513 relations: A.T. Kearney, Absolute monarchy, Abugida, Administrative division, Adventure travel, AFC Asian Cup, Afonso de Albuquerque, Agriculture in Thailand, Ahom people, Air pollution, Akha language, Alaungpaya, Allies of World War I, Amata Spring Country Club, Amphoe, Ananda Mahidol, Andaman Islands, Andaman Sea, Angkor, Angkor Wat, Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909, Animism, Arabs, Armistice, ASEAN Basketball League, ASEAN Free Trade Area, Asia-Pacific, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Asian black bear, Asian Championship, Asian Women's Volleyball Championship, Asian Women's Volleyball Cup, Aslian languages, Association football, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Austroasiatic languages, Austronesian languages, Automotive industry in Thailand, Ayutthaya Kingdom, Điện Biên Phủ, Bamboo network, Ban Chiang, Bang Pakong River, Bangkok, Bangkok Metropolitan Region, Basketball at the 1966 Asian Games, Battle of France, BBC News, Bhumibol Adulyadej, Bicameralism, ..., Binturong, Black May (1992), Borommatrailokkanat, Bowring Treaty, Boxing, BTS Skytrain, Buddhism, Buddhism in Thailand, Buddhist calendar, Buffer state, Bunga mas, Burmese–Siamese War (1568–70), Burmese–Siamese War (1765–67), Cabinet of Thailand, Cambodia, Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere, CAT Telecom, Central Tai languages, Central Thailand, Chakri dynasty, Cham language, Champa, Chams, Chao Phraya River, Chatuchak Weekend Market, Chavalit Yongchaiyudh, Chiang Mai, Chic, Christianity, Christianity in Thailand, Chulalongkorn, Chulalongkorn University, Chumphon Province, Climate and energy, Communist insurgency in Thailand, Constitution of Thailand, Constitutional monarchy, Coriander, Corruption Perceptions Index, Corvée, Credit Suisse, Crocodile, Crown prince, Cultural Revolution, Cyclone, Damnoen Saduak Floating Market, Dan Sai District, De facto, Dechawat Poomjaeng, Democrat Party (Thailand), Demographics of Thailand, Dharma, Diving, Doi Inthanon, Duarte Fernandes, Dvaravati, East Timor, Economic system, Economy of Thailand, Elephant, Elephant meat, Emerging markets, Employment-to-population ratio, Environmental Performance Index, Exonym and endonym, Fall of Saigon, Farther India, Fascism, Fish sauce, FIVB Volleyball Women's World Championship, FIVB Volleyball Women's World Cup, FIVB Volleyball World Grand Prix, Floating exchange rate, Floating market, Foreign Policy, Franco-Siamese War, Franco-Thai War, Free Thai Movement, Free-trade area, Freedom House, Freedom in the World, Funan, Galangal, Geography (Ptolemy), Geography of Thailand, Geology, George Cœdès, Gigabit, Global Competitiveness Report, Gold reserve, Government agency, Greater India, Greater Mekong Subregion, Gregorian calendar, Gross domestic product, Gulf of Thailand, Hainan, Hariphunchai, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Head of government, Head of state, Hereditary monarchy, Hill tribe (Thailand), Hinduism, Hinduism in Southeast Asia, History of Thailand, History of the Jews in Thailand, Hmong language, Hmong–Mien languages, Hotan, House of Representatives (Thailand), HSBC, Human Development Index, Immigration, Imperial units, Index of Economic Freedom, Index of Thailand-related articles, India, Indonesia, Inflation, Intelligence quotient, Intendant, International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, International Futures, International Monetary Fund, International Rice Research Institute, Internet, Internet censorship in Thailand, Internet in Thailand, Intertropical Convergence Zone, Iran, Irreligion, Isan, Isan language, Isan people, Islam, Islam in Thailand, Ivory, James Wattana, Japan, Japanese invasion of Thailand, Jasmine rice, Java, John Bowring, John Crawfurd, Judiciary, Karen people, Karenic languages, Kasetsart University, Köppen climate classification, Kedah, Kelantan, Kelantan-Pattani Malay, Khana Ratsadon, Khaosan Road, Khmer alphabet, Khmer Empire, Khmer language, Khmer people, Khorat Plateau, Khorat Thai, Khwaeng, King cobra, Kite, Kra Isthmus, Kra–Dai languages, Krabi, Laem Chabang, Lan Na, Lan Xang, Lao language, Laos, Lar gibbon, Lavo Kingdom, Lawa language, Lèse-majesté, Left- and right-hand traffic, Leopard, Li Fang-Kuei, Library of Congress Country Studies, List of Buddhist temples in Thailand, List of Chiefs of Defence Forces (Thailand), List of countries and dependencies by area, List of countries and dependencies by population, List of countries by GDP (PPP), List of countries by Human Development Index, List of countries by inequality-adjusted HDI, List of countries by military expenditures, List of countries by Military Strength Index, List of countries by motor vehicle production, List of districts of Bangkok, List of islands of Thailand, List of monarchs of Thailand, List of national animals, List of shopping malls in Thailand, Literacy, Logging, Loi Krathong, Lower house, Luang Saranupraphan, Mae Klong, Mahasarakham University, Mainland Southeast Asia, Major non-NATO ally, Malacca Sultanate, Malay Peninsula, Malayan Communist Party, Malays (ethnic group), Malaysia, Mekong, Meteorology, Metres above sea level, Metric system, Michel Ferlus, Middle power, Military dictatorship, Ming dynasty, Ministry of Defence (Thailand), Ministry of Digital Economy and Society, Ministry of Public Health (Thailand), Ministry of Science and Technology (Thailand), Mlabri language, Modernization theory, Moken language, Mon kingdoms, Mon language, Mon people, Monarchies of Malaysia, Monarchy of Thailand, Mongkut, Monthon, MRT (Bangkok), Muay Thai, Mueang, Myanmar, Nakhon Pathom Province, Nakhon Ratchasima, Namaste, Narai, Narathiwat Province, Naresuan, National Assembly of Thailand, National Council for Peace and Order, National Legislative Assembly of Thailand (2014), National Peace Keeping 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Party, Thai solar calendar, Thai units of measurement, Thailand in World War II, Thailand men's national volleyball team, Thailand national basketball team, Thailand national football team, Thailand national rugby union team, Thailand women's national volleyball team, Thaksin Shinawatra, Thaksinomics, Thammasat University, Thammasat University massacre, Thanon Thong Chai Range, The Age, The Heritage Foundation, The Independent, The National (Abu Dhabi), Theravada, Thonburi, Thonburi Kingdom, Tiger, Toungoo dynasty, Tourism, Tourism in Thailand, Trang Province, Transparency International, Tropical monsoon climate, Tropical savanna climate, Unequal treaty, Unicameralism, Unitary state, United Front for Democracy Against Dictatorship, United Nations Development Programme, Upper house, UTC+07:00, Uthong, Vajiralongkorn, Vientiane, Vietnam, Vietnam War, Vietnamese language, Volleyball, Water resource management, Westernization, Wi-Fi, William H. Baxter, World Economic Forum, World Gold Council, World War I, World War II, Yala Province, Yasothon, Yemen, Yingluck Shinawatra, Yunnan, .th, 1972 AFC Asian Cup, 1973 Thai popular uprising, 1997 Asian financial crisis, 1998 Asian Games, 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami, 2006 Thai coup d'état, 2007 AFC Asian Cup, 2008 Thai political crisis, 2009 Thai political unrest, 2010 Thai political protests, 2013–2014 Thai political crisis, 2014 Thai coup d'état. Expand index (463 more) » « Shrink index
A.T. Kearney is an American global management consulting firm that focuses on strategic and operational CEO-agenda issues facing businesses, governments and institutions around the globe.
Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.
An abugida (from Ge'ez: አቡጊዳ ’abugida), or alphasyllabary, is a segmental writing system in which consonant–vowel sequences are written as a unit: each unit is based on a consonant letter, and vowel notation is secondary.
An administrative division, unit, entity, area or region, also referred to as a subnational entity, statoid, constituent unit, or country subdivision, is a portion of a country or other region delineated for the purpose of administration.
Adventure travel is a type of niche tourism, involving exploration or travel with a certain degree of risk (real or perceived), and which may require special skills and physical exertion.
The AFC Asian Cup is an international association football tournament run by the Asian Football Confederation (AFC).
Afonso de Albuquerque, Duke of Goa (1453 – 16 December 1515) (also spelled Aphonso or Alfonso), was a Portuguese general, a "great conqueror",, Vol.
Agriculture in Thailand is highly competitive, diversified and specialised and its exports are very successful internationally.
The Ahom (Pron:, আহোম, people of Assam) are the descendants of the ethnic Tai people who accompanied a Tai prince, Sukaphaa, in his migration from what is now Yunnan Province in southwest China into the Brahmaputra valley in 1228.
Air pollution occurs when harmful or excessive quantities of substances including gases, particulates, and biological molecules are introduced into Earth's atmosphere.
Akha is the language spoken by the Akha people of southern China (Yunnan Province), eastern Burma (Shan State), northern Laos, and northern Thailand.
Alaungpaya (အလောင်းဘုရား,; also spelled Alaunghpaya or Alaung Phra; 11 May 1760) was the founder of the Konbaung Dynasty of Burma (Myanmar).
The Allies of World War I, or Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers in the First World War.
The Amata Spring Country Club is a private golf and country club near to Bangkok, the capital of Thailand.
An amphoe (sometimes also amphur, อำเภอ) is the second level administrative subdivision of Thailand.
Ananda Mahidol (พระบาทสมเด็จพระปรเมนทรมหาอานันทมหิดล;; 20 September 1925 – 9 June 1946) was the eighth monarch of Thailand from the Chakri dynasty as Rama VIII.
The Andaman Islands form an archipelago in the Bay of Bengal between India, to the west, and Myanmar, to the north and east.
The Andaman Sea is a marginal sea of the eastern Indian Ocean separated from the Bay of Bengal (to its west) by the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and touching Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, and the Malay Peninsula.
Angkor (អង្គរ, "Capital City")Headly, Robert K.; Chhor, Kylin; Lim, Lam Kheng; Kheang, Lim Hak; Chun, Chen.
Angkor Wat (អង្គរវត្ត, "Capital Temple") is a temple complex in Cambodia and the largest religious monument in the world, on a site measuring.
The Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909 or Bangkok Treaty of 1909 was a treaty between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Kingdom of Siam signed on 10 March 1909, in Bangkok.
Animism (from Latin anima, "breath, spirit, life") is the religious belief that objects, places and creatures all possess a distinct spiritual essence.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
An armistice is a formal agreement of warring parties to stop fighting.
The ASEAN Basketball League, often abbreviated to the ABL, is a men's professional basketball league in Southeast Asia, China, Hong Kong and Taiwan.
The ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA) is a trade bloc agreement by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations supporting local manufacturing in all ASEAN countries.
Asia-Pacific or Asia Pacific (abbreviated as APAC, Asia-Pac, AsPac, APJ, JAPA or JAPAC) is the part of the world in or near the Western Pacific Ocean.
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) is a forum for 21 Pacific Rim member economies.
The Asian black bear (Ursus thibetanus, previously known as Selenarctos thibetanus), also known as the moon bear and the white-chested bear, is a medium-sized bear species native to Asia and largely adapted to arboreal life.
An Asian Championship is a top level international sports competition between Asian athletes or sports teams representing their respective countries or professional sports clubs.
The Asian Women's Volleyball Championship is an international volleyball competition in Asia and Oceania contested by the senior women's national teams of the members of Asian Volleyball Confederation (AVC), the sport's continent governing body.
The Asian Women's Volleyball Cup, so-called the AVC Cup for Women is an international volleyball competition in Asia and Oceania contested by the senior women's national teams of the members of Asian Volleyball Confederation (AVC), the sport's continent governing body.
The Aslian languages are a family of Austroasiatic languages spoken on the Malay Peninsula.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a regional intergovernmental organization comprising ten Southeast Asian countries that promotes intergovernmental cooperation and facilitates economic, political, security, military, educational, and sociocultural integration amongst its members, other Asian countries, and globally.
The Austroasiatic languages, formerly known as Mon–Khmer, are a large language family of Mainland Southeast Asia, also scattered throughout India, Bangladesh, Nepal and the southern border of China, with around 117 million speakers.
The Austronesian languages are a language family that is widely dispersed throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, with a few members in continental Asia.
, the Thailand automotive industry was the largest in Southeast Asia and the 12th largest in the world.
The Ayutthaya Kingdom (อยุธยา,; also spelled Ayudhya or Ayodhaya) was a Siamese kingdom that existed from 1351 to 1767.
Điện Biên, sometimes called Dienbien Phu (/ means Dienbien Prefecture), is a city in the northwestern region of Vietnam.
The "Bamboo network" is a term used to conceptualize connections between businesses operated by the Overseas Chinese community in Southeast Asia.
Ban Chiang (บ้านเชียง) is an archeological site in Nong Han District, Udon Thani Province, Thailand.
The Bang Pakong (แม่น้ำบางปะกง) is a river in east Thailand.
Bangkok is the capital and most populous city of the Kingdom of Thailand.
Not to be confused with Bangkok Metropolis, which is a reference to Bangkok's city limits. The Bangkok Metropolitan Region (กรุงเทพมหานครและปริมณฑล; RTGS: Krung Thep Mahanakhon Lae Parimonthon; Literally: Bangkok and surrounding provinces), may refer to a government-defined "political definition" of the urban region surrounding the metropolis of Bangkok, or the built-up area, i.e., urban agglomeration of Bangkok, Thailand, which varies in size and shape, and gets filled in as development expands.
Basketball was one of the 14 sports disciplines held in the 1966 Asian Games in Bangkok, Thailand.
The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Bhumibol Adulyadej (ภูมิพลอดุลยเดช;;; see full title below; 5 December 1927 – 13 October 2016), conferred with the title King Bhumibol the Great in 1987, was the ninth monarch of Thailand from the Chakri dynasty as Rama IX.
A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.
The binturong (Arctictis binturong), also known as bearcat, is a viverrid native to South and Southeast Asia.
Black May, or Bloody May (พฤษภาทมิฬ) is a common name for the 17–20 May 1992 popular protest in Bangkok against the government of General Suchinda Kraprayoon and the military crackdown that followed.
