109 relations: Anti-tetanus immunoglobulin, Antibody, Arthur Nicolaier, Asphyxia, Autonomic nervous system, Axon, Bacteria, Bell's palsy, Blood pressure, Bone fracture, Booster dose, Calf (leg), Cardiac muscle, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Central nervous system, Charles Bell, Chemical synapse, Clonidine, Clostridium tetani, Curare, Dental extraction, Diazepam, Diphtheria, DPT vaccine, Drooling, Dysphagia, Edmond Nocard, Encyclopædia Britannica, Endocytosis, Endospore, Facial nerve, Fever, Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, Ganglioside, Glycine, Headache, Heart arrhythmia, Heroin, Hippocrates, Hypertension, Hypotension, Hypothermia, Immunity (medical), Immunization, Immunoglobulin therapy, Incubation period, Infant, Infection, Infectious disease (medical specialty), Inoculation, ..., Intensive care medicine, Intramuscular injection, Intrathecal administration, Intravenous therapy, Kitasato Shibasaburō, Labetalol, List of common misconceptions, Magnesium sulfate, Manure, Masseter muscle, Mechanical ventilation, Metronidazole, Mortality rate, Motor neuron, Muscle relaxant, Myocardial infarction, Neonatal tetanus, Nerve, Neurotransmitter, Nifedipine, Nutrition, Opisthotonus, Otitis media, Oxygen, Parenteral nutrition, Passive immunity, Penetrating trauma, Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, Perspiration, Pharyngeal reflex, Pharynx, Preventive healthcare, Protein, Ptosis (eyelid), Respiratory failure, Risus sardonicus, Rust, Skeletal muscle, Skull fracture, Spasm, Striated muscle tissue, Strychnine, Synaptic vesicle, Synaptobrevin, Tachycardia, Tetanic contraction, Tetanospasmin, Tetanus vaccine, The New York Times, Toxin, Tracheotomy, Trismus, Uganda, University of Turin, Vaccination, Vaccine, Whooping cough, World Health Organization, World War II. Expand index (59 more) » « Shrink index
Anti-tetanus immunoglobulin, also known as tetanus immune globulin (TIG) and tetanus antitoxin, is a medication made up of antibodies against the tetanus toxin.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
Arthur Nicolaier (4 February 1862 in Cosel/Koźle - 28 August 1942 in Berlin) was a German Jewish internist.
Asphyxia or asphyxiation is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body that arises from abnormal breathing.
The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of internal organs.
An axon (from Greek ἄξων áxōn, axis) or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses known as action potentials, away from the nerve cell body.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Bell's palsy is a type of facial paralysis that results in an inability to control the facial muscles on the affected side.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
A bone fracture (sometimes abbreviated FRX or Fx, Fx, or #) is a medical condition in which there is a partial or complete break in the continuity of the bone.
In medical terms, a booster dose is an extra administration of a vaccine after an earlier (prime) dose.
The calf (Latin: sura) is the back portion of the lower leg in human anatomy.
Cardiac muscle (heart muscle) is one of the three major types of muscle, the others being skeletal and smooth muscle.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Sir Charles Bell (12 November 177428 April 1842) was a Scottish surgeon, anatomist, physiologist, neurologist, artist, and philosophical theologian.
Chemical synapses are biological junctions through which neurons' signals can be exchanged to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as those in muscles or glands.
Clonidine (trade names Catapres, Kapvay, Nexiclon, Clophelin, and others) is a medication used to treat high blood pressure, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety disorders, tic disorders, withdrawal (from either alcohol, opioids, or smoking), migraine, menopausal flushing, diarrhea, and certain pain conditions.
Clostridium tetani is a rod-shaped, anaerobic species of pathogenic bacteria, of the genus Clostridium.
Curare or is a common name for various plant extract alkaloid arrow poisons originating from Central and South America.
A dental extraction (also referred to as tooth extraction, exodontia, exodontics, or informally, tooth pulling) is the removal of teeth from the dental alveolus (socket) in the alveolar bone.
Diazepam, first marketed as Valium, is a medicine of the benzodiazepine family that typically produces a calming effect.
Diphtheria is an infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae.
DPT (also DTP and DTwP) refers to a class of combination vaccines against three infectious diseases in humans: diphtheria, pertussis (whooping cough), and tetanus.
Drooling, or slobbering, is the flow of saliva outside the mouth.
