328 relations: Abbot, Acre, Israel, Adolf Hitler, Albert, Duke of Prussia, Albert, King of Sweden, Alexander Nevsky, Alexander Nevsky (film), Alsace, Amouda, An der Etsch, Andrew II of Hungary, Anschluss, Anti-Polish sentiment, Apulia, Archduchy of Austria, Archduke Eugen of Austria, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, Augustinians, Austria, Austrian Empire, Austrians, Świecie, Bad Mergentheim, Bailiwick, Bailiwick of Utrecht, Baltic Sea, Baltic states, Baptism, Battle of Aizkraukle, Battle of Durbe, Battle of Grunwald, Battle of Karuse, Battle of Krücken, Battle of Legnica, Battle of Lubawa, Battle of Pagastin, Battle of Płowce, Battle of Rudau, Battle of Saule, Battle of Strėva, Battle on the Ice, Bavarians, Belgium, Black Death, Bohemia, Bolzano, Bonn, Bremen, Bruno Platter, Burgundy, ..., Burzenland, Cambridge University Press, Catholic Church, Catholic religious order, Charitable organization, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Chełmno Land, Christian, Christian of Oliva, Christianity, 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Abbot, meaning father, is an ecclesiastical title given to the male head of a monastery in various traditions, including Christianity.
Acre (or, עַכּוֹ, ʻAko, most commonly spelled as Akko; عكّا, ʻAkkā) is a city in the coastal plain region of Israel's Northern District at the extremity of Haifa Bay.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Albert of Prussia (Albrecht von Preussen, 17 May 149020 March 1568) was the 37th Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, who after converting to Lutheranism, became the first ruler of the Duchy of Prussia, the secularized state that emerged from the former Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights.
Albert (Albrekt av Mecklenburg in Swedish; Albrecht III, Herzog zu Mecklenburg in German; c. 1338 – 1 April 1412) was King of Sweden from 1364 to 1389 and Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin from 1384 to 1412 as Albert III.
Alexander Nevsky (Алекса́ндр Не́вский) is a 1938 historical drama film directed by Sergei Eisenstein.
Alsace (Alsatian: ’s Elsass; German: Elsass; Alsatia) is a cultural and historical region in eastern France, on the west bank of the upper Rhine next to Germany and Switzerland.
The castle of Amouda (Hemite Kalesi or Amuda Kalesi) is a Crusader castle, formerly in the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, and today in the Turkish Province of Osmaniye.
An der Etsch und im Gebirge (German for 'On the Etsch and in the Mountains') was a bailiwick (Ballei) of the Teutonic Order, created about 1260 and headquartered in Bolzano (Bozen), now in the Italian province of South Tyrol, comprising several commandries in the former County of Tyrol and the adjacent Bishopric of Trent.
Andrew II (II., Andrija II., Ondrej II., Андрій II; 117721 September 1235), also known as Andrew of Jerusalem, was King of Hungary and Croatia between 1205 and 1235.
Anschluss ('joining') refers to the annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany on 12 March 1938.
Polonophobia, anti-Polonism, antipolonism, and anti-Polish sentiment are terms for a variety of hostile attitudes and acts toward Polish persons and culture.
Apulia (Puglia; Pùglia; Pulia; translit) is a region of Italy in Southern Italy bordering the Adriatic Sea to the east, the Ionian Sea to the southeast, and the Strait of Òtranto and Gulf of Taranto to the south.
The Archduchy of Austria (Erzherzogtum Österreich) was a major principality of the Holy Roman Empire and the nucleus of the Habsburg Monarchy.
Archduke Eugen Ferdinand Pius Bernhard Felix Maria of Austria-Teschen (21 May 1863 – 30 December 1954) was an Archduke of Austria and a Prince of Hungary and Bohemia.
The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (Middle Armenian: Կիլիկիոյ Հայոց Թագաւորութիւն), also known as the Cilician Armenia (Կիլիկյան Հայաստան), Lesser Armenia, or New Armenia, was an independent principality formed during the High Middle Ages by Armenian refugees fleeing the Seljuq invasion of Armenia.
The term Augustinians, named after Augustine of Hippo (354–430), applies to two distinct types of Catholic religious orders, dating back to the first millennium but formally created in the 13th century, and some Anglican religious orders, created in the 19th century, though technically there is no "Order of St.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
The Austrian Empire (Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling Kaisertum Österreich) was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1919, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs.
Austrians (Österreicher) are a Germanic nation and ethnic group, native to modern Austria and South Tyrol that share a common Austrian culture, Austrian descent and Austrian history.
Świecie (Schwetz) is a town in northern Poland with 25,968 inhabitants (2006), situated in Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship (since 1999); it was in Bydgoszcz Voivodeship from 1975 to 1998.
Bad Mergentheim (Mergentheim until 1926) is a town in the Main-Tauber-Kreis district in the German state of Baden-Württemberg.
A bailiwick is usually the area of jurisdiction of a bailiff, and once also applied to territories in which a privately appointed bailiff exercised the sheriff's functions under a royal or imperial writ.
The Bailiwick of Utrecht of the Teutonic Order (Ridderlijke Duitse Orde Balije van Utrecht) is a charity based in Utrecht, Netherlands.
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
The Baltic states, also known as the Baltic countries, Baltic republics, Baltic nations or simply the Baltics (Balti riigid, Baltimaad, Baltijas valstis, Baltijos valstybės), is a geopolitical term used for grouping the three sovereign countries in Northern Europe on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.
Baptism (from the Greek noun βάπτισμα baptisma; see below) is a Christian sacrament of admission and adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into Christianity.
The Battle of Aizkraukle or Ascheraden was a battle fought on March 5, 1279, between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, led by Traidenis, and the Livonian branch of the Teutonic Order near Aizkraukle (Ascheraden) in present-day Latvia.
The Battle of Durbe (Durbes kauja, Durbės mūšis, Schlacht an der Durbe) was a medieval battle fought near Durbe, east of Liepāja, in present-day Latvia during the Livonian Crusade.
The Battle of Grunwald, First Battle of Tannenberg or Battle of Žalgiris, was fought on 15 July 1410 during the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War.
The Battle of Karuse or Battle on the Ice was fought on 16 February 1270 between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Livonian Order on the frozen Baltic Sea between the island of Muhu and the mainland.
The Battle of Krücken was a medieval battle fought in 1249 during the Prussian Crusades between the Teutonic Knights and Prussians, one of the Baltic tribes.
The Battle of Legnica (bitwa pod Legnicą), also known as the Battle of Liegnitz (Schlacht von Liegnitz) or Battle of Wahlstatt (Schlacht bei Wahlstatt), was a battle between the Mongol Empire and the combined defending forces of European fighters that took place at Legnickie Pole (Wahlstatt) near the city of Legnica in the Silesia province of the Kingdom of Poland on 9 April 1241.
Battle of Lubawa or Löbau was a battle fought between the Teutonic Order and Prussians in 1263 during the Great Prussian Uprising.
