First pass effect, Follicle-stimulating hormone, Food and Drug Administration, French language, Functional group, GABAA receptor, Gastrointestinal tract, Gel, Generic drug, German language, Glucuronidation, Gonad, Gonadotropin, GPRC6A, Gynecomastia, Hair follicle, Health system, Heart, Heart failure, Hematocrit, Hepatotoxicity, Heptanoic acid, High-density lipoprotein, Hirsutism, Hoarse voice, Hormone replacement therapy, Hot flash, Human body weight, Human serum albumin, Human sexual activity, Human sexuality, Human skin, Hydroxy group, Hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, Hypertrichosis, Hypoactive sexual desire disorder, Hypogonadism, Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, Hypopituitarism, Hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis, Hypothalamus, Infertility, Injection (medicine), Intersex, Intramuscular injection, Italian language, Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, Ketone, Kidney, Larynx, Late-onset hypogonadism, Latin, Levonorgestrel butanoate, Libido, Ligand (biochemistry), Lipophilicity, List of Schedule III drugs (US), Liver, Low-density lipoprotein, Luteinizing hormone, Lymphatic system, Male contraceptive, Medication, Membrane androgen receptor, Membrane transport protein, Memory, Menopause, Metabolism, Metabolite, Metandienone, Methods in Molecular Biology, Methyltestosterone, Misuse of Drugs Act 1971, Moiety (chemistry), Mood (psychology), Mood swing, Muscle, Myocardial infarction, Nandrolone, Nandrolone decanoate, Nandrolone phenylpropionate, Nasal administration, National Institute on Aging, Natural product, Negative feedback, Neurosteroid, Nocturnal emission, Norethisterone enanthate, Nuclear receptor, Obstructive sleep apnea, Omnadren, Oophorectomy, Oral administration, Organic compound, Orgasm, Ossification, Overdiagnosis, OxfordDictionaries.com, Pattern hair loss, PDF, Penis, Penis enlargement, Pharmacodynamics, Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacovigilance, Pituitary gland, Plasma protein binding, Portuguese language, Potency (pharmacology), Precursor (chemistry), Pregnancy, Prescription drug, Prodrug, Professional sports, Professional wrestling, Progestin, Prohibition, Propionate, Prostate, Prostate cancer, Prostate-specific antigen, Psychological stress, Puberty, Pulmonary embolism, QT interval, Randomized controlled trial, Red blood cell, Redox, Reward system, Route of administration, Russian language, Seborrhoeic dermatitis, Secretion, Seminal vesicle, Sex hormone-binding globulin, Sex steroid, Sex verification in sports, Sexual arousal, Side chain, Side effect, Silandrone, Skin, Slavic languages, Sleep apnea, Spanish language, Spermatogenesis, Spironolactone, Stanozolol, Steric effects, Steroid, Stroke, Subcutaneous tissue, Subdermal implant, Substituent, Sulfation, Suspension (chemistry), Sustanon, Swelling (medical), Tablet (pharmacy), Tea seed oil, Teratology, Testicle, Testosterone, Testosterone (patch), Testosterone buciclate, Testosterone cypionate, Testosterone enanthate, Testosterone glucuronide, Testosterone propionate, Testosterone sulfate, Testosterone undecanoate, The New York Times, Thermoregulation, Thorax, Tissue (biology), Topical medication, Trans man, Transdermal, Transdermal patch, Transgender hormone therapy (female-to-male), Triglyceride, Undecylic acid, United Kingdom, United States, United States Congress, Unnecessary health care, Urinary tract infection, Urine, Vasodilation, Venipuncture, Virilization, Voice change, Weight gain, WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, World Anti-Doping Agency, ZIP9, 17α-Alkylated anabolic steroid, 1988 Summer Olympics, 3α-Androstanediol, 3β-Androstanediol, 4-Androstenediol, 5α-Reductase, 5α-Reductase inhibitor, 5β-Reductase. 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In pharmacology (and more specifically pharmacokinetics), absorption is the movement of a drug from the site of administration to bloodstream.
Acne, also known as acne vulgaris, is a long-term skin disease that occurs when hair follicles are clogged with dead skin cells and oil from the skin.
In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.
The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.
Adrenal insufficiency is a condition in which the adrenal glands do not produce adequate amounts of steroid hormones, primarily cortisol; but may also include impaired production of aldosterone (a mineralocorticoid), which regulates sodium conservation, potassium secretion, and water retention.
Aggression is overt, often harmful, social interaction with the intention of inflicting damage or other unpleasantness upon another individual.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, an allosteric modulator (allo- from the Greek meaning "other") is a substance which indirectly influences (modulates) the effects of a primary ligand that directly activates or deactivates the function of a target protein.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
Anabolic steroids, also known more properly as anabolic–androgenic steroids (AAS), are steroidal androgens that include natural androgens like testosterone as well as synthetic androgens that are structurally related and have similar effects to testosterone.