Dysphagia is the medical term for the symptom of difficulty in swallowing.
Edmond Isidore Etienne Nocard (29 January 1850 – 2 August 1903), was a French veterinarian and microbiologist, born in Provins (Seine-et-Marne, France).
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Endocytosis is a form of bulk transport in which a cell transports molecules (such as proteins) into the cell (endo- + cytosis) by engulfing them in an energy-using process.
An endospore is a dormant, tough, and non-reproductive structure produced by certain bacteria from the Firmicute phylum.
The facial nerve is the seventh cranial nerve, or simply cranial nerve VII.
Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.
gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.
A ganglioside is a molecule composed of a glycosphingolipid (ceramide and oligosaccharide) with one or more sialic acids (e.g. n-acetylneuraminic acid, NANA) linked on the sugar chain.
Glycine (symbol Gly or G) is the amino acid that has a single hydrogen atom as its side chain.
Headache is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.
Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.
Heroin, also known as diamorphine among other names, is an opioid most commonly used as a recreational drug for its euphoric effects.
Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.
Hypothermia is reduced body temperature that happens when a body dissipates more heat than it absorbs.
In biology, immunity is the balanced state of multicellular organisms having adequate biological defenses to fight infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion, while having adequate tolerance to avoid allergy, and autoimmune diseases.
Immunization, or immunisation, is the process by which an individual's immune system becomes fortified against an agent (known as the immunogen).
Immunoglobulin therapy, also known as normal human immunoglobulin (NHIG), is the use of a mixture of antibodies (immunoglobulins) to treat a number of health conditions.
Incubation period is the time elapsed between exposure to a pathogenic organism, a chemical, or radiation, and when symptoms and signs are first apparent.
An infant (from the Latin word infans, meaning "unable to speak" or "speechless") is the more formal or specialised synonym for "baby", the very young offspring of a human.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Infectious disease, also known as infectious diseases, infectious medicine, infectious disease medicine or infectiology, is a medical specialty dealing with the diagnosis, control and treatment of infections.
The terms inoculation, vaccination and immunization are often used synonymously to refer to artificial induction of immunity against various infectious diseases.
Intensive care medicine, or critical care medicine, is a branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and management of life-threatening conditions that may require sophisticated life support and monitoring.
Intramuscular (also IM or im) injection is the injection of a substance directly into muscle.
Intrathecal administration is a route of administration for drugs via an injection into the spinal canal, or into the subarachnoid space so that it reaches the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and is useful in spinal anaesthesia, chemotherapy, or pain management applications.
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
Baron was a Japanese physician and bacteriologist during the reign of the Empire of Japan, prior to World War 2.
Labetalol is a medication used to treat high blood pressure.
This list of common misconceptions corrects erroneous beliefs that are currently widely held about notable topics.
Magnesium sulfate is an inorganic salt with the formula MgSO4(H2O)x where 0≤x≤7.
Manure is organic matter, mostly derived from animal feces except in the case of green manure, which can be used as organic fertilizer in agriculture.
In human anatomy, the masseter is one of the muscles of mastication.
Mechanical ventilation is the medical term for artificial ventilation where mechanical means is used to assist or replace spontaneous breathing. This may involve a machine called a ventilator or the breathing may be assisted by an anesthesiologist, certified registered nurse anesthetist, physician, physician assistant, respiratory therapist, paramedic, EMT, or other suitable person compressing a bag or set of bellows. Mechanical ventilation is termed "invasive" if it involves any instrument penetrating the trachea through the mouth, such as an endotracheal tube or the skin, such as a tracheostomy tube. There are two main types: positive pressure ventilation, where air (or another gas mix) is pushed into the trachea, and negative pressure ventilation, where air is, in essence, sucked into the lungs. There are many modes of mechanical ventilation, and their nomenclature has been revised over the decades as the technology has continually developed.
Metronidazole, marketed under the brand name Flagyl among others, is an antibiotic and antiprotozoal medication.
Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.
A motor neuron (or motoneuron) is a neuron whose cell body is located in the motor cortex, brainstem or the spinal cord, and whose axon (fiber) projects to the spinal cord or outside of the spinal cord to directly or indirectly control effector organs, mainly muscles and glands.
A muscle relaxant is a drug that affects skeletal muscle function and decreases the muscle tone.
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
Neonatal tetanus is a form of generalised tetanus that occurs in newborns.