Borommatrailokkanat (บรมไตรโลกนาถ) or Trailok (1431–1488) was the king of the Ayutthaya Kingdom from 1448 to 1488.
The Bowring Treaty is the name given to an agreement signed on 18 April 1855 between the United Kingdom and the Kingdom of Siam that liberalized foreign trade in Siam.
Boxing is a combat sport in which two people, usually wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined set of time in a boxing ring.
The Bangkok Mass Transit System, commonly known as the BTS or the Skytrain (รถไฟฟ้า), is an elevated rapid transit system in Bangkok, Thailand.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Buddhism in Thailand is largely of the Theravada school, which is followed by 94.6 percent of the population.
The Buddhist calendar is a set of lunisolar calendars primarily used in mainland Southeast Asian countries of Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar and Thailand as well as in Sri Lanka and Chinese populations of Malaysia and Singapore for religious or official occasions.
A buffer state is a country lying between two rival or potentially hostile greater powers.
The bunga mas dan perak ("golden and silver flowers"), often abbreviated to bunga mas (Jawi: "golden flowers"), was a tribute sent every three years to the king of Ayutthaya (Siam) from its vassal states in the Malay Peninsula, in particular, Terengganu, Kelantan, Kedah, Pattani, Nong Chik, Yala, Rangae,Cyril Skinner (1983).
The Burmese–Siamese War (1568–1570) was a military conflict fought between the Kingdom of Ayutthaya (Siam) and the Kingdom of Burma.
The Burmese–Siamese War (1765–1767) (ယိုးဒယား-မြန်မာစစ် (၁၇၆၅–၁၇၆၇); สงครามคราวเสียกรุงศรีอยุธยาครั้งที่สอง, lit. "war of the second fall of Ayutthaya") was the second military conflict between the Konbaung Dynasty of Burma (Myanmar) and the Ban Phlu Luang Dynasty of Siam (Thailand), and the war that ended the four-century-old Siamese kingdom.
The cabinet of Thailand or, formally, the Council of Ministers of Thailand (คณะรัฐมนตรี; is a body composed of thirty-five of the most senior members of the government of the Kingdom of Thailand.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Carbon dioxide is an important trace gas in Earth's atmosphere.
CAT Telecom Public Company Limited is the state-owned company that runs Thailand’s international telecommunications infrastructure, including its international gateways, satellite, and submarine cable networks connections.
The Central Tai languages include southern dialects of Zhuang, and various Nung and Tày dialects of northern Vietnam.
Central Thailand (central plain) is a region of Thailand, covering the broad alluvial plain of the Chao Phraya River.
The Chakri dynasty (จักรี) is the current ruling royal house of the Kingdom of Thailand, while the Head of the house is the monarch.
Cham is the language of the Cham people of Southeast Asia, and formerly the language of the kingdom of Champa in central Vietnam.
Champa (Chăm Pa) was a collection of independent Cham polities that extended across the coast of what is today central and southern Vietnam from approximately the 2nd century AD before being absorbed and annexed by Vietnamese Emperor Minh Mạng in AD 1832.
The Chams, or Cham people (Cham: Urang Campa, người Chăm or người Chàm, ជនជាតិចាម), are an ethnic group of Austronesian origin in Southeast Asia.
The Chao Phraya (แม่น้ำเจ้าพระยา, or) is the major river in Thailand, with its low alluvial plain forming the centre of the country.
The Chatuchak Weekend Market (ตลาดนัดจตุจักร), on Kamphaeng Phet 2 Road, Chatuchak, Bangkok, is the largest market in Thailand.
Chavalit Yongchaiyudh (ชวลิต ยงใจยุทธ,,, born 15 May 1932), also known as "Big Jiew" (บิ๊กจิ๋ว), is a Thai politician and retired army officer.
Chiang Mai (from เชียงใหม่, ᨩ᩠ᨿᨦ ᩲᩉ᩠ᨾ᩵) sometimes written as "Chiengmai" or "Chiangmai", is the largest city in northern Thailand.
Chic, meaning "stylish" or "smart", is an element of fashion.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christianity was first introduced to Thailand by European missionaries.
Phra Bat Somdet Phra Poraminthra Maha Chulalongkorn Phra Chunla Chom Klao Chao Yu Hua (พระบาทสมเด็จพระปรมินทรมหาจุฬาลงกรณ์ พระจุลจอมเกล้าเจ้าอยู่หัว), or Rama V (20 September 1853 – 23 October 1910), was the fifth monarch of Siam under the House of Chakri.
Chulalongkorn University (จุฬาลงกรณ์มหาวิทยาลัย), abbreviated either CU or Chula (จุฬาฯ), is a public and autonomous research university in Bangkok, Thailand.
Chumphon (ชุมพร) is one of the southern provinces (changwat) of Thailand on the Gulf of Thailand.
The correlation between climate and energy rests on known causal relationships between human population growth, rising energy consumption and land use and the resulting greenhouse gas emissions and climate change.
The Communist insurgency in Thailand was a guerrilla war lasting from 1965 until 1983, fought mainly by the Communist Party of Thailand (CPT) and the government of Thailand.
The Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand (รัฐธรรมนูญแห่งราชอาณาจักรไทย) provides the basis for the rule of law in Thailand.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
Coriander (Coriandrum sativum), also known as cilantro or Chinese parsley, is an annual herb in the family Apiaceae.
Transparency International (TI) has published the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) since 1995, annually ranking countries "by their perceived levels of corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys." The CPI generally defines corruption as "the misuse of public power for private benefit".
Corvée is a form of unpaid, unfree labour, which is intermittent in nature and which lasts limited periods of time: typically only a certain number of days' work each year.
Credit Suisse Group AG is a Swiss multinational investment bank and financial services company founded and based in Switzerland.
Crocodiles (subfamily Crocodylinae) or true crocodiles are large aquatic reptiles that live throughout the tropics in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia.
A crown prince is the male heir apparent to the throne in a royal or imperial monarchy.
The Cultural Revolution, formally the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was a sociopolitical movement in China from 1966 until 1976.
In meteorology, a cyclone is a large scale air mass that rotates around a strong center of low atmospheric pressure.
Damnoen Saduak Floating Market (ตลาดน้ำดำเนินสะดวก) is a floating market located in the Damnoen Saduak District, Ratchaburi Province located about southwest of Bangkok, Thailand.
Dan Sai (ด่านซ้าย) is a district (amphoe) in the western part of Loei Province, northeastern Thailand.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
Dechawat Poomjaeng (Dechāwạt Phùmcæ̂ng, born July 11, 1978) is a Thai former professional snooker player.
The Democrat Party (พรรคประชาธิปัตย์) is a Thai political party.
The demographics of Thailand paint a statistical portrait of the national population.
Dharma (dharma,; dhamma, translit. dhamma) is a key concept with multiple meanings in the Indian religions – Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism.
Diving is the sport of jumping or falling into water from a platform or springboard, usually while performing acrobatics.
Doi Inthanon (ดอยอินทนนท์) is the highest mountain in Thailand.
Duarte Fernandes (16th century) was a Portuguese diplomat, explorer, and was the first European to establish diplomatic relations with Thailand, when in 1511 he led a diplomatic mission to Ayutthaya Kingdom (Kingdom of Siam), after the Portuguese conquest of Malacca.