Anabolism (from ἁνά, "upward" and βάλλειν, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that construct molecules from smaller units.
Anastrozole, sold under the brand name Arimidex among others, is a medication used in addition to other treatments for breast cancer.
An androgen (from Greek andr-, the stem of the word meaning "man") is any natural or synthetic steroid hormone which regulates the development and maintenance of male characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors.
Androgen deficiency also known as hypoandrogenism and androgen deficiency syndrome, is a medical condition characterized by not enough androgenic activity in the body.
An androgen prohormone, or proandrogen, is a prohormone (or prodrug) of an anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS).
The androgen receptor (AR), also known as NR3C4 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 4), is a type of nuclear receptor that is activated by binding any of the androgenic hormones, including testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in the cytoplasm and then translocating into the nucleus.
Androgen replacement therapy (ART), often referred to as testosterone replacement therapy (TRT), is a class of hormone replacement therapy in which androgens, often testosterone, are replaced.
Android fat distribution describes the distribution of human adipose tissue mainly around the trunk and upper body, in areas such as the abdomen, chest, shoulder and nape of the neck.
Androstane is a C19 steroid with a gonane core.
3α-Androstanediol glucuronide (3α-ADG) is a metabolite formed from human androgens; compounds involved in the development and maintenance of sexual characteristics.
Androstenedione, or 4-androstenedione (abbreviated as A4 or Δ4-dione), also known as androst-4-ene-3,17-dione, is an endogenous weak androgen steroid hormone and intermediate in the biosynthesis of estrone and of testosterone from dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).
Androsterone glucuronide (ADT-G) is a major circulating and urinary metabolite of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT).
Anorgasmia, or Coughlan's syndrome, is a type of sexual dysfunction in which a person cannot achieve orgasm despite adequate stimulation.
Anthropometry (from Greek ἄνθρωπος anthropos, "human", and μέτρον metron, "measure") refers to the measurement of the human individual.
Antiandrogens, also known as androgen antagonists or testosterone blockers, are a class of drugs that prevent androgens like testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) from mediating their biological effects in the body.
Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.
An anxiolytic (also antipanic or antianxiety agent) is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety.
An aphrodisiac or love drug is a substance that increases libido when consumed.
Aromatase, also called estrogen synthetase or estrogen synthase, is an enzyme responsible for a key step in the biosynthesis of estrogens.
Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are a class of drugs used in the treatment of breast cancer in postmenopausal women and gynecomastia in men.
An athlete (also sportsman or sportswoman) is a person who competes in one or more sports that involve physical strength, speed or endurance.
Benjamin Sinclair Johnson, (born December 30, 1961) is a Jamaican-born Canadian former sprinter, who won two Olympic bronze medals and an Olympic gold medal, which was later rescinded.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), also called prostate enlargement, is a noncancerous increase in size of the prostate.
Bicalutamide, sold under the brand name Casodex among others, is an antiandrogen medication that is primarily used to treat prostate cancer.
In pharmacology, bioavailability (BA or F) is a subcategory of absorption and is the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs.
The biological half-life of a biological substance is the time it takes for half to be removed by biological processes when the rate of removal is roughly exponential.
Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.
Biotransformation is the chemical modification (or modifications) made by an organism on a chemical compound.
Blood lipids (or blood fats) are lipids in the blood, either free or bound to other molecules.
Body hair, or androgenic hair, is the terminal hair that develops on the human body during and after puberty.
The body mass index (BMI) or Quetelet index is a value derived from the mass (weight) and height of an individual.
Human body shape is a complex phenomenon with sophisticated detail and function.
A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.
Bone density, or bone mineral density (BMD), is the amount of bone mineral in bone tissue.
Bone marrow is a semi-solid tissue which may be found within the spongy or cancellous portions of bones.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.
Breast development, also known as mammogenesis, is a complex biological process in primates that takes place throughout a female's life.
Breast pain is a medical symptom that is most often associated with a developing disease or condition of the breast.
Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast.
Buccal administration refers to a topical route of administration by which drugs held or applied in the buccal area (in the cheek) diffuse through the oral mucosa (tissues which line the mouth) and enter directly into the bloodstream.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Carbon-12 is the more abundant of the two stable isotopes of carbon (Carbon-13 being the other), amounting to 98.93% of the element carbon; its abundance is due to the triple-alpha process by which it is created in stars.