Battle of Pagastin was a medieval battle fought between the Teutonic Knights and Prussians in 1271 during the Great Prussian Uprising (1260–1274).
The Battle of Płowce took place on 27 September 1331 between the Kingdom of Poland and the Teutonic Order.
The Battle of Rudau (Schlacht bei Rudau, Rūdavos mūšis) was a medieval pitched battle fought between the Teutonic Knights and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania on 17 or 18 February 1370 near Rudau village north of Königsberg (now Melnikovo village in the Kaliningrad oblast).
The Battle of Saule (Saulės mūšis or Šiaulių mūšis; Schlacht von Schaulen; Saules kauja) was fought on 22 September 1236, between the Livonian Brothers of the Sword and pagan Samogitians.
Battle of Strėva, Strebe, or Strawe was fought on 2 February 1348 between the Teutonic Order and the pagan Grand Duchy of Lithuania on the banks of the Strėva River, a right tributary of the Neman River, near present-day Žiežmariai.
The Battle on the Ice (Ледовое побоище, Ledovoye poboish'ye); Schlacht auf dem Eise; Jäälahing; Schlacht auf dem Peipussee) was fought between the Republic of Novgorod led by prince Alexander Nevsky and the crusader army led by the Livonian branch of the Teutonic Knights on April 5, 1242, at Lake Peipus. The battle is notable for having been fought largely on the frozen lake, and this gave the battle its name. The battle was a significant defeat sustained by the crusaders during the Northern Crusades, which were directed against pagans and Eastern Orthodox Christians rather than Muslims in the Holy Land. The Crusaders' defeat in the battle marked the end of their campaigns against the Orthodox Novgorod Republic and other Slavic territories for the next century. The event was glorified in Sergei Eisenstein's historical drama film Alexander Nevsky, released in 1938, which created a popular image of the battle often mistaken for the real events. Sergei Prokofiev turned his score for the film into a concert cantata of the same title, with "The Battle on the Ice" being its longest movement.
Bavarians (Bavarian: Boarn, Standard German: Bayern) are nation and ethnographic group of Germans of the Bavaria region, a state within Germany.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.
Bohemia (Čechy;; Czechy; Bohême; Bohemia; Boemia) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic.
Bolzano (or; German: Bozen (formerly Botzen),; Balsan or Bulsan; Bauzanum) is the capital city of the province of South Tyrol in northern Italy.
The Federal City of Bonn is a city on the banks of the Rhine in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, with a population of over 300,000.
The City Municipality of Bremen (Stadtgemeinde Bremen) is a Hanseatic city in northwestern Germany, which belongs to the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (also called just "Bremen" for short), a federal state of Germany.
Bruno Platter (born 21 March 1944) is a Roman Catholic priest and the 65th Grand Master of the Teutonic Order.
Burgundy (Bourgogne) is a historical territory and a former administrative region of France.
Țara Bârsei or the Burzenland (Țara Bârsei; Barcaság) is a historic and ethnographic area in southeastern Transylvania, Romania with a mixed population of Romanians, Germans and Hungarians.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Catholic religious order is a religious order of the Catholic Church.
A charitable organization or charity is a non-profit organization (NPO) whose primary objectives are philanthropy and social well-being (e.g. charitable, educational, religious, or other activities serving the public interest or common good).
Charles V (Carlos; Karl; Carlo; Karel; Carolus; 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of both the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and the Spanish Empire (as Charles I of Spain) from 1516, as well as of the lands of the former Duchy of Burgundy from 1506.
Chełmno land (ziemia chełmińska,, Old Prussian: Kulma, Kulmo žemė) is a historical region, located in central-northern Poland.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
Christian of Oliva (Christian z Oliwy), also Christian of Prussia (Christian von Preußen) (died 4 December(?) 1245) was the first missionary bishop of Prussia.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
The Christianization of Lithuania (Lietuvos krikštas) occurred in 1387, initiated by King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania Władysław II Jagiełło and his cousin Vytautas the Great.
The Church of the Holy Sepulchre (كَنِيسَةُ ٱلْقِيَامَة Kanīsatu al-Qiyāmah; Ναὸς τῆς Ἀναστάσεως Naos tes Anastaseos; Սուրբ Հարության տաճար Surb Harut'yan tač̣ar; Ecclesia Sancti Sepulchri; כנסיית הקבר, Knesiyat ha-Kever; also called the Church of the Resurrection or Church of the Anastasis by Orthodox Christians) is a church in the Christian Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem.
The Church of the Teutonic Order (Deutschordenskirche), also known as the Church of Saint Elisabeth of Hungary (Hl.), is the mother church of the Teutonic Order, a German-based Roman Catholic religious order formed at the end of the 12th century.
A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon (i.e., shield), surcoat, or tabard.
Commander (Commendatore, Commandeur, Komtur, Comandante, Comendador), or Knight Commander, is a title of honor prevalent in chivalric order and fraternal orders.
Commandry (British English), or commandery (American English), was the smallest division of the European landed estate or manor under the control of a commander of a military order.
The (Princely) County of Tyrol was an estate of the Holy Roman Empire established about 1140.
Courland, or Kurzeme (in Latvian; Kurāmō; German and Kurland; Curonia/Couronia; Курляндия; Kuršas; Kurlandia), is one of the historical and cultural regions in western Latvia.
A cross fleury (or flory) is a cross adorned at the ends with flowers in heraldry.
A cross pattée (or "cross patty" or "cross Pate", known also as "cross formée/formy" or croix pattée) is a type of Christian cross, which has arms narrow at the center, and often flared in a curve or straight line shape, to be broader at the perimeter.
A cross potent (plural: crosses potent), also known as a crutch cross, is a form of heraldic cross with crossbars or "crutches" at the four ends.
The Crusader states, also known as Outremer, were a number of mostly 12th- and 13th-century feudal Christian states created by Western European crusaders in Asia Minor, Greece and the Holy Land, and during the Northern Crusades in the eastern Baltic area.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
The culture of Lithuania combines an indigenous heritage, represented by the unique Lithuanian language, with Nordic cultural aspects and Christian traditions resulting from historical ties with Poland.
The Cumans (Polovtsi) were a Turkic nomadic people comprising the western branch of the Cuman–Kipchak confederation.
The Curonians or Kurs (Curonian: Kursi; Kuren; kurši; курши; kuršiai; kuralased; Kurowie) were a Baltic tribe living on the shores of the Baltic Sea in what are now the western parts of Latvia and Lithuania from the 5th to the 16th centuries, when they merged with other Baltic tribes.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
Dobrzyń Land (ziemia dobrzyńska) is a historic region, with the capital in the town of Dobrzyń nad Wisłą, in central-northern Poland, within the Greater Poland, between Mazovia and Prussia.