The Dvaravati (ทวารวดี); (ទ្វារវត្តី - Tvearvottey) period lasted from around the 6th to the 11th century.
East Timor or Timor-Leste (Tetum: Timór Lorosa'e), officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste (República Democrática de Timor-Leste, Repúblika Demokrátika Timór-Leste), is a sovereign state in Maritime Southeast Asia.
An economic system is a system of production, resource allocation and distribution of goods and services within a society or a given geographic area.
Thailand is a newly industrialized country.
Elephants are large mammals of the family Elephantidae and the order Proboscidea.
Elephant meat refers to the flesh and other edible parts of elephants.
An emerging market is a country that has some characteristics of a developed market, but does not meet standards to be a developed market.
The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development defines the employment rate as the employment-to-population ratio.
The Environmental Performance Index (EPI) is a method of quantifying and numerically marking the environmental performance of a state's policies.
An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, or a group of people, an individual person, or a language or dialect.
The Fall of Saigon, or the Liberation of Saigon, was the capture of Saigon, the capital of South Vietnam, by the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) and the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (also known as the Việt Cộng) on 30 April 1975.
Farther India, or Ultraindia, is an old term, now rarely used, for Southeast Asia, seen in colonial days from Europe as the part of the Far East beyond the Indian subcontinent, but south of China.
Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian ultranationalism, characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and control of industry and commerce, which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.
Fish sauce is a condiment made from fish coated in salt and fermented from weeks to up to two years.
The FIVB Volleyball Women's World Championship is an international volleyball competition contested by the senior women's national teams of the members of Fédération Internationale de Volleyball (FIVB), the sport's global governing body.
The FIVB Volleyball Women's World Cup is an international volleyball competition contested by the senior women's national teams of the members of Fédération Internationale de Volleyball (FIVB), the sport's global governing body.
The FIVB Volleyball World Grand Prix was an annual women's volleyball competition created in 1993, The men's version of the competition was called World League.
A floating exchange rate (also called a fluctuating or flexible exchange rate) is a type of exchange-rate regime in which a currency's value is allowed to fluctuate in response to foreign-exchange market mechanisms.
A floating market is a market where goods are sold from boats.
Foreign Policy is an American news publication, founded in 1970 and focused on global affairs, current events, and domestic and international policy.
The Franco-Siamese War of 1893 was a conflict between the French Third Republic and the Kingdom of Siam.
The Franco-Thai War (กรณีพิพาทอินโดจีน Guerre franco-thaïlandaise) (1940–1941) was fought between Thailand (Siam) and France over certain areas of French Indochina.
The Free Thai Movement (เสรีไทย) was a Thai underground resistance movement against Imperial Japan during World War II.
A free-trade area is the region encompassing a trade bloc whose member countries have signed a free-trade agreement (FTA).
Freedom House is a U.S.-based 501(c)(3) U.S. government-funded non-governmental organization (NGO) that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom, and human rights.
Freedom in the World is a yearly survey and report by the U.S.-based non-governmental organization Freedom House that measures the degree of civil liberties and political rights in every nation and significant related and disputed territories around the world.
Funan, (ហ្វូណន - Fonon), (Phù Nam) or Nokor Phnom (នគរភ្នំ) was the name given by Chinese cartographers, geographers and writers to an ancient Indianised state—or, rather a loose network of states (Mandala)—located in mainland Southeast Asia centered on the Mekong Delta that existed from the first to sixth century CE.
Galangal (pronunciation /ˈɡal(ə)ŋɡal/, U.S. /) is a common name for several tropical rhizomatous spices.
The Geography (Γεωγραφικὴ Ὑφήγησις, Geōgraphikḕ Hyphḗgēsis, "Geographical Guidance"), also known by its Latin names as the Geographia and the Cosmographia, is a gazetteer, an atlas, and a treatise on cartography, compiling the geographical knowledge of the 2nd-century Roman Empire.
Thailand's 514,000 square kilometers lie in the middle of mainland Southeast Asia.
Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse") is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.
George Cœdès (10 August 1886 – 2 October 1969) was a 20th-century French scholar of southeast Asian archaeology and history.
The gigabit is a multiple of the unit bit for digital information or computer storage.
The Global Competitiveness Report (GCR) is a yearly report published by the World Economic Forum.
A gold reserve was the gold held by a national central bank, intended mainly as a guarantee to redeem promises to pay depositors, note holders (e.g. paper money), or trading peers, during the eras of the gold standard, and also as a store of value, or to support the value of the national currency.
A government or state agency, sometimes an appointed commission, is a permanent or semi-permanent organization in the machinery of government that is responsible for the oversight and administration of specific functions, such as an intelligence agency.
The term Greater India is most commonly used to encompass the historical and geographic extent of all political entities of the Indian subcontinent, and the regions which are culturally linked to India or received significant Indian cultural influence.
The Greater Mekong Subregion, or just Greater Mekong, is an international region of the Mekong River basin in Southeast Asia.
The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used civil calendar in the world.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
The Gulf of Thailand, formerly the Gulf of Siam, is a shallow inlet in the western part of the South China and Eastern Archipelagic Seas, a marginal body of water in the western Pacific Ocean.
Hainan is the smallest and southernmost province of the People's Republic of China (PRC), consisting of various islands in the South China Sea.
Hariphunchai or Haribhunjaya (from หริภุญชัย, ហរិបុញ្ជ័យ Hariponhchey, in turn from Haribhuñjaya) was a Mon kingdom in the north of present Thailand in the centuries before the Thais moved into the area.
The Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health (formerly Harvard School of Public Health) is the public health graduate school of Harvard University, located in the Longwood Medical Area of Boston, Massachusetts adjacent Harvard Medical School.
A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
A hereditary monarchy is a form of government and succession of power in which the throne passes from one member of a royal family to another member of the same family.
Hill tribe (ชาวดอย, ชาวเขา, คนเขา) (Northern Thai: จาวดอย, คนดอย,; "mountain people/folk") is a term used in Thailand for all of the various ethnic groups who mostly inhabit the high mountainous Northern and Western regions of Thailand, including both sides of the border areas between Northern Thailand, Laos and Burma, the Phi Pan Nam Range, the Thanon Range, the latter a southern prolongation of the Shan Hills, as well as the Tenasserim Hills in Western Thailand.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
Hinduism in Southeast Asia has a profound impact on the region's cultural development and its history.
History of Thailand concerns the history of the Thai people, who originally lived in southwestern China, migrated into mainland Southeast Asia over a period of many centuries.
The history of Jews in Thailand began in the 17th century with the arrival of Baghdadi Jewish families.
Hmong (RPA: Hmoob) or Mong (RPA: Moob), known as First Vernacular Chuanqiandian Miao in China, is a dialect continuum of the West Hmongic branch of the Hmongic languages spoken by the Hmong of Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi, northern Vietnam, Thailand, and Laos.
The Hmong–Mien (also known as Miao–Yao) languages are a highly tonal language family of southern China and northern Southeast Asia.
Hotan, also transliterated from Chinese as Hetian, is a major oasis town in southwestern Xinjiang, an autonomous region in western China.
The House of Representatives (สภาผู้แทนราษฎร) was the lower house of the National Assembly of Thailand, the legislative branch of the Thai government.