Carbon-13 (13C) is a natural, stable isotope of carbon with a nucleus containing six protons and seven neutrons.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
Castor oil is a vegetable oil obtained by pressing the seeds of the castor oil plant (Ricinus communis).
Chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.
Christopher Michael Benoit (May 21, 1967 – June 24, 2007) was a Canadian professional wrestler.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Clinical trials are experiments or observations done in clinical research.
Clinical urine tests are various tests of urine for diagnostic purposes.
Cloxotestosterone acetate (brand name Caprosem), also known as testosterone 17β-chloral hemiacetal O-acetate, is a synthetic, injected anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) and an androgen ether and ester – specifically, the O-acetate ester of cloxotestosterone, the 17β-trichloro hemiacetal ether of testosterone.
Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.
Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".
The combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP), often referred to as the birth control pill or colloquially as "the pill", is a type of birth control that is designed to be taken orally by women.
In medicine, a contraindication is a condition or factor that serves as a reason to withhold a certain medical treatment due to the harm that it would cause the patient.
The Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (Loi réglementant certaines drogues et autres substances) (the Act) is Canada's federal drug control statute.
A controlled substance is generally a drug or chemical whose manufacture, possession, or use is regulated by a government, such as illicitly used drugs or prescription medications that are designated a Controlled Drug in the United Kingdom.
The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) is the statute establishing federal U.S. drug policy under which the manufacture, importation, possession, use, and distribution of certain substances is regulated.
The Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS; Tribunal arbitral du sport, TAS) is an international quasi-judicial body established to settle disputes related to sport through arbitration.
A cream is a preparation usually for application to the skin.
Cytochrome P450 3A4 (abbreviated CYP3A4) is an important enzyme in the body, mainly found in the liver and in the intestine.
Cypionic acid is a carboxylic acid with the molecular formula C8H14O2.
Cyproterone acetate (CPA), sold alone under the brand name Androcur or with ethinylestradiol (EE) under the brand names Diane or Diane-35 among others, is an antiandrogen and progestogen which is used in the treatment of androgen-dependent conditions like acne, excessive hair growth, early puberty, and prostate cancer, as a component of feminizing hormone therapy for transgender women, and in birth control pills.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are proteins of the superfamily containing heme as a cofactor and, therefore, are hemoproteins.
Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT), is the formation of a blood clot in a deep vein, most commonly the legs.
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), also known as androstenolone, is an endogenous steroid hormone.
Delayed puberty is described as delayed puberty with exceptions when an organism has passed the usual age of onset of puberty with no physical or hormonal signs that it is beginning.
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.
In chemistry, a derivative is a compound that is derived from a similar compound by a chemical reaction.
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin.
A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement the diet when taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid.
Dihydrotestosterone (DHT), or 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT), also known as androstanolone or stanolone, is an endogenous androgen sex steroid and hormone.
In competitive sports, doping is the use of banned athletic performance-enhancing drugs by athletic competitors.
A double bond in chemistry is a chemical bond between two chemical elements involving four bonding electrons instead of the usual two.
Dutasteride, sold under the brand name Avodart among others, is a medication used primarily to treat enlarged prostate in men.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
In pharmacology the elimination or excretion of a drug is understood to be any one of a number of processes by which a drug is eliminated (that is, cleared and excreted) from an organism either in an unaltered form (unbound molecules) or modified as a metabolite.
Emotionality is the observable behavioral and physiological component of emotion.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
An enzyme inducer is a type of drug that increases the metabolic activity of an enzyme either by binding to the enzyme and activating it, or by increasing the expression of the gene coding for the enzyme.
4QI9) An enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity.
The epididymis (plural: epididymides or) is a tube that connects a testicle to a vas deferens in the male reproductive system.
Epitestosterone, or isotestosterone, also known as 17α-testosterone or as androst-4-en-17α-ol-3-one, is an endogenous steroid and an epimer of the androgen sex hormone testosterone.
An erection (clinically: penile erection or penile tumescence) is a physiological phenomenon in which the penis becomes firm, engorged, and enlarged.
Erythropoietin (EPO), also known as hematopoietin or hemopoietin, is a glycoprotein cytokine secreted by the kidney in response to cellular hypoxia; it stimulates red blood cell production (erythropoiesis) in the bone marrow.
ESPN (originally an acronym for Entertainment and Sports Programming Network) is a U.S.-based global cable and satellite sports television channel owned by ESPN Inc., a joint venture owned by The Walt Disney Company (80%) and Hearst Communications (20%).
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.
Estradiol (E2), also spelled oestradiol, is an estrogen steroid hormone and the major female sex hormone.
Estradiol, also spelled oestradiol, is a medication and naturally occurring steroid hormone.