The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia (Ducatus Curlandiæ et Semigalliæ, Księstwo Kurlandii i Semigalii, Herzogtum Kurland und Semgallen, Kurzemes un Zemgales hercogiste) was a duchy in the Baltic region that existed from 1561 to 1569 as a vassal state of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and from 1569 to 1726 to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, incorporated into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth by Sejm in 1726, On 28 March 1795, it was annexed by the Russian Empire in the Third Partition of Poland.
The Duchy of Lorraine (Lorraine; Lothringen), originally Upper Lorraine, was a duchy now included in the larger present-day region of Lorraine in northeastern France.
The Duchy of Prussia (Herzogtum Preußen, Księstwo Pruskie) or Ducal Prussia (Herzogliches Preußen, Prusy Książęce) was a duchy in the region of Prussia established as a result of secularization of the State of the Teutonic Order during the Protestant Reformation in 1525.
The Dutch (Dutch), occasionally referred to as Netherlanders—a term that is cognate to the Dutch word for Dutch people, "Nederlanders"—are a Germanic ethnic group native to the Netherlands.
Działdowo (Soldau) is a town in north-central Poland with 24,830 inhabitants (2006), the capital of Działdowo County.
Elbląg (Elbing; Old Prussian: Elbings) is a city in northern Poland on the eastern edge of the Żuławy region with 124,257 inhabitants (December 31, 2011).
Saint Elizabeth of Hungary, T.O.S.F. (Heilige Elisabeth von Thüringen, Árpád-házi Szent Erzsébet; 7 July 1207 – 17 November 1231), also known as Saint Elizabeth of Thuringia or Saint Elisabeth of Thuringia, was a princess of the Kingdom of Hungary, Landgravine of Thuringia, Germany, and a greatly venerated Catholic saint who was an early member of the Third Order of St. Francis, by which she is honored as its patroness.
Ellingen is a town in the Weißenburg-Gunzenhausen district, in Bavaria, Germany.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
Estonian (eesti keel) is the official language of Estonia, spoken natively by about 1.1 million people: 922,000 people in Estonia and 160,000 outside Estonia.
Fürst (female form Fürstin, plural Fürsten; from Old High German furisto, "the first", a translation of the Latin princeps) is a German word for a ruler and is also a princely title.
A fief (feudum) was the central element of feudalism and consisted of heritable property or rights granted by an overlord to a vassal who held it in fealty (or "in fee") in return for a form of feudal allegiance and service, usually given by the personal ceremonies of homage and fealty.
The Fifth Crusade (1217–1221) was an attempt by Western Europeans to reacquire Jerusalem and the rest of the Holy Land by first conquering the powerful Ayyubid state in Egypt.
The Flemish or Flemings are a Germanic ethnic group native to Flanders, in modern Belgium, who speak Dutch, especially any of its dialects spoken in historical Flanders, known collectively as Flemish Dutch.
The fleur-de-lis/fleur-de-lys (plural: fleurs-de-lis/fleurs-de-lys) or flower-de-luce is a stylized lily (in French, fleur means "flower", and lis means "lily") that is used as a decorative design or motif, and many of the Catholic saints of France, particularly St. Joseph, are depicted with a lily.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The Frankokratia (Φραγκοκρατία, Frankokratía, Anglicized as "Francocracy", "rule of the Franks"), also known as Latinokratia (Λατινοκρατία, Latinokratía, "rule of the Latins") and, for the Venetian domains, Venetocracy (Βενετοκρατία, Venetokratía or Ενετοκρατία, Enetokratia), was the period in Greek history after the Fourth Crusade (1204), when a number of primarily French and Italian Crusader states were established on the territory of the dissolved Byzantine Empire (see Partitio terrarum imperii Romaniae).
Frederick II (26 December 1194 – 13 December 1250; Fidiricu, Federico, Friedrich) was King of Sicily from 1198, King of Germany from 1212, King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 and King of Jerusalem from 1225.
Gdańsk (Danzig) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast.
The gentry (genterie; Old French gentil: "high-born") are the "well-born, genteel, and well-bred people" of the social class below the nobility of a society.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The German Peasants' War, Great Peasants' War or Great Peasants' Revolt (Deutscher Bauernkrieg) was a widespread popular revolt in some German-speaking areas in Central Europe from 1524 to 1525.
Germanisation (also spelled Germanization) is the spread of the German language, people and culture or policies which introduced these changes.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The Golden Bull of Rimini was a Golden Bull issued by Emperor Frederick II, at his court in Rimini in March 1226 to confirm the Teutonic Knights' possessions in Prussia.
The Gollub War was a two-month war of the Teutonic Knights against the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1422.
Gotland (older spellings include Gottland or Gothland), Gutland in the local dialect, is a province, county, municipality, and diocese of Sweden.
Gotthard von Kettler (also Ketteler, Gotthard Kettler, Herzog von Kurland; 2 February 1517 – 17 May 1587) was the last Master of the Livonian Order and the first Duke of Courland and Semigallia.
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state that lasted from the 13th century up to 1795, when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and Austria.
Grand Master (Magister generalis; Großmeister) is a title of the supreme head of various orders, including chivalric orders such as military orders and dynastic orders of knighthood.
The Grand Master (Hochmeister; Magister generalis) is the holder of the supreme office of the Teutonic Order. It is equivalent to the grand master of other military orders and the superior general in non-military Roman Catholic religious orders. Hochmeister, literally "high master", is only used in reference to the Teutonic Order, as Großmeister ("grand master") is used in German to refer to the leaders of other orders of knighthood. An early version of the full title in Latin was Magister Hospitalis Sanctae Mariae Alemannorum Hierosolymitani. Since 1216, the full title Magister Hospitalis Domus Sanctae Mariae Teutonicorum Hierosolymitani ("Master of the Hospital House of the Blessed Virgin Mary of the Germans of Jerusalem") was used. The offices of Hochmeister and Deutschmeister (Magister Germaniae) were united in 1525. The title of Magister Germaniae had been introduced in 1219 as the head of the bailiwicks in the Holy Roman Empire, from 1381 also those in Italy, raised to the rank of a prince of the Holy Roman Empire in 1494, but merged with the office of grand master under Walter von Cronberg in 1525, from which time the head of the order had the title of Hoch- und Deutschmeister.
Guy Stair Sainty, KC*SG (born 7 December 1950) is an art dealer and author on royal genealogy and heraldry.
The Habsburg Monarchy (Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.
Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was Reichsführer of the Schutzstaffel (Protection Squadron; SS), and a leading member of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) of Germany.
Heinrich von Plauen (the Elder) (ca. 1370–1429) was the 27th Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, serving from November 1410 to October 1413.
Heinrich von Plötzke (1264 in Płock, Masovia, Poland – 27 July 1320 in Medininkai, Lithuania) was an officer of the Teutonic Order during the late 13th and early 14th centuries.
Heinrich Gotthard von Treitschke (15 September 1834 – 28 April 1896) was a German historian, political writer and National Liberal member of the Reichstag during the time of the German Empire.