HSBC Holdings plc is a British multinational banking and financial services holding company, tracing its origin to a hong in Hong Kong.
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
Immigration is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.
The system of imperial units or the imperial system (also known as British Imperial or Exchequer Standards of 1825) is the system of units first defined in the British Weights and Measures Act of 1824, which was later refined and reduced.
The Index of Economic Freedom is an annual index and ranking created by The Heritage Foundation and The Wall Street Journal in 1995 to measure the degree of economic freedom in the world's nations.
This is a list of articles related to Thailand, sorted by alphabetical order.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.
An intelligence quotient (IQ) is a total score derived from several standardized tests designed to assess human intelligence.
The title of intendant (intendant, Portuguese and intendente) has been used in several countries through history.
The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD) is a United Nations convention.
International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
The International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) is an international agricultural research and training organization with headquarters in Los Baños, Laguna in the Philippines and offices in seventeen countries with ~1,300 staff.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
Most Internet censorship in Thailand prior to the September 2006 military coup d'état was focused on blocking pornographic websites.
Thailand obtained internet access in 1996 as the third country in South East Asia.
The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), known by sailors as the doldrums, is the area encircling Earth near the Equator, where the northeast and southeast trade winds converge.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
Isan (Isan/อีสาน,; also written as Isaan, Isarn, Issarn, Issan, Esan, or Esarn; from Pali ऐशान aiśāna or Sanskrit ऐशान aiśāna "northeast") consists of 20 provinces in the northeastern region of Thailand.
Isan or Northeastern Thai (ภาษาอีสาน, ภาษาไทยถิ่นตะวันออกเฉียงเหนือ, ภาษาไทยถิ่นอีสาน, ภาษาไทยอีสาน, ภาษาลาวอีสาน) is a group of Lao varieties spoken in the northern two-thirds of Isan in northeastern Thailand, as well as in adjacent portions of northern and eastern Thailand.
The Isan people (คนอีสาน,,; ຄົນອີສານ, or "Northeastern Thai") are an ethno-regional group native to Northeastern Thailand ("Isan") with an estimated population of about 22 million.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islam is a minority faith in Thailand, with statistics suggesting 4.9 percent of the population Figures as high as 5 percent of Thailand's population have also been mentioned.
Ivory is a hard, white material from the tusks (traditionally elephants') and teeth of animals, that can be used in art or manufacturing.
James Wattana (born January 17, 1970, as วัฒนา ภู่โอบอ้อม Wattana Pu-Ob-Orm, then renamed รัชพล ภู่โอบอ้อม Ratchapol Pu-Ob-Orm in 2003) is a Thai former professional snooker player.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
The Japanese invasion of Thailand occurred on 8 December 1941.
Jasmine rice (ข้าวหอมมะลิ) is a long-grain variety of fragrant rice (also known as aromatic rice).
Java (Indonesian: Jawa; Javanese: ꦗꦮ; Sundanese) is an island of Indonesia.
Sir John Bowring, KCB (Chinese translated name: 寶寧, 寶靈 (for Putonghua speakers) or 包令 (for Cantonese)) (Thai: พระยาสยามมานุกูลกิจ สยามมิตรมหายศ) (17 October 1792 – 23 November 1872) was an English political economist, traveller, writer, literary translator, polyglot, and the fourth Governor of Hong Kong.
John Crawfurd (13 August 1783 – 11 May 1868) was a Scottish physician, colonial administrator and diplomat, and author.
The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.
The Karen, Kayin, Kariang or Yang people (ကညီကလုာ်, ကရင်လူမျိုး,; Per Ploan Poe or Ploan in Pwo Karen and Pwa Ka Nyaw or Kanyaw in Sgaw Karen; กะเหรี่ยง) refer to a number of individual Sino-Tibetan language speaking ethnic groups, many of which do not share a common language or culture.
The Karen or Karenic languages are tonal languages spoken by some seven million Karen people.
Kasetsart University (มหาวิทยาลัยเกษตรศาสตร์) (KU) is a public research university in Thailand.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
Kedah (Jawi: قدح), also known by its honorific Darul Aman or "Abode of Peace", is a state of Malaysia, located in the northwestern part of Peninsular Malaysia.
Kelantan (Jawi: کلنتن;, Kelantanese: Kelate) is a state of Malaysia.
Kelantan-Pattani Malay, often referred to in Thailand as Yawi (in Thai) or Jawi (in Patani Malay), and in Kelantan as Baso Kelate, is a Malayan language spoken in the Malaysian state of Kelantan and the neighbouring southernmost provinces of Thailand.
Khana Ratsadon (คณะราษฎร,; meaning "People's Party") was a Siamese group of military and civil officers, and later a political party, which staged a bloodless coup against King Prajadhipok and transformed the country's absolute monarchy to constitutional monarchy on 24 June 1932.
Khaosan Road or Khao San Road (ถนนข้าวสาร) is a short (410 meter long) street in central Bangkok, Thailand constructed in 1892 during the reign of Rama V. It is in the Banglamphu area of (Phra Nakhon district) about north of the Grand Palace and Wat Phra Kaew.
The Khmer alphabet or Khmer script (អក្សរខ្មែរ) Huffman, Franklin.
The Khmer Empire (Khmer: ចក្រភពខ្មែរ: Chakrphup Khmer or អាណាចក្រខ្មែរ: Anachak Khmer), officially the Angkor Empire (Khmer: អាណាចក្រអង្គរ: Anachak Angkor), the predecessor state to modern Cambodia ("Kampuchea" or "Srok Khmer" to the Khmer people), was a powerful Hindu-Buddhist empire in Southeast Asia.
Khmer or Cambodian (natively ភាសាខ្មែរ phiəsaa khmae, or more formally ខេមរភាសា kheemaʾraʾ phiəsaa) is the language of the Khmer people and the official language of Cambodia.
Khmer people (ខ្មែរ,, Northern Khmer pronunciation) are a Southeast Asian ethnic group native to Cambodia, accounting for 97.6% of the country's 15.9 million people.
The Khorat Plateau (ที่ราบสูงโคราช) is a plateau in the northeastern Isan region of Thailand.
Khorat Thai or Korat Thai (Thai: ไทยโคราช) people refers to an ethnic group named for their main settlement area in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, unofficially called "Korat".
A khwaeng is an administrative subdivision used in the fifty districts of Bangkok and a few other city municipalities in Thailand.
The king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah), also known as the hamadryad, is a venomous snake species in the family Elapidae, endemic to forests from India through Southeast Asia.
A kite is a tethered heavier-than-air craft with wing surfaces that react against the air to create lift and drag.
The Kra Isthmus (คอคอดกระ,; Segenting Kra/Segenting Kera) is the narrowest part of the Malay Peninsula, in southern Thailand and Myanmar.
The Kra–Dai languages (also known as Tai–Kadai, Daic and Kadai) are a language family of tonal languages found in southern China, Northeast India and Southeast Asia.
Krabi (กระบี่) is the main town in the province of Krabi (thesaban mueang) on the west coast of southern Thailand at the mouth of the Krabi River where it empties in Phang Nga Bay.
Laem Chabang (แหลมฉบัง) is a port city (thesaban nakhon) in Chonburi Province, Thailand.