Estradiol cypionate, sold under the brand name Depo-Estradiol among others, is a medication which is used in hormone therapy such as for menopausal symptoms and in hormonal birth control.
Estradiol valerate, sold under the brand names Progynova, Progynon Depot, and Delestrogen among others, is a medication which is used in hormone therapy such as for menopausal symptoms and in hormonal birth control.
Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.
An estrogen is a type of medication which is used most commonly in hormonal birth control and menopausal hormone therapy.
Estrogen receptor beta (ER-β), also known as NR3A2 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group A, member 2), is one of two main types of estrogen receptor, a nuclear receptor which is activated by the sex hormone estrogen.
Ethers are a class of organic compounds that contain an ether group—an oxygen atom connected to two alkyl or aryl groups.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
Etiocholanolone glucuronide (ETIO-G) is a endogenous, naturally occurring metabolite of testosterone.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Excretion is the process by which metabolic waste is eliminated from an organism.
Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.
Facial hair is hair grown on the face, usually on the chin, cheeks, and upper lip region.
In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.
Feces (or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine.
Female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) is a disorder characterized by a persistent or recurrent inability to attain sexual arousal or to maintain arousal until the completion of a sexual activity.
Fertility is the natural capability to produce offspring.
A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.
Finasteride, sold under the brand names Proscar and Propecia among others, is a medication used mainly to treat an enlarged prostate or scalp hair loss in men.
The first pass effect (also known as first-pass metabolism or presystemic metabolism) is a phenomenon of drug metabolism whereby the concentration of a drug is greatly reduced before it reaches the systemic circulation.
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a gonadotropin, a glycoprotein polypeptide hormone.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.
The GABAA receptor (GABAAR) is an ionotropic receptor and ligand-gated ion channel.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
A gel is a solid jelly-like material that can have properties ranging from soft and weak to hard and tough.
A generic drug is a pharmaceutical drug that is equivalent to a brand-name product in dosage, strength, route of administration, quality, performance, and intended use, but does not carry the brand name.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Glucuronidation is often involved in drug metabolism of substances such as drugs, pollutants, bilirubin, androgens, estrogens, mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, fatty acid derivatives, retinoids, and bile acids.
A gonad or sex gland or reproductive gland is a mixed gland that produces the gametes (sex cells) and sex hormones of an organism.
Gonadotropins are glycoprotein polypeptide hormones secreted by gonadotrope cells of the anterior pituitary of vertebrates.
G protein-coupled receptor family C group 6 member A (GPRC6A) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GPRC6A gene.
Gynecomastia is an endocrine system disorder in which a noncancerous increase in the size of male breast tissue occurs.
The hair follicle is a dynamic organ found in mammalian skin.
A health system, also sometimes referred to as health care system or as healthcare system, is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.
The hematocrit (Ht or HCT), also known by several other names, is the volume percentage (vol%) of red blood cells in blood.
Hepatotoxicity (from hepatic toxicity) implies chemical-driven liver damage.
Heptanoic acid, also called enanthic acid, is an organic compound composed of a seven-carbon chain terminating in a carboxylic acid.
High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are one of the five major groups of lipoproteins.
Hirsutism is excessive body hair in men and women on parts of the body where hair is normally absent or minimal, such as on the chin or chest in particular, or the face or body in general.
A hoarse voice, also known as hoarseness or dysphonia, is when the voice involuntarily sounds breathy, raspy, or strained, or is softer in volume or lower in pitch.
Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is any form of hormone therapy wherein the patient, in the course of medical treatment, receives hormones, either to supplement a lack of naturally occurring hormones or to substitute other hormones for naturally occurring hormones.
Hot flashes (American English) or hot flushes (British English) are a form of flushing due to reduced levels of estradiol.
Human body weight refers to a person's mass or weight.
Human serum albumin is the serum albumin found in human blood.
Human sexual activity, human sexual practice or human sexual behaviour is the manner in which humans experience and express their sexuality.
Human sexuality is the way people experience and express themselves sexually.
The human skin is the outer covering of the body.
A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.
Hypergonadotropic hypogonadism (HH), also known as primary or peripheral/gonadal hypogonadism, is a condition which is characterized by hypogonadism due to an impaired response of the gonads to the gonadotropins, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), and in turn a lack of sex steroid production and elevated gonadotropin levels (as an attempt of compensation by the body).
Hypertrichosis is an abnormal amount of hair growth over the body.
Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) or inhibited sexual desire (ISD) is considered a sexual dysfunction and is characterized as a lack or absence of sexual fantasies and desire for sexual activity, as judged by a clinician.
Hypogonadism means diminished functional activity of the gonads—the testes or the ovaries —that may result in diminished sex hormone biosynthesis.
Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism (HH), or secondary hypogonadism is due to problems with either the hypothalamus or pituitary gland affecting the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG axis).
Hypopituitarism is the decreased (hypo) secretion of one or more of the eight hormones normally produced by the pituitary gland at the base of the brain.
The hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis (HPG axis) refers to the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and gonadal glands as if these individual endocrine glands were a single entity.
The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.
Infertility is the inability of a person, animal or plant to reproduce by natural means.
Injection (often referred to as a "shot" in US English, or a "jab" in UK English) is the act of putting a liquid, especially a drug, into a person's body using a needle (usually a hypodermic needle) and a syringe.
Intersex people are born with any of several variations in sex characteristics including chromosomes, gonads, sex hormones, or genitals that, according to the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, "do not fit the typical definitions for male or female bodies".
Intramuscular (also IM or im) injection is the injection of a substance directly into muscle.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society is a peer-reviewed journal of the American Geriatrics Society.
In chemistry, a ketone (alkanone) is an organic compound with the structure RC(.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
The larynx, commonly called the voice box, is an organ in the top of the neck of tetrapods involved in breathing, producing sound, and protecting the trachea against food aspiration.
Late-onset hypogonadism is a rare condition in older men, characterized by measurably low testosterone levels and clinical symptoms mostly of a sexual nature, including decreased desire for sex, fewer spontaneous erections, and erectile dysfunction.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Levonorgestrel butanoate (LNG-B) (developmental code name HRP-002), or levonorgestrel 17β-butanoate, is a steroidal progestin of the 19-nortestosterone group which was developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) in collaboration with the Contraceptive Development Branch (CDB) of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development as a long-acting injectable contraceptive.
Libido, colloquially known as sex drive, is a person's overall sexual drive or desire for sexual activity.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.
Lipophilicity (from Greek λίπος "fat" and φίλος "friendly"), refers to the ability of a chemical compound to dissolve in fats, oils, lipids, and non-polar solvents such as hexane or toluene.
This is the list of Schedule III drugs as defined by the United States Controlled Substances Act at and, with modifications through August 22, 2014.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is one of the five major groups of lipoprotein which transport all fat molecules around the body in the extracellular water.
Luteinizing hormone (LH, also known as lutropin and sometimes lutrophin) is a hormone produced by gonadotropic cells in the anterior pituitary gland.
The lymphatic system is part of the vascular system and an important part of the immune system, comprising a network of lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph (from Latin, lympha meaning "water") directionally towards the heart.
Male contraceptives, also known as male birth control are methods of preventing pregnancy that primarily involve the male physiology.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Membrane androgen receptors (mARs) are a group of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) which bind and are activated by testosterone and/or other androgens.
A membrane transport protein (or simply transporter) is a membrane protein involved in the movement of ions, small molecules, or macromolecules, such as another protein, across a biological membrane.
Memory is the faculty of the mind by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved.
Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.
Metandienone, also known as methandienone or methandrostenolone and sold under the brand name Dianabol among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which is mostly no longer used.
Methods in Molecular Biology is a book series published by Humana Press that covers molecular biology research methods and protocols.
Methyltestosterone, sold under the brand names Android, Metandren, and Testred among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which is used in the treatment of low testosterone levels in men, delayed puberty in boys, at low doses as a component of menopausal hormone therapy for menopausal symptoms like hot flashes, osteoporosis, and low sexual desire in women, and to treat breast cancer in women.
The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
In organic chemistry, a moiety is a part of a molecule.
In psychology, a mood is an emotional state.
A mood swing is an extreme or rapid change in mood.
Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
Nandrolone, also known as 19-nortestosterone, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) which is used in the form of esters such as nandrolone decanoate (brand name Deca-Durabolin) and nandrolone phenylpropionate (brand name Durabolin).
Nandrolone decanoate, sold under the brand name Deca-Durabolin among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which is used primarily in the treatment of anemias and wasting syndromes, as well as osteoporosis in menopausal women.
Nandrolone phenylpropionate (NPP), or nandrolone phenpropionate, sold under the brand name Durabolin among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which has been used primarily in the treatment of breast cancer and osteoporosis in women.
Nasal administration is a route of administration in which drugs are insufflated through the nose.
The National Institute on Aging (NIA) is a division of the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), located in Bethesda, Maryland.
A natural product is a chemical compound or substance produced by a living organism—that is, found in nature.
Negative feedback (or balancing feedback) occurs when some function of the output of a system, process, or mechanism is fed back in a manner that tends to reduce the fluctuations in the output, whether caused by changes in the input or by other disturbances.