Statue of Heinrich Walpot von Bassenheim Heinrich Walpot von Bassenheim (died 1200), also known as Henry Walpot, was the first Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights serving from 1198 to 1200.
Henryk Adam Aleksander Pius Sienkiewicz (also known by the pseudonym "Litwos"; 5 May 1846 – 15 November 1916) was a Polish journalist, novelist and Nobel Prize laureate.
Hermann von Salza (or Hermann of Salza; c. 1165 – March 20, 1239) was the fourth Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, serving from 1210 to 1239.
Hesse or Hessia (Hessen, Hessian dialect: Hesse), officially the State of Hesse (German: Land Hessen) is a federal state (''Land'') of the Federal Republic of Germany, with just over six million inhabitants.
Hiiumaa (German & Dagö; Dagø; Hiidenmaa) is the second largest island (989 km²) in Estonia.
The rule of the Jagiellonian dynasty in Poland between 1386 and 1572 spans the late Middle Ages and early Modern Era in European history.
The Holy Land (Hebrew: אֶרֶץ הַקּוֹדֶשׁ, Terra Sancta; Arabic: الأرض المقدسة) is an area roughly located between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea that also includes the Eastern Bank of the Jordan River.
The Holy Roman Emperor (historically Romanorum Imperator, "Emperor of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire (800-1806 AD, from Charlemagne to Francis II).
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.
A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialized medical and nursing staff and medical equipment.
The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.
The Hunger War or Famine War was a brief conflict between the allied Kingdom of Poland, and Grand Duchy of Lithuania, against the Teutonic Knights in summer 1414 in an attempt to resolve territorial disputes.
The Hussite Wars, also called the Bohemian Wars or the Hussite Revolution, were fought between the heretical Catholic Hussites and the combined Catholic orthodox forces of Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, the Papacy and various European monarchs loyal to the Catholic Church, as well as among various Hussite factions themselves.
The Hussites (Husité or Kališníci; "Chalice People") were a pre-Protestant Christian movement that followed the teachings of Czech reformer Jan Hus, who became the best known representative of the Bohemian Reformation.
Immigration is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.
An Imperial State or Imperial Estate (Status Imperii; Reichsstand, plural: Reichsstände) was a part of the Holy Roman Empire with representation and the right to vote in the Imperial Diet (Reichstag).
The Iron Cross (abbreviated EK) is a former military decoration in the Kingdom of Prussia, and later in the German Empire (1871–1918) and Nazi Germany (1933–1945).
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Jadwiga, also known as Hedwig (Hedvig; 1373/4 – 17 July 1399), was the first female monarch of the Kingdom of Poland, reigning from 16 October 1384 until her death.
Jan Długosz (1 December 1415 – 19 May 1480), also known as Ioannes, Joannes, or Johannes Longinus or Dlugossius, was a Polish priest, chronicler, diplomat, soldier, and secretary to Bishop Zbigniew Oleśnicki of Kraków.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
The Jerusalem cross (also known as "Five-fold Cross", or "cross-and-crosslets") is a heraldic cross and Christian cross variant consisting of a large cross potent surrounded by four smaller Greek crosses, one in each quadrant.
Jurbarkas (Samogitian: Jorbarks, known also by several alternative names) is a city in Tauragė County, in Samogitia, Lithuania.
Königsberg is the name for a former German city that is now Kaliningrad, Russia.
The King of Jerusalem was the supreme ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the Crusader state founded by Christian princes in 1099 when the First Crusade took the city.
The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the twentieth century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920).
The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem was a crusader state established in the Southern Levant by Godfrey of Bouillon in 1099 after the First Crusade.
The Kingdom of Poland (Polish: Królestwo Polskie; Latin: Regnum Poloniae) was the Polish state from the coronation of the first King Bolesław I the Brave in 1025 to the union with Lithuania and the rule of the Jagiellon dynasty in 1385.
The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.
The Kipchaks were a Turkic nomadic people and confederation that existed in the Middle Ages, inhabiting parts of the Eurasian Steppe.
Klaipėda (Samogitian name: Klaipieda, Polish name: Kłajpeda, German name: Memel), is a city in Lithuania on the Baltic Sea coast.
A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch, bishop or other political leader for service to the monarch or a Christian Church, especially in a military capacity.
The Order of Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem (Ordo Fratrum Hospitalis Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani), also known as the Order of Saint John, Order of Hospitallers, Knights Hospitaller, Knights Hospitalier or Hospitallers, was a medieval Catholic military order.
The Hospitallers of St Thomas of Canterbury at Acre, usually called the Knights of St Thomas was a Christian military order of the Catholic Church.
The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Salomonici), also known as the Order of Solomon's Temple, the Knights Templar or simply as Templars, were a Catholic military order recognised in 1139 by papal bull Omne Datum Optimum of the Holy See.
Konrad Hermann Joseph Adenauer (5 January 1876 – 19 April 1967) was a German statesman who served as the first Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) from 1949 to 1963.
Konrad I of Masovia (Konrad I Mazowiecki) (ca. 1187/88 – 31 August 1247), from the Polish Piast dynasty, was the sixth Duke of Masovia and Kujawy from 1194 until his death as well as High Duke of Poland from 1229 to 1232 and again from 1241 to 1243.
Konrad V von Jungingen (born around 1355 in Jungingen, died on March 30, 1407 in Marienburg) was a grand master of the Teutonic Order in 1393-1407.
Kuyavia (Kujawy, Kujawien, Cuiavia), also referred to as Cuyavia, is a historical region in north-central Poland, situated on the left bank of Vistula, as well as east from Noteć River and Lake Gopło.
Landenberg was a noble family in medieval Switzerland.
The Landtag of Bavaria (State Diet of Bavaria) is the unicameral legislature of the state of Bavaria in Germany.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latvian (latviešu valoda) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
Lübeck is a city in Schleswig-Holstein, northern Germany, and one of the major ports of Germany.
The German concept of Lebensraum ("living space") comprises policies and practices of settler colonialism which proliferated in Germany from the 1890s to the 1940s.
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
Liborius of Le Mans (c. 348–397) was the second Bishop of Le Mans.
The monarchs of Prussia were members of the House of Hohenzollern who were the hereditary rulers of the former German state of Prussia from its founding in 1525 as the Duchy of Prussia.
Lithuania proper (Lithuania propria, literally: "Genuine Lithuania"; Didžioji Lietuva; ליטע, Lite) refers to a region which existed within the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and where the Lithuanian language was spoken.
Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
Lithuanian mythology is a type of Baltic mythology, developed by Lithuanians throughout the centuries.
Livonia (Līvõmō, Liivimaa, German and Scandinavian languages: Livland, Latvian and Livonija, Inflanty, archaic English Livland, Liwlandia; Liflyandiya) is a historical region on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea.
The Livonian Brothers of the Sword (Fratres militiæ Christi Livoniae, Schwertbrüderorden, Ordre des Chevaliers Porte-Glaive) was a Catholic military order established by Albert, the third bishop of Riga (or possibly by Theoderich von Treyden), in 1202.