The Lan Na or Lanna Kingdom (95px,, "Kingdom of a Million Rice Fields"; อาณาจักรล้านนา,,; ອານາຈັກລ້ານນາ, ဇင္းမယ္ျပည္, or), also known as Lannathai, was an Indianized state centered in present-day Northern Thailand from the 13th to 18th centuries.
The Lao Kingdom of Lan Xang Hom Khao (ຮົ່ມຂາວ;; "Million Elephants and White Parasols") existed as a unified kingdom from 1354 to 1707.
Lao, sometimes referred to as Laotian (ລາວ 'Lao' or ພາສາລາວ 'Lao language') is a tonal language of the Kra–Dai language family.
Laos (ລາວ,, Lāo; Laos), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao: ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ, Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao; République démocratique populaire lao), commonly referred to by its colloquial name of Muang Lao (Lao: ເມືອງລາວ, Muang Lao), is a landlocked country in the heart of the Indochinese peninsula of Mainland Southeast Asia, bordered by Myanmar (Burma) and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the southwest and Thailand to the west and southwest.
The lar gibbon (Hylobates lar), also known as the white-handed gibbon, is an endangered primate in the gibbon family, Hylobatidae.
The Kingdom of Lavo was a political entity (mandala) on the left bank of the Chao Phraya River in the Upper Chao Phraya valley from the end of Dvaravati civilization, around the 7th century, until 1388.
Lawa (La'wa, L'wa) is a Mon–Khmer language of Thailand.
Lèse-majesté (or; also lese-majesty, lese majesty or leze majesty) is the crime of violating majesty, an offence against the dignity of a reigning sovereign or against a state.
The terms right-hand traffic (RHT) and left-hand traffic (LHT) refer to the practice, in bidirectional traffic situations, to keep to the right side or to the left side of the road, respectively.
The leopard (Panthera pardus) is one of the five species in the genus Panthera, a member of the Felidae.
Li Fang-Kuei (20 August 190221 August 1987) was a Chinese linguist, known for his studies of the varieties of Chinese, and for his reconstructions of Old Chinese and Proto-Tai.
The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the United States Library of Congress, freely available for use by researchers.
There are a total of 40,717 Buddhist temples (Thai: Wat) in Thailand as of 31 December 2004, of which 33,902 are in current use, according to the Office of National Buddhism.
The Chief of Defence Forces, previously known as the Supreme Commander, (ผู้บัญชาการทหารสูงสุด) is the overall field commander of Royal Thai Armed Forces.
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.
This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population.
This article includes a list of countries by their forecasted estimated gross domestic product based on purchasing power parity, abbreviated GDP (PPP).
This is a list of all the countries by the Human Development Index as included in a United Nations Development Programme's Human Development Report.
This is a list of countries by inequality-adjusted human development index (IHDI), as published by the UNDP in its 2016 Human Development Report.
This article is a list of countries by military expenditure in a given year.
This is a list of countries by Military Strength Index based on the Credit Suisse report in September 2015.
This is a list of countries by motor vehicle production based on Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d'Automobiles (OICA) and other data from 2016 and earlier.
Bangkok is subdivided into 50 districts (khet, เขต,, also sometimes wrongly called amphoe as in the other provinces, derived from Pali khetta, cognate to Sanskrit kṣetra), which are further subdivided into 180 subdistricts (khwaeng, แขวง), roughly equivalent to tambon in the other provinces.
This is a list of islands of Thailand.
This article lists the monarchs of Thailand from the foundation of the Sukhothai Kingdom in 1238 until the present day.
This is a list of national animals.
The following is a list of shopping malls in Thailand, by province.
Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write.
Logging is the cutting, skidding, on-site processing, and loading of trees or logs onto trucks or skeleton cars.
Loi Krathong (ลอยกระทง) is a Siamese festival celebrated annually throughout the Kingdom of Thailand and in nearby countries with significant southwestern Tai cultures (Laos, Shan, Mon, Tanintharyi, Kelantan, Kedah and Xishuangbanna).
A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house.
Luang Saranupraphan (Nuan Pachinphayak) (หลวงสารานุประพันธ์ (นวล ปาจิณพยัคฆ์); 1896–1954) was a Thai writer.
The Mae Klong, sometimes spelled Mae Khlong or Meklong, is a river in western Thailand.
Mahasarakham University (MSU) (มหาวิทยาลัยมหาสารคาม), pronounced: má-hăa wít-tá-yaa-lai má-hăa-săa-rá-kaam) is a Thai public university in Maha Sarakham Province, about 470 kilometres from Bangkok. In 2016 its enrolment was 40,759 students. MSU is the only Thai university to offer postgraduate programs in paleontology and a bachelor of arts in the Khmer language. It was the first Isan university to offer a BA accounting and the second to offer PhD courses in the same subject. Its Faculty of Education, the flagship of MSU, was voted Thailand's Best Education Faculty in 2010 by the National Education Office. The university is the first Thai higher education institution rated under the QS Stars System for excellence in higher education. It has become one of the top 20 universities in Thailand based on the Webometrics Ranking of World Universities.
Mainland Southeast Asia, also known as the Indochinese Peninsula and previously as Indochina, is the continental portion of Southeast Asia east of India and south of China that is bordered by the Indian Ocean to the west and the Pacific Ocean to the east.
Major non-NATO ally (MNNA) is a designation given by the United States government to close allies that have strategic working relationships with the US Armed Forces but are not members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
The Malacca Sultanate (Kesultanan Melayu Melaka; Jawi script: كسلطانن ملايو ملاك) was a Malay sultanate centred in the modern-day state of Malacca, Malaysia.
The Malay Peninsula (Tanah Melayu, تانه ملايو; คาบสมุทรมลายู,, မလေး ကျွန်းဆွယ်, 马来半岛 / 馬來半島) is a peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The Malayan Communist Party (MCP), officially known as the Communist Party of Malaya (CPM), was a political party in the Federation of Malaya and Malaysia.
Malays (Orang Melayu, Jawi: أورڠ ملايو) are an Austronesian ethnic group that predominantly inhabit the Malay Peninsula, eastern Sumatra and coastal Borneo, as well as the smaller islands which lie between these locations — areas that are collectively known as the Malay world.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
The Mekong is a trans-boundary river in Southeast Asia.
Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting.
Metres above mean sea level (MAMSL) or simply metres above sea level (MASL or m a.s.l.) is a standard metric measurement in metres of the elevation or altitude of a location in reference to a historic mean sea level.
The metric system is an internationally adopted decimal system of measurement.
Michel Ferlus (Born 1935) is a French linguist whose special study is in the historical phonology of languages of Southeast Asia.
In international relations, a middle power is a sovereign state that is not a superpower nor a great power, but still has large or moderate influence and international recognition.
A military dictatorship (also known as a military junta) is a form of government where in a military force exerts complete or substantial control over political authority.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
The Ministry of Defence (กระทรวงกลาโหม;; Abrv: MOD), is a cabinet-level government department of the Kingdom of Thailand.
The Ministry of Digital Economy and Society (MDES; กระทรวงดิจิทัลเพื่อเศรษฐกิจและสังคม), formerly known as the Ministry of Information and Communication Technology (MICT), กระทรวงเทคโนโลยีสารสนเทศและการสื่อสาร, is a cabinet ministry of Thailand.