Neurosteroids, also known as neuroactive steroids, are endogenous or exogenous steroids that rapidly alter neuronal excitability through interaction with ligand-gated ion channels and other cell surface receptors.
A nocturnal emission, informally known as a wet dream or sex dream, is a spontaneous orgasm during sleep that includes ejaculation for a male, or vaginal wetness or an orgasm (or both) for a female.
Norethisterone enanthate (NETE), also known as norethindrone enanthate, is a form of progestogen-only injectable birth control.
In the field of molecular biology, nuclear receptors are a class of proteins found within cells that are responsible for sensing steroid and thyroid hormones and certain other molecules.
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common type of sleep apnea and is caused by complete or partial obstructions of the upper airway.
Omnadren (Omnadren 250) is an oil-based mixture of testosterone esters for depot intramuscular injection that is no longer marketed.
Oophorectomy (from Greek ᾠοφόρος, ōophóros, 'egg-bearing' + ἐκτομή, ektomḗ, 'a cutting out of') is the surgical removal of an ovary or ovaries.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Orgasm (from Greek ὀργασμός orgasmos "excitement, swelling"; also sexual climax) is the sudden discharge of accumulated sexual excitement during the sexual response cycle, resulting in rhythmic muscular contractions in the pelvic region characterized by sexual pleasure.
Ossification (or osteogenesis) in bone remodeling is the process of laying down new bone material by cells called osteoblasts.
Overdiagnosis is the diagnosis of "disease" that will never cause symptoms or death during a patient's ordinarily expected lifetime.
OxfordDictionaries.com, originally titled Oxford Dictionaries Online (ODO) and rebranded Oxford Living Dictionaries in 2017, is an online dictionary produced by the Oxford University Press (OUP) publishing house, a department of the University of Oxford, which also publishes a number of print dictionaries, among other works.
Pattern hair loss, known as male-pattern hair loss (MPHL) when it affects males and female-pattern hair loss (FPHL) when it affects females, is hair loss that primarily affects the top and front of the scalp.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
A penis (plural penises or penes) is the primary sexual organ that male animals use to inseminate sexually receptive mates (usually females and hermaphrodites) during copulation.
Penis enlargement, or male enhancement, is any technique aimed to increase the size of a human penis.
Pharmacodynamics is the study of the biochemical and physiologic effects of drugs (especially pharmaceutical drugs).
Pharmacokinetics (from Ancient Greek pharmakon "drug" and kinetikos "moving, putting in motion"; see chemical kinetics), sometimes abbreviated as PK, is a branch of pharmacology dedicated to determining the fate of substances administered to a living organism.
Pharmacovigilance (PV or PhV), also known as drug safety, is the pharmacological science relating to the collection, detection, assessment, monitoring, and prevention of adverse effects with pharmaceutical products.
An explanation of the development of the pituitary gland (Hypophysis cerebri) & the congenital anomalies. In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing in humans.
Plasma protein binding refers to the degree to which medications attach to proteins within the blood.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
In the field of pharmacology, potency is a measure of drug activity expressed in terms of the amount required to produce an effect of given intensity.
In chemistry, a precursor is a compound that participates in a chemical reaction that produces another compound.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
A prescription drug (also prescription medication or prescription medicine) is a pharmaceutical drug that legally requires a medical prescription to be dispensed.
A prodrug is a medication or compound that, after administration, is metabolized (i.e., converted within the body) into a pharmacologically active drug.
Professional sports, as opposed to amateur sports, are sports in which athletes receive payment for their performance.
Professional wrestling (often shortened to pro wrestling or simply wrestling) is a form of sports entertainment which combines athletics with theatrical performance.
A progestin is a type of medication which is used most commonly in hormonal birth control and menopausal hormone therapy.
Prohibition is the illegality of the manufacturing, storage in barrels or bottles, transportation, sale, possession, and consumption of alcohol including alcoholic beverages, or a period of time during which such illegality was enforced.
The propionate, or propanoate ion, is C2H5COO− (the conjugate base of propionic acid).
The prostate (from Ancient Greek προστάτης, prostates, literally "one who stands before", "protector", "guardian") is a compound tubuloalveolar exocrine gland of the male reproductive system in most mammals.
Prostate cancer is the development of cancer in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system.
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), also known as gamma-seminoprotein or kallikrein-3 (KLK3), is a glycoprotein enzyme encoded in humans by the KLK3 gene. PSA is a member of the kallikrein-related peptidase family and is secreted by the epithelial cells of the prostate gland. PSA is produced for the ejaculate, where it liquefies semen in the seminal coagulum and allows sperm to swim freely. It is also believed to be instrumental in dissolving cervical mucus, allowing the entry of sperm into the uterus. PSA is present in small quantities in the serum of men with healthy prostates, but is often elevated in the presence of prostate cancer or other prostate disorders. PSA is not a unique indicator of prostate cancer, but may also detect prostatitis or benign prostatic hyperplasia.