The Livonian Order was an autonomous branch of the Teutonic Order, formed in 1237.
The Livonian War (1558–1583) was fought for control of Old Livonia (in the territory of present-day Estonia and Latvia), when the Tsardom of Russia faced a varying coalition of Denmark–Norway, the Kingdom of Sweden, and the Union (later Commonwealth) of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland.
The Lizard Union or Lizard League (Eidechsenbund; Związek Jaszczurczy) was an organization of Prussian nobles and knights established in Culmerland (Chełmno Land) in 1397.
Lombardy (Lombardia; Lumbardia, pronounced: (Western Lombard), (Eastern Lombard)) is one of the twenty administrative regions of Italy, in the northwest of the country, with an area of.
Lotharingia (Latin: Lotharii regnum) was a medieval successor kingdom of the Carolingian Empire, comprising the present-day Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany), Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany), Saarland (Germany), and Lorraine (France).
Louis IV (Ludwig; 1 April 1282 – 11 October 1347), called the Bavarian, of the house of Wittelsbach, was King of the Romans from 1314, King of Italy from 1327, and Holy Roman Emperor from 1328.
Louis IX (25 April 1214 – 25 August 1270), commonly known as Saint Louis, was King of France and is a canonized Catholic and Anglican saint.
Low German or Low Saxon (Plattdütsch, Plattdüütsch, Plattdütsk, Plattduitsk, Nedersaksies; Plattdeutsch, Niederdeutsch; Nederduits) is a West Germanic language spoken mainly in northern Germany and the eastern part of the Netherlands.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Malbork (Marienburg; Civitas Beatae Virginis) is a town in northern Poland in the Żuławy region (Vistula delta), with 38,478 inhabitants (2006).
The Castle of the Teutonic Order in Malbork (zamek w Malborku; Ordensburg Marienburg) was built in the 13th century in Prussia and is currently located near the town of Malbork, Poland.
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
Marburg is a university town in the German federal state (Bundesland) of Hesse, capital of the Marburg-Biedenkopf district (Landkreis).
The Margraviate of Brandenburg (Markgrafschaft Brandenburg) was a major principality of the Holy Roman Empire from 1157 to 1806 that played a pivotal role in the history of Germany and Central Europe.
Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran.
The Masurians or Mazurs (Mazurzy, Masuren, Masurian: Mazurÿ) are a small 5,000-15,000 strong Lechitic sub-ethnic group traditionally present in what is now the present-day Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, Poland.
Maximilian I (22 March 1459 – 12 January 1519) was King of the Romans (also known as King of the Germans) from 1486 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death, though he was never crowned by the Pope, as the journey to Rome was always too risky.
Mazovia (Mazowsze) is a historical region (dzielnica) in mid-north-eastern Poland.
Mülheim an der Ruhr, also described as "City on the River", is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
A mercenary is an individual who is hired to take part in an armed conflict but is not part of a regular army or other governmental military force.
Michael Küchmeister von Sternberg (1360 or 1370 – 15 December 1423, Danzig (Gdańsk)) was the 28th Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, serving from 1414 to 1422.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
A military order (Militaris ordinis) is a chivalric order with military elements.
The Mongol invasion of Europe in the 13th century was the conquest of Europe by the Mongol Empire, by way of the destruction of East Slavic principalities, such as Kiev and Vladimir. The Mongol invasions also occurred in Central Europe, which led to warfare among fragmented Poland, such as the Battle of Legnica (9 April 1241) and in the Battle of Mohi (11 April 1241) in the Kingdom of Hungary. The operations were planned by General Subutai (1175–1248) and commanded by Batu Khan (1207–1255) and Kadan (d. 1261). Both men were grandsons of Genghis Khan; their conquests integrated much European territory to the empire of the Golden Horde. Warring European princes realized they had to cooperate in the face of a Mongol invasion, so local wars and conflicts were suspended in parts of central Europe, only to be resumed after the Mongols had withdrawn.
Montfort (מבצר מונפור, Mivtzar Monfor; Arabic: Qal'at al-Qurain or Qal'at al-Qarn - "Castle of the Little Horn" or "Castle of the Horn") is a ruined Crusader castle in the Upper Galilee region in northern Israel, about northeast of the city of Haifa and south of the border with Lebanon.
The Monumenta Germaniae Historica (frequently abbreviated MGH in bibliographies and lists of sources) is a comprehensive series of carefully edited and published primary sources, both chronicle and archival, for the study of German history (broadly conceived) from the end of the Roman Empire to 1500.
Moravia (Morava;; Morawy; Moravia) is a historical country in the Czech Republic (forming its eastern part) and one of the historical Czech lands, together with Bohemia and Czech Silesia.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
The Neman, Nemunas, Nyoman, Niemen or Memel, a major Eastern European river.
The Neumark, also known as the New March (Nowa Marchia) or as East Brandenburg, was a region of the Margraviate of Brandenburg and its successors located east of the Oder River in territory which became part of Poland in 1945.
The Nogat is a 62 km long delta branch of the Vistula River and does not empty at Gdańsk Bay as the main river does.
The Novgorod Republic (p; Новгородскаѧ землѧ / Novgorodskaję zemlę) was a medieval East Slavic state from the 12th to 15th centuries, stretching from the Baltic Sea to the northern Ural Mountains, including the city of Novgorod and the Lake Ladoga regions of modern Russia.
A nun is a member of a religious community of women, typically living under vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience in the enclosure of a monastery.
Old Prussians or Baltic Prussians (Old Prussian: Prūsai; Pruzzen or Prußen; Pruteni; Prūši; Prūsai; Prusowie; Prësowié) refers to the indigenous peoples from a cluster of Baltic tribes that inhabited the region of Prussia.
Olsztyn (Allenstein; Old Polish: Holstin; Old Prussian: Alnāsteini or Alnestabs; Alnaštynas, Alnštynas, Alštynas (historical) and Olštynas (modern)) is a city on the Łyna River in northeastern Poland.
Ordensburgs (plural in German: Ordensburgen, literally: castles of orders) were fortresses built by crusading German military orders during the Middle Ages.
The Order of Dobrzyń (Zakon Dobrzyński) or Order of Dobrin (Orden von Dobrin), also known as the Brothers of Dobrzyń (Bracia Dobrzyńscy), was a military order created in the borderland of Masovia and Prussia (today's Dobrzyń Land, Poland) during the 13th century Prussian Crusade to 'defend against Baltic Prussian raids'.
The Bailiwick of Brandenburg of the Chivalric Order of Saint John of the Hospital at Jerusalem (Balley Brandenburg des Ritterlichen Ordens Sankt Johannis vom Spital zu Jerusalem), commonly known as the Order of Saint John or the Johanniter Order (German: Johanniterorden), is the German Protestant branch of the Knights Hospitaller, the oldest surviving chivalric order, which generally is considered to have been founded in Jerusalem in the year 1099 AD.
The Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem (Ordo Equestris Sancti Sepulcri Hierosolymitani, OESSH), also called Order of the Holy Sepulchre or Knights of the Holy Sepulchre, is a Roman Catholic order of knighthood under the protection of the Holy See.
Otto von Habsburg (20 November 1912 4 July 2011), also known by his traditional royal title of Archduke Otto of Austria, was the last Crown Prince of Austria-Hungary from 1916 until the dissolution of the empire in 1919, a realm which comprised modern-day Austria, Hungary, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, and parts of Italy, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Serbia and Ukraine.
Ottokar II (Přemysl Otakar II; c. 1233 – 26 August 1278), the Iron and Golden King, was a member of the Přemyslid dynasty who reigned as King of Bohemia from 1253 until 1278.
The Ottoman wars in Europe were a series of military conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and various European states dating from the Late Middle Ages up through the early 20th century.
Outremer (outre-mer, meaning "overseas") was a general name used for the Crusader states; it originated after victories of Europeans in the First Crusade and was applied to the County of Edessa, the Principality of Antioch, the County of Tripoli, and especially the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Paderborn is a city in eastern North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, capital of the Paderborn district.
Palliative care is a multidisciplinary approach to specialized medical and nursing care for people with life-limiting illnesses.
The Peace of Augsburg, also called the Augsburg Settlement, was a treaty between Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (the predecessor of Ferdinand I) and the Schmalkaldic League, signed in September 1555 at the imperial city of Augsburg.
The (First) Peace of Thorn was a peace treaty formally ending the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War between allied Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania on one side, and the Teutonic Knights on the other.
A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct.
A pilgrimage is a journey or search of moral or spiritual significance.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka), commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history and are native speakers of the Polish language.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
The Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War or Great War occurred between 1409 and 1411, pitting the allied Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania against the Teutonic Knights.
Polish–Teutonic War (1326–1332) was the war between the Kingdom of Poland and the State of the Teutonic Order over Pomerelia, fought from 1326 to 1332.
The Polish–Teutonic War (1431–1435) was an armed conflict between the Kingdom of Poland and the Teutonic Knights.
The Polish–Teutonic War of 1519–1521 (Reiterkrieg, horsemen's war, Wojna pruska, Prussian War) was fought between the Kingdom of Poland and the Teutonic Knights, ending with an armistice in April 1521.
Pomerania (Pomorze; German, Low German and North Germanic languages: Pommern; Kashubian: Pòmòrskô) is a historical region on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea in Central Europe, split between Germany and Poland.
Pomerelia (Pomerelia; Pomerellen, Pommerellen), also referred to as Eastern Pomerania (Pomorze Wschodnie) or as Gdańsk Pomerania (Pomorze Gdańskie), is a historical region in northern Poland.
Pomesanians were one of the Prussian clans.
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Pope Celestine II (Caelestinus II; died 8 March 1144), born Guido di Castello,Thomas, pg.
Pope Celestine III (Caelestinus III; c. 1106 – 8 January 1198), born Giacinto Bobone, reigned from 30 March or 10 April 1191 to his death in 1198.
Pope Honorius III (1150 – 18 March 1227), born as Cencio Savelli, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 18 July 1216 to his death in 1227.
Pope Innocent III (Innocentius III; 1160 or 1161 – 16 July 1216), born Lotario dei Conti di Segni (anglicized as Lothar of Segni) reigned from 8 January 1198 to his death in 1216.
The Pour le Mérite (French, literally "For Merit") is an order of merit (Verdienstorden) established in 1740 by King Frederick II of Prussia.
A priest or priestess (feminine) is a religious leader authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities.
Primus inter pares (Πρῶτος μεταξὺ ἴσων) is a Latin phrase meaning first among equals.
Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine (French: Charles Alexandre Emanuel de Lorraine; German: Karl Alexander von Lothringen und Bar; 12 December 1712 in Lunéville – 4 July 1780 in Tervuren) was a Lorraine-born Austrian general and soldier, field marshal of the Imperial Army, and governor of the Austrian Netherlands.
A procession (French procession via Middle English, derived from Latin, processio, from procedere, to go forth, advance, proceed) is an organized body of people walking in a formal or ceremonial manner.
The propaganda used by the German Nazi Party in the years leading up to and during Adolf Hitler's leadership of Germany (1933–1945) was a crucial instrument for acquiring and maintaining power, and for the implementation of Nazi policies.
Communist propaganda in the Soviet Union was extensively based on the Marxism-Leninism ideology to promote the Communist Party line.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
Prussia (Old Prussian: Prūsa, Preußen, Prūsija, Prusy, tr) is a historical region in Europe, stretching from Gdańsk Bay to the end of Curonian Spit on the southeastern coast of the Baltic Sea, and extending inland as far as Masuria.
The Prussian Confederation (Preußischer Bund, Związek Pruski) was an organization formed on 21 February 1440 at Marienwerder by a group of 53 nobles and clergy and 19 cities in Prussia, to oppose the arbitrariness of the Teutonic Knights.
The Prussian Crusade was a series of 13th-century campaigns of Roman Catholic crusaders, primarily led by the Teutonic Knights, to Christianize the pagan Old Prussians.
The Prussian Homage or Prussian Tribute (Preußische Huldigung; hołd pruski) was the formal investment of Albert of Prussia as duke of the Polish fief of Ducal Prussia.
The Prussian uprisings were two major and three smaller uprisings by the Prussians, one of the Baltic tribes, against the Teutonic Knights that took place in the 13th century during the Prussian Crusade.
Przemysł II (also given in English and Latin as Premyslas or Premislaus or less properly Przemysław; 14 October 1257 – 8 February 1296), was the Duke of Poznań from 1257–1279, of Greater Poland from 1279–1296, of Kraków from 1290–1291, and Gdańsk Pomerania (Pomerelia) from 1294–1296, and then King of Poland from 1295 until his death.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
The Reichsadler ("Imperial Eagle") is the heraldic eagle, derived from the Roman eagle standard, used by the Holy Roman Emperors and in modern coats of arms of Germany, including those of the Second German Empire (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (1919–1933) and the Third Reich (Nazi Germany, 1933–1945).
A religious order is a lineage of communities and organizations of people who live in some way set apart from society in accordance with their specific religious devotion, usually characterized by the principles of its founder's religious practice.
The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.
The Rhineland (Rheinland, Rhénanie) is the name used for a loosely defined area of Western Germany along the Rhine, chiefly its middle section.
Rhodes (Ρόδος, Ródos) is the largest of the Dodecanese islands of Greece in terms of land area and also the island group's historical capital.
Rouffach (German and Alsatian: Rufach) is a commune in the Haut-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
Royal Prussia (Prusy Królewskie; Königlich-Preußen or Preußen Königlichen Anteils, Królewsczé Prësë) or Polish PrussiaAnton Friedrich Büsching, Patrick Murdoch.