A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (nerve fibers, the long and slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Nifedipine, sold under the brand names Adalat among others, is a medication used to manage angina, high blood pressure, Raynaud's phenomenon, and premature labor.
Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism.
Opisthotonus or opisthotonos, from Greek roots, ὄπισθεν, opisthen meaning "behind" and τόνος tonos meaning "tension", is a state of severe hyperextension and spasticity in which an individual's head, neck and spinal column enter into a complete "bridging" or "arching" position.
Otitis media is a group of inflammatory diseases of the middle ear.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Total parenteral nutrition (PN) is the feeding of a person intravenously, bypassing the usual process of eating and digestion.
Passive immunity is the transfer of active humoral immunity in the form of ready-made antibodies.
Penetrating trauma is an injury that occurs when an object pierces the skin and enters a tissue of the body, creating an open wound.
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is an endoscopic medical procedure in which a tube (PEG tube) is passed into a patient's stomach through the abdominal wall, most commonly to provide a means of feeding when oral intake is not adequate (for example, because of dysphagia or sedation).
Perspiration, also known as sweating, is the production of fluids secreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals.
The pharyngeal reflex or gag reflex (also known as a laryngeal spasm) is a reflex contraction of the back of the throat, evoked by touching the roof of the mouth, the back of the tongue, the area around the tonsils, the uvula, and the back of the throat.
The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the throat that is behind the mouth and nasal cavity and above the esophagus and the larynx, or the tubes going down to the stomach and the lungs.
Preventive healthcare (alternately preventive medicine, preventative healthcare/medicine, or prophylaxis) consists of measures taken for disease prevention, as opposed to disease treatment.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Ptosis (/ˈtoʊsɪs/) is a drooping or falling of the upper eyelid.
Respiratory failure results from inadequate gas exchange by the respiratory system, meaning that the arterial oxygen, carbon dioxide or both cannot be kept at normal levels.
Risus sardonicus or rictus grin is a highly characteristic, abnormal, sustained spasm of the facial muscles that appears to produce grinning.
Rust is an iron oxide, a usually red oxide formed by the redox reaction of iron and oxygen in the presence of water or air moisture.
Skeletal muscle is one of three major muscle types, the others being cardiac muscle and smooth muscle.
A skull fracture is a break in one or more of the eight bones that form the cranial portion of the skull, usually occurring as a result of blunt force trauma.
A spasm is a sudden involuntary contraction of a muscle, a group of muscles, or a hollow organ such as the heart.
Striated muscle tissue is a muscle tissue that features repeating functional units called sarcomeres, in contrast with smooth muscle tissue which does not.
Strychnine (also or) is a highly toxic, colorless, bitter, crystalline alkaloid used as a pesticide, particularly for killing small vertebrates such as birds and rodents.
In a neuron, synaptic vesicles (or neurotransmitter vesicles) store various neurotransmitters that are released at the synapse.
Synaptobrevins (synaptobrevin isotypes 1-2) are small integral membrane proteins of secretory vesicles with molecular weight of 18 kilodalton (kDa) that are part of the vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP) family.
Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.
A tetanic contraction (also called tetanized state, tetanus, or physiologic tetanus, the latter to differentiate from the disease called tetanus) is a sustained muscle contraction evoked when the motor nerve that innervates a skeletal muscle emits action potentials at a very high rate.
Tetanus toxin is an extremely potent neurotoxin produced by the vegetative cell of Clostridium tetani in anaerobic conditions, causing tetanus.
Tetanus vaccine, also known as tetanus toxoid (TT), is an inactive vaccine used to prevent tetanus.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
A toxin (from toxikon) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms; synthetic toxicants created by artificial processes are thus excluded.
Tracheotomy, or tracheostomy, is a surgical procedure which consists of making an incision on the anterior aspect of the neck and opening a direct airway through an incision in the trachea (windpipe).
Trismus, also called lockjaw, is reduced opening of the jaws (limited jaw range of motion).
Uganda, officially the Republic of Uganda (Jamhuri ya Uganda), is a landlocked country in East Africa.
The University of Turin (Italian: Università degli Studi di Torino, or often abbreviated to UNITO) is a university in the city of Turin in the Piedmont region of north-western Italy.
Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen.
A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease.
Whooping cough (also known as pertussis or 100-day cough) is a highly contagious bacterial disease.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.