The Ministry of Public Health (กระทรวงสาธารณสุข;; Abrv: MOPH), is a Thai governmental body responsible for the oversight of public health in Thailand.
The Ministry of Science and Technology (กระทรวงวิทยาศาสตร์และเทคโนโลยี;; Abrv: MOST), is a Thai government body responsible for the oversight of science and technology in Thailand.
Mlabri is a language spoken by the Mlabri people in the border area between Thailand and Laos.
Modernization theory is used to explain the process of modernization within societies.
The Moken language is a half dozen closely related varieties spoken by the Moken "Sea Gypsies" off the coast of Burma and Thailand.
Mon kingdoms were political establishments by the Mon-speaking people that ruled large sections of present-day Burma (Myanmar) at various times in the last 1200 years.
The Mon language (ဘာသာ မန်; မွန်ဘာသာ) is an Austroasiatic language spoken by the Mon people, who live in Myanmar and Thailand.
The Mon (မောန် or မည်; မွန်လူမျိုး,; មន, มอญ) are an ethnic group from Myanmar living mostly in Mon State, Bago Region, the Irrawaddy Delta and along the southern border of Thailand and Myanmar.
The monarchies of Malaysia refer to the constitutional monarchy system as practised in Malaysia.
The monarchy of Thailand (whose monarch is referred to as the King of Thailand or historically as the King of Siam; พระมหากษัตริย์ไทย) refers to the constitutional monarchy and monarch of the Kingdom of Thailand (formerly Siam). The King of Thailand is the head of state and head of the ruling Royal House of Chakri. Although the current Chakri Dynasty was created in 1782, the existence of the institution of monarchy in Thailand is traditionally considered to have its roots from the founding of the Sukhothai Kingdom in 1238, with a brief interregnum from the death of Ekkathat to the accession of Taksin in the 18th century. The institution was transformed into a constitutional monarchy in 1932 after the bloodless Siamese Revolution of 1932. The monarchy's official ceremonial residence is the Grand Palace in Bangkok, while the private residence has been at the Dusit Palace. The King of Thailand's titles include Head of State, Head of the Royal Thai Armed Forces, Adherent of Buddhism and Upholder of religions.
Phra Bat Somdet Phra Poramenthra Maha Mongkut Phra Chom Klao Chao Yu Hua (พระบาทสมเด็จพระปรเมนทรมหามงกุฎ พระจอมเกล้าเจ้าอยู่หัว), or Rama IV, known in English-speaking countries as King Mongkut (18 October 18041 October 1868), was the fourth monarch of Siam (Thailand) under the House of Chakri, ruling from 1851 to 1868.
Monthon (มณฑล) were administrative subdivisions of Thailand at the beginning of the 20th century.
The Metropolitan Rapid Transit or MRT is a rapid transit system serving the Bangkok Metropolitan Region in Thailand.
Muay Thai (มวยไทย) or Thai boxing is a combat sport of Thailand that uses stand-up striking along with various clinching techniques.
Mueang (เมือง mɯ̄ang), Muang (ເມືອງ mɯ́ang), Mường or Mong (မိူင်း mə́ŋ) were pre-modern semi-independent city-states or principalities in Indochina, adjacent regions of Northeast India and Southern China, including what is now Thailand, Laos, Burma, Cambodia, parts of northern Vietnam, southern Yunnan, western Guangxi and Assam.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
Nakhon Pathom (นครปฐม) is one of the central provinces (changwat) of Thailand.
Nakhon Ratchasima (นครราชสีมา) is one of the four major cities of Isan, Thailand, known as the "big four of Isan".
Namaste (Devanagari: नमस्ते), sometimes spoken as Namaskar, Namaskaram is a respectful form of greeting in Hindu custom, found on the Indian subcontinent mainly in India and Nepal and among the Indian diaspora.
Narai (นารายณ์; 16 February 1633 – 11 July 1688) or Ramathibodi III (รามาธิบดีที่ 3) or Ramathibodi Si Sanphet (รามาธิบดีศรีสรรเพชญ) was the king of Ayutthaya from 1656 to 1688 and arguably the most famous Ayutthayan king.
Narathiwat (นราธิวาส) is one of the southern provinces (changwat) of Thailand.
Naresuan (นเรศวร) or Sanphet II (สรรเพชญ์ที่ 2) was the King of the Ayutthaya Kingdom from 1590 and overlord of Lan Na from 1602 until his death in 1605.
The National Assembly of Thailand (รัฐสภา;; abrv: NAT) is the bicameral legislative branch of the government of Thailand.
The National Council for Peace and Order (NCPO; คณะรักษาความสงบแห่งชาติ;; abbreviated (.)) is the junta that has ruled Thailand since their 2014 Thai coup d'état on 22 May 2014.
The National Legislative Assembly of Thailand (สภานิติบัญญัติแห่งชาติ;; abrv: NLA) was the unicameral legislative branch of the government of Thailand.
The National Peace Keeping Council (NPKC, คณะรักษาความสงบเรียบร้อยแห่งชาติ.) was the name assumed by a Thai military junta that overthrew the elected civilian government of Chatichai Choonhavan in 1991.
The National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA) is an agency of the government of Thailand which supports research in science and technology and its application in the Thai economy.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
The category of newly industrialized country (NIC) is a socioeconomic classification applied to several countries around the world by political scientists and economists.
The Kingdom of Hiran or Kingdom of Ngoenyang (อาณาจักรหิรัญเงินยาง) was an early mueang or kingdom of the Northern Thai people from the 7th through 13th centuries AD and was originally centered on Hiran, formerly Vieng Preuksa, in modern-day Thailand near today's Mae Sai District in Chiang Rai, and later on Ngoenyang or Chiang Saen.
A non-communicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is not caused by infectious agents (non-infectious or non-transmissible).
Nonthaburi (นนทบุรี) is one of the central provinces (changwat) of Thailand, established by the Act Establishing Changwat Samut Prakan, Changwat Nonthaburi, Changwat Samut Sakhon and Changwat Nakhon Nayok, Buddhist Era 2489 (1946), which came into force on 9 March 1946.
Noppon Saengkham (born July 15, 1992) is a professional snooker player from Thailand.
The Northern Khmer people, also known in Thai as Thai-Khmer people (ไทยเชื้อสายเขมร lit. "Thais of Khmer descent"), is the designation used to refer to ethnic Khmers native to the Isan region of Northeast Thailand.
Northern Thai (ภาษาถิ่นพายัพ, ภาษาไทยถิ่นเหนือ), Lanna (ล้านนา), or Kam Mueang (Northern Thai:,, Thai: คำเมือง) is the language of the Northern Thai people of Lanna, Thailand.
The Northern Thai people or Tai Yuan (ไทยวน), self-designation khon mu(e)ang (ฅนเมือง,, meaning "people of the (cultivated) land" or "people of our community") are the majority population of eight provinces in northern Thailand, principally in the area of the former kingdom of Lan Na.
Northern Thailand is geographically characterised by several mountain ranges, which continue from the Shan Hills in bordering Myanmar to Laos, and the river valleys which cut through them.
The Office of the National Economic and Social Development Board (NESDB) is a national economic planning agency of Thailand.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Thailand: Thailand – country at the centre of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The Overseas Development Institute (ODI) is an independent think tank on international development and humanitarian issues, founded in 1960.