Saaremaa (Danish: Øsel; English (esp. traditionally): Osel; Finnish: Saarenmaa; Swedish & German: Ösel) is the largest island in Estonia, measuring.
Saint George (Γεώργιος, Geṓrgios; Georgius;; to 23 April 303), according to legend, was a Roman soldier of Greek origin and a member of the Praetorian Guard for Roman emperor Diocletian, who was sentenced to death for refusing to recant his Christian faith.
Saint George’s Night Uprising in 1343–1345 (Jüriöö ülestõus) was an unsuccessful attempt by the indigenous Estonian population in the Duchy of Estonia, the Bishopric of Ösel-Wiek, and the insular territories of the State of the Teutonic Order to rid themselves of the Danish and German rulers and landlords, who had conquered the country in the 13th century during the Livonian crusade, and to eradicate the non-indigenous Christian religion.
Sambia (Самбийский полуостров, Sambiysky poluostrov, literally the Sambiysky Peninsula;Sembos pusiasalis) or Samland (Земландский полуостров, Zemlandsky poluostrov, literally the Zemlandsky Peninsula) or Kaliningrad Peninsula (official name, Калининградский полуостров, Kaliningradsky poluostrov) is a peninsula in the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia, on the southeastern shore of the Baltic Sea.
Samogitia or Žemaitija (Samogitian: Žemaitėjė; Žemaitija; see below for alternate and historical names) is one of the five ethnographic regions of Lithuania. Žemaitija is located in northwestern Lithuania. Its largest city is Šiauliai. Žemaitija has a long and distinct cultural history, reflected in the existence of the Samogitian dialect.
Samogitians (Samogitian: Žemaitē, Žemaičiai, Latvian: Žemaiši, Sl. Zhmud) are a subgroup of Lithuanians that inhabit the region of Samogitia in Lithuania.
Saracen was a term widely used among Christian writers in Europe during the Middle Ages.
The Saxons (Saxones, Sachsen, Seaxe, Sahson, Sassen, Saksen) were a Germanic people whose name was given in the early Middle Ages to a large country (Old Saxony, Saxonia) near the North Sea coast of what is now Germany.
The Free State of Saxony (Freistaat Sachsen; Swobodny stat Sakska) is a landlocked federal state of Germany, bordering the federal states of Brandenburg, Saxony Anhalt, Thuringia, and Bavaria, as well as the countries of Poland (Lower Silesian and Lubusz Voivodeships) and the Czech Republic (Karlovy Vary, Liberec, and Ústí nad Labem Regions).
The Schmalkaldic League; was a military alliance of Lutheran princes within the Holy Roman Empire during the mid-16th century.
The Schutzstaffel (SS; also stylized as with Armanen runes;; literally "Protection Squadron") was a major paramilitary organization under Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP) in Nazi Germany, and later throughout German-occupied Europe during World War II.
The Peace of Thorn of 1466 (Zweiter Friede von Thorn; drugi pokój toruński) was a peace treaty signed in the Hanseatic city of Thorn (Toruń) on 19 October 1466 between the Polish king Casimir IV Jagiellon on one side, and the Teutonic Knights on the other.
Semigallians (Latvian Zemgaļi; Žiemgaliai, also Zemgalians, Semigalls, Semigalians) were the Baltic tribe that lived in the southcentral part of contemporary Latvia and northern Lithuania.
Seredžius (see other #Names) is a town in Lithuania on the right bank of the Neman River near its confluence with the Dubysa River.
Sergei Mikhailovich Eisenstein (p; 11 February 1948) was a Soviet film director and film theorist, a pioneer in the theory and practice of montage.
The Siege of Acre was the first significant counter attack by King Guy of Jerusalem to the losses the kingdom experienced to Saladin, leader of the Muslims in Syria and Egypt and formed part of what later became known as the Third Crusade.
The Siege of Acre (also called the Fall of Acre) took place in 1291 and resulted in the loss of the Crusader-controlled city of Acre to the Mamluks.
Siege of Bartenstein was a medieval siege laid upon the castle of Bartenstein (now Bartoszyce in Poland) by the Prussians during the Great Prussian Uprising.
The Siege of Damietta of 1218 was part of the Fifth Crusade.
The Siege of Königsberg was a siege laid upon Königsberg Castle, one of the main strongholds of the Teutonic Knights, by Prussians during the Great Prussian Uprising from 1262 possibly though 1265.
The Siege of Marienburg was an unsuccessful two-month siege of the castle in Marienburg (Malbork), the capital of the monastic state of the Teutonic Knights.
Siegfried von Feuchtwangen (died 1311) was the 15th Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, serving from 1303 to 1311.
Sigismund I of Poland (Zygmunt I Stary, Žygimantas I Senasis; 1 January 1467 – 1 April 1548), of the Jagiellon dynasty, reigned as King of Poland and also as the Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1506 until 1548.
The Sixth Crusade started in 1228 as an attempt to regain Jerusalem.
Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a country in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.
The Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes and of Malta (Supremus Ordo Militaris Hospitalis Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani Rhodius et Melitensis), also known as the Sovereign Military Order of Malta (SMOM) or the Order of Malta, is a Catholic lay religious order traditionally of military, chivalrous and noble nature.
Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.
The State of the Teutonic Order (Staat des Deutschen Ordens; Civitas Ordinis Theutonici), also called Deutschordensstaat or Ordensstaat in German, was a crusader state formed by the Teutonic Knights or Teutonic Order during the 13th century Northern Crusades along the Baltic Sea.
A surcoat or surcote initially was an outer garment commonly worn in the Middle Ages by both men and women in Western Europe.
Swabia (Schwaben, colloquially Schwabenland or Ländle; in English also archaic Suabia or Svebia) is a cultural, historic and linguistic region in southwestern Germany.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Tczew (Dërszewò) is a town on the Vistula River in Eastern Pomerania, Kociewie, northern Poland with 60,279 inhabitants (June 2009).
This article is about depictions of the Teutonic Knights in popular culture.
The city of Danzig (Gdańsk) was captured by the State of the Teutonic Order on 13 November 1308, resulting in a massacre of its inhabitants and marking the beginning of tensions between Poland and the Teutonic Order.
The Knights of the Cross or The Teutonic Knights (Krzyżacy) is a 1900 historical novel written by the eminent Polish Positivist writer and the 1905 Nobel laureate, Henryk Sienkiewicz.
The Thirteen Years' War (Dreizehnjähriger Krieg; wojna trzynastoletnia), also called the War of the Cities, was a conflict fought in 1454–66 between the Prussian Confederation, allied with the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, and the State of the Teutonic Order.
The Free State of Thuringia (Freistaat Thüringen) is a federal state in central Germany.
Transylvania is a historical region in today's central Romania.