In psychology, stress is a feeling of strain and pressure.
Puberty is the process of physical changes through which a child's body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction.
Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blockage of an artery in the lungs by a substance that has moved from elsewhere in the body through the bloodstream (embolism).
In cardiology, the QT interval is a measure of the time between the start of the Q wave and the end of the T wave in the heart's electrical cycle.
A randomized controlled trial (or randomized control trial; RCT) is a type of scientific (often medical) experiment which aims to reduce bias when testing a new treatment.
Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
The reward system is a group of neural structures responsible for incentive salience (i.e., motivation and "wanting", desire, or craving for a reward), associative learning (primarily positive reinforcement and classical conditioning), and positive emotions, particularly ones which involve pleasure as a core component (e.g., joy, euphoria and ecstasy).
A route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Seborrhoeic dermatitis, also known as seborrhoea, is a long-term skin disorder.
Secretion is the movement of material from one point to another, e.g. secreted chemical substance from a cell or gland.
The seminal vesicles (glandulae vesiculosae), vesicular glands, or seminal glands, are a pair of simple tubular glands posteroinferior to the urinary bladder of some male mammals.
Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) or sex steroid-binding globulin (SSBG) is a glycoprotein that binds to the two sex hormones: androgen and estrogen.
Sex steroids, also known as gonadocorticoids and gonadal steroids, are steroid hormones that interact with vertebrate androgen or estrogen receptors.
Sex verification in sports (also known as gender verification, or loosely as gender determination or a sex test) is the issue of verifying the eligibility of an athlete to compete in a sporting event that is limited to a single sex.
Sexual arousal (also sexual excitement) is the arousal of sexual desire, during or in anticipation of sexual activity.
In organic chemistry and biochemistry, a side chain is a chemical group that is attached to a core part of the molecule called "main chain" or backbone.
In medicine, a side effect is an effect, whether therapeutic or adverse, that is secondary to the one intended; although the term is predominantly employed to describe adverse effects, it can also apply to beneficial, but unintended, consequences of the use of a drug.
Silandrone (developmental code names SC-16148, NSC-95147), also known as testosterone 17β-trimethylsilyl ether or 17β-trimethylsilyltestosterone, as well as 17β-(trimethylsiloxy)androst-4-en-3-one, is a synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) and an androgen ether – specifically, the 17β-trimethylsilyl ether of testosterone – which was developed by the G. D. Searle & Company in the 1960s but was never marketed.
Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.
The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.
Sleep apnea, also spelled sleep apnoea, is a sleep disorder characterized by pauses in breathing or periods of shallow breathing during sleep.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Spermatogenesis is the process by which haploid spermatozoa develop from germ cells in the seminiferous tubules of the testis.
Spironolactone, sold under the brand name Aldactone among others, is a medication that is primarily used to treat fluid build-up due to heart failure, liver scarring, or kidney disease.
Stanozolol, sold under many brand names, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which was derived from dihydrotestosterone (DHT).
Steric effects are nonbonding interactions that influence the shape (conformation) and reactivity of ions and molecules.
A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
The subcutaneous tissue, also called the hypodermis, hypoderm, subcutis, or superficial fascia, is the lowermost layer of the integumentary system in vertebrates.
A subdermal implant refers to a body modification that is placed underneath the skin, therefore allowing the body to heal over the implant and creating a raised design.
In organic chemistry and biochemistry, a substituent is an atom or group of atoms which replaces one or more hydrogen atoms on the parent chain of a hydrocarbon, becoming a moiety of the resultant new molecule.
Sulfation or sulfurylation (not to be confused with sulfonation) in biochemistry is the enzyme-catalyzed conjugation of a sulfo group (not a sulfate or sulfuryl group) to another molecule.
In chemistry, a suspension is a heterogeneous mixture that contains solid particles sufficiently large for sedimentation.
Sustanon is a trade name owned by Organon Pharmaceuticals for oil-based injectable blends of esterified testosterone compounds.
In medical parlance, swelling, turgescence or tumefaction is a transient abnormal enlargement of a body part or area not caused by proliferation of cells.
A tablet is a pharmaceutical dosage form.
Tea seed oil (also known as tea oil camellia or oil-seed camellia) is an edible, pale amber-green fixed (nonvolatile) oil with a sweet, herbal aroma.
Teratology is the study of abnormalities of physiological development.
The testicle or testis is the male reproductive gland in all animals, including humans.
Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid.
The testosterone patch, brand name Intrinsa among others, was designed to treat female sexual dysfunction.