The Transylvanian Saxons (Siebenbürger Sachsen; Transylvanian Saxon: Siweberjer Såksen; Sași ardeleni, sași transilvăneni; Erdélyi szászok) are a people of German ethnicity who settled in Transylvania (Siebenbürgen) from the mid 12th century until the late Modern Age (specifically mid 19th century).
The Treaty of Christburg (modern Dzierzgoń in Poland) was a peace treaty signed on 2 February 1249 between the pagan Prussian clans, represented by a papal legate, and the Teutonic Knights.
The Treaty of Kalisz (Pokój kaliski, Vertrag von Kalisch) was a peace treaty signed by King Casimir III the Great of Poland and the Teutonic Knights on 2 June 1343 in Kalisz.
The Treaty of Melno (Melno taika; Pokój melneński) or Treaty of Lake Melno (Friede von Melnosee) was a peace treaty ending the Gollub War.
The Treaty of Soldin (Vertrag von Soldin) was signed on 13 September 1309 at Soldin (Myślibórz) by Waldemar, Margrave of Brandenburg-Stendal, and the Teutonic Order.
Ulrich von Jungingen (c.a. 1360 – 15 July 1410) was the 26th Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, serving from 1407 to 1410.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
The Victual Brothers (Vitalienbrüder) were a loosely organized guild of privateers who later turned to piracy.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
The Vistula (Wisła, Weichsel,, ווייסל), Висла) is the longest and largest river in Poland, at in length. The drainage basin area of the Vistula is, of which lies within Poland (54% of its land area). The remainder is in Belarus, Ukraine and Slovakia. The Vistula rises at Barania Góra in the south of Poland, above sea level in the Silesian Beskids (western part of Carpathian Mountains), where it begins with the White Little Vistula (Biała Wisełka) and the Black Little Vistula (Czarna Wisełka). It then continues to flow over the vast Polish plains, passing several large Polish cities along its way, including Kraków, Sandomierz, Warsaw, Płock, Włocławek, Toruń, Bydgoszcz, Świecie, Grudziądz, Tczew and Gdańsk. It empties into the Vistula Lagoon (Zalew Wiślany) or directly into the Gdańsk Bay of the Baltic Sea with a delta and several branches (Leniwka, Przekop, Śmiała Wisła, Martwa Wisła, Nogat and Szkarpawa).
Vytautas (c. 1350 – October 27, 1430), also known as Vytautas the Great (Lithuanian:, Вітаўт Кейстутавіч (Vitaŭt Kiejstutavič), Witold Kiejstutowicz, Rusyn: Vitovt, Latin: Alexander Vitoldus) from the 15th century onwards, was a ruler of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, which chiefly encompassed the Lithuanians and Ruthenians.
Walter von Cronberg (1477 or 1479 – 4 April 1545) was the 38th Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, serving from 1527 to 1543.
The War of the Priests (1467-1479, Pfaffenkrieg, wojna popia, wojna księża) was a conflict in the Polish province of Warmia between the King of Poland Casimir IV and Nicolaus von Tüngen, the new bishop of Warmia chosen – without the king's approval – by the Warmian chapter.
Württemberg is a historical German territory.
Władysław I the Elbow-high or the Short (Władysław I Łokietek; c. 1260 – 2 March 1333) was the King of Poland from 1306 to 1333, and duke of several of the provinces and principalities in the preceding years.
Jogaila (later Władysław II JagiełłoHe is known under a number of names: Jogaila Algirdaitis; Władysław II Jagiełło; Jahajła (Ягайла). See also: Names and titles of Władysław II Jagiełło. (c. 1352/1362 – 1 June 1434) was the Grand Duke of Lithuania (1377–1434) and then the King of Poland (1386–1434), first alongside his wife Jadwiga until 1399, and then sole King of Poland. He ruled in Lithuania from 1377. Born a pagan, in 1386 he converted to Catholicism and was baptized as Władysław in Kraków, married the young Queen Jadwiga, and was crowned King of Poland as Władysław II Jagiełło. In 1387 he converted Lithuania to Christianity. His own reign in Poland started in 1399, upon the death of Queen Jadwiga, and lasted a further thirty-five years and laid the foundation for the centuries-long Polish–Lithuanian union. He was a member of the Jagiellonian dynasty in Poland that bears his name and was previously also known as the Gediminid dynasty in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The dynasty ruled both states until 1572,Anna Jagiellon, the last member of royal Jagiellon family, died in 1596. and became one of the most influential dynasties in late medieval and early modern Central and Eastern Europe. During his reign, the Polish-Lithuanian state was the largest state in the Christian world. Jogaila was the last pagan ruler of medieval Lithuania. After he became King of Poland, as a result of the Union of Krewo, the newly formed Polish-Lithuanian union confronted the growing power of the Teutonic Knights. The allied victory at the Battle of Grunwald in 1410, followed by the Peace of Thorn, secured the Polish and Lithuanian borders and marked the emergence of the Polish–Lithuanian alliance as a significant force in Europe. The reign of Władysław II Jagiełło extended Polish frontiers and is often considered the beginning of Poland's Golden Age.
The Weimar Republic (Weimarer Republik) is an unofficial, historical designation for the German state during the years 1919 to 1933.
Wenceslaus III (Václav III., Vencel, Wacław, Václav; 6 October 12894 August 1306) was King of Hungary between 1301 and 1305, and King of Bohemia and Poland from 1305.
Western Pomerania, also called Cispomerania or Hither Pomerania (Vorpommern), is the western extremity of the historic region of the duchy, later Province of Pomerania, nowadays divided between the German state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and Poland.
Wilhelm II (Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Hohenzollern; 27 January 18594 June 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and King of Prussia, ruling the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918.
William Urban is an American historian specializing in the Baltic Crusades and Teutonic knights.
Winrich von Kniprode was the 22nd Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Black Cross (Teutonic Order), Cross of the Teutonic Order, Deutsche Orden, Deutscher Orden, Deutscher Ritter Orden, Deutschherrenorden, Deutschritterorden, Domus Sanctae Mariae Theutonicorum in Jerusalem, German Knights, Halbbrüder, Halpbruder, Haus der Ritter des Hospitals Sankt Marien der Deutschen zu Jerusalem, House of the Hospitalers of Saint Mary of the Teutons in Jerusalem, House of the Hospitallers of Saint Mary of the Teutons, Knight of the Teutonic Order, Knights Teutonic, Knights of Teutonic Order, Knights of the Teutonic Order, Marianer Cross of the Deutscher Ritterorden, Marianer Cross of the Teutonic Order, Ordensdiener, Order of Teutonic Knights, Order of the Teutonic Knights, Ordo Teutonicus, Sariantbruder, Teutonic Knight, Teutonic Knights, Teutonic Knights of the Hospital of Saint Mary of Jerusalem, Teutonic Order of Knights, Teutonic Orders, Teutonic kinghts, Teutonic knight, Teutonic knights, Teutonic order, The Teutonic Knights Historical Empire of St. Mary from Jerusalem, The Teutonic Order, The teutonic order.