Testosterone buciclate (developmental code names 20 Aet-1, CDB-1781) is a synthetic, injected anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) which was never marketed.
Testosterone cypionate, sold under the brand name Depo-Testosterone among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which is used mainly in the treatment of low testosterone levels in men.
Testosterone enanthate, sold under the brand name Delatestryl among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which is used mainly in the treatment of low testosterone levels in men.
Testosterone glucuronide is an endogenous, naturally occurring steroid and minor urinary metabolite of testosterone.
Testosterone propionate, sold under the brand name Testoviron among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which is used mainly in the treatment of low testosterone levels in men.
Testosterone sulfate is an endogenous, naturally occurring steroid and minor urinary metabolite of testosterone.
Testosterone undecanoate, sold under the brand names Nebido, Aveed, and Andriol among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which is used mainly in the treatment of low testosterone levels in men.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when the surrounding temperature is very different.
The thorax or chest (from the Greek θώραξ thorax "breastplate, cuirass, corslet" via thorax) is a part of the anatomy of humans and various other animals located between the neck and the abdomen.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
A topical medication is a medication that is applied to a particular place on or in the body.
A trans man (sometimes trans-man or transman) is a man who was assigned female at birth (AFAB).
Transdermal is a route of administration wherein active ingredients are delivered across the skin for systemic distribution.
A transdermal patch is a medicated adhesive patch that is placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication through the skin and into the bloodstream.
Transgender hormone therapy of the female-to-male (FTM) type, also known as masculinizing hormone therapy, is a form of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and sex reassignment therapy which is used to change the secondary sexual characteristics of transgender people from feminine (or androgynous) to masculine.
A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids (from tri- and glyceride).
Undecylic acid (systematically named undecanoic acid) is a naturally occurring carboxylic acid with chemical formula CH3(CH2)9COOH.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
Unnecessary health care (overutilization, overuse, or overtreatment) is healthcare provided with a higher volume or cost than is appropriate.
A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
Vasodilation is the widening of blood vessels.
In medicine, venipuncture or venepuncture is the process of obtaining intravenous access for the purpose of intravenous therapy or for blood sampling of venous blood.
Virilization or masculinization is the biological development of sex differences, changes that make a male body different from a female body.
A voice change or voice mutation, sometimes referred to as a voice break, commonly refers to the deepening of the voice of people as they reach puberty.
Weight gain is an increase in body weight.
The WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (EML), published by the World Health Organization (WHO), contains the medications considered to be most effective and safe to meet the most important needs in a health system.
The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA; Agence mondiale antidopage, AMA) is a foundation initiated by the International Olympic Committee based in Canada to promote, coordinate and monitor the fight against drugs in sports.
Zinc transporter ZIP9 also known as Zrt- and Irt-like protein 9 (ZIP9) and solute carrier family 39 member 9 (SLC39A9) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC39A9 gene.
A 17α-alkylated anabolic steroid is a synthetic anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) that features an alkyl group, specifically a methyl or ethyl group, at the C17α position.
The 1988 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIV Olympiad (Korean), were an international multi-sport event celebrated from 17 September to 2 October 1988 in Seoul, South Korea.
3α-Androstanediol (often abbreviated as 3α-diol), also known as 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol, is an endogenous inhibitory androstane neurosteroid and weak androgen, and a major metabolite of dihydrotestosterone (DHT).
3β-Androstanediol, also known as 5α-androstane-3β,17β-diol, and often shortened to 3β-diol, is an endogenous steroid hormone.
4-Androstenediol, also known as androst-4-ene-3β,17β-diol, is an androstenediol that is converted to testosterone.
5α-reductases, also known as 3-oxo-5α-steroid 4-dehydrogenases, are enzymes involved in steroid metabolism.
5α-Reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs), also known as dihydrotestosterone (DHT) blockers, are a class of medications with antiandrogenic effects which are used primarily in the treatment of enlarged prostate and scalp hair loss.
5β-Reductase, or Δ4-3-oxosteroid 5β-reductase (3-oxo-Δ4-steroid 5β-reductase, androstenedione 5β-reductase, cholestenone 5β-reductase, cortisone 5β-reductase, cortisone Δ4-5β-reductase, steroid 5β-reductase, testosterone 5β-reductase, Δ4-3-ketosteroid 5β-reductase, Δ4-5β-reductase, Δ4-hydrogenase, 4,5β-dihydrocortisone:NADP+ Δ4-oxidoreductase, 3-oxo-5β-steroid:NADP+ Δ4-oxidoreductase) is an enzyme with systematic name 5β-cholestan-3-one:NADP+ 4,5-oxidoreductase.
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