Pali, or Magadhan, is a Middle Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian subcontinent.
The Panama Canal (Canal de Panamá) is an artificial waterway in Panama that connects the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific Ocean.
A paramilitary is a semi-militarized force whose organizational structure, tactics, training, subculture, and (often) function are similar to those of a professional military, but which is not included as part of a state's formal armed forces.
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
The Patani United Liberation Organisation (Pertubuhan Pembebasan Bersatu Patani; abbreviated PULO) is a separatist insurgent group in Thailand, calling for an independent Patani.
Pathum Thani (ปทุมธานี) is one of the central provinces (changwat) of Thailand.
Pattani (ปัตตานี) is one of the southern provinces (changwat) of Thailand.
Pattaya (พัทยา) is a resort city in Thailand.
The People's Alliance for Democracy (PAD) (พันธมิตรประชาชนเพื่อประชาธิปไตย, Phanthamit Prachachon Pheu Prachathipatai) also called the National Liberation Alliance - กลุ่มพันธมิตรกู้ชาติ, Klum Phanthamit Ku Chat, Thai Patriots Network or more commonly the Yellow Shirts - เสื้อเหลือง, Suea Lueang - is a Thai political movement and pressure group.
The People's Democratic Reform Committee (PDRC) or People's Committee for Absolute Democracy with the King as Head of State (PCAD) (คณะกรรมการประชาชนเพื่อการเปลี่ยนแปลงประเทศไทยให้เป็นประชาธิปไตยที่สมบูรณ์ อันมีพระมหากษัตริย์ทรงเป็นประมุข, กปปส., literally "people's committee for changing Thailand into a complete democracy with the king as head of state") was an umbrella political pressure group in Thailand, aimed at removing the influence of former premier Thaksin Shinawatra from Thai politics and achieve political reforms by an unelected 'People's Council'.
The People's Power Party (Phak Palang Prachachon; PPP; พรรคพลังประชาชน) is a defunct Thai political party.
Perlis, also known by its honorific title Perlis Indera Kayangan (Jawi),The state's constitution simply uses the name "Perlis" and does not include the honorific suffix, "Indera Kayangan".
Phang Nga (พังงา) is a town (thesaban mueang) in southern Thailand, capital of Phang Nga Province.
Phanom Phrai (พนมไพร) is a district (amphoe) in the southeastern part of Roi Et Province, northeastern Thailand.
The Pheu Thai Party (PTP) (พรรคเพื่อไทย;;; For Thais Party) is the third incarnation of a Thai political party founded by former prime minister Thaksin Shinawatra.
Phi Ta Khon (ผีตาโขน; phǐi taa khǒn), sometimes known as Ghost Festival, is the most common name for a group of festivals held in Dan Sai, Loei province, Isan, Thailand.
Phu Thai (Phuu Thai; Thai, Phu Thai: Phasa Phuthai, ภาษาผู้ไท or ภูไท) is a Southwestern Tai spoken in Laos and Thailand.
Phuket (ภูเก็ต,, Talang or Tanjung Salang) is one of the southern provinces (''changwat'') of Thailand.
The pileated gibbon (Hylobates pileatus) is a primate in the gibbon family, Hylobatidae.
Field Marshal Plaek Phibunsongkhram (แปลก พิบูลสงคราม;; alternatively transcribed as Pibulsongkram or Pibulsonggram; 銮披汶·颂堪; 14 July 1897 – 11 June 1964), locally known as Chomphon Por (อมพล ป.), contemporarily known as Phibun (Pibul) in the West, was the longest serving 3rd Prime Minister of Thailand and fascist leader of Thailand from 1938 to 1944 and 1948 to 1957.
The Port of Singapore refers to the collective facilities and terminals that conduct maritime trade handling functions in harbours and which handle Singapore's shipping.
Portuguese people are an ethnic group indigenous to Portugal that share a common Portuguese culture and speak Portuguese.
Powerlifting is a strength sport that consists of three attempts at maximal weight on three lifts: squat, bench press, and deadlift.
Prajadhipok (ประชาธิปก; 8 November 1893 – 30 May 1941), also Rama VII, was the seventh monarch of Siam of the Chakri dynasty.
Pratunam Market is one of Bangkok's major markets, and is Thailand's largest clothing market.
Prayut Chan-o-cha (previously spelt "Prayuth Chan-ocha"); (ประยุทธ์ จันทร์โอชา,,; born 21 March 1954) is a Thai politician, retired Royal Thai Army officer and the head of the National Council for Peace and Order (NCPO), a military junta, and concurrently serves as the Prime Minister of Thailand.
Preah Vihear Temple (Khmer: ប្រាសាទព្រះវិហារ Prasat Preah Vihear) is an ancient Hindu temple built during the period of the Khmer Empire, that is situated atop a cliff in the Dângrêk Mountains, in the Preah Vihear province, Cambodia.
The Prime Minister (นายกรัฐมนตรี) of Thailand is the head of government of Thailand.
Prince of Songkla University (มหาวิทยาลัยสงขลานครินทร์) is the first university in southern Thailand, established in 1967.
The Privy Council of Thailand (คณะองคมนตรีไทย, khana ongkhamontri thai) is a body of appointed advisors to the Monarch of Thailand.
Prostitution in Thailand has been common in modern Thailand and its predecessor states for centuries.
Thailand is a unitary state that is divided into 76 provinces (จังหวัด) and two special administrative areas, one representing the capital Bangkok and another the city of Pattaya.
Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
Public holidays in Thailand are regulated by the government, and most are observed by both the public and private sectors.
Raja (also spelled rajah, from Sanskrit राजन्), is a title for a monarch or princely ruler in South and Southeast Asia.
The Rajamangala National Stadium (ราชมังคลากีฬาสถาน) is the national stadium of Thailand and the home stadium for the Thailand national football team.
Phra Phutthayotfa Chulalok, born Thongduang and also known as Rama I (20 March 1737 – 7 September 1809), was the founder of Rattanakosin Kingdom and the first monarch of the reigning Chakri dynasty of Siam (now Thailand).
Rangsit University (Thai: มหาวิทยาลัยรังสิต) is a private university in Pathum Thani, Thailand, focusing mainly on music, design, Information technology and Public health including independent professions.
Ranong (ระนอง) is a town (thesaban mueang) in southern Thailand, former capital of the Ranong Province and the Mueang Ranong district.
Ratchayothin Yotharuck (รัชโยธิน โยธารักษ์, born 13 December 1995 in Nakhon Nayok, Thailand) is a Thai former professional snooker player.
The Rattanakosin Kingdom (อาณาจักรรัตนโกสินทร์) is the fourth and present traditional centre of power in the history of Thailand (or Siam).
In international relations, a regional power is a state that has power within a geographic region.
Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material.
Reporters Without Borders (RWB), or Reporters Sans Frontières (RSF), is an international non-profit, non-governmental organization that promotes and defends freedom of information and freedom of the press.
Rice production in Thailand represents a significant portion of the Thai economy and labor force.
A Rocket Festival (translit, translit) is a merit-making ceremony traditionally practiced by ethnic Lao people throughout much of Isan and Laos, in numerous villages and municipalities near the beginning of the wet season.
Roi Et (ร้อยเอ็ด) is one of the provinces (changwat) of Thailand, in the northeast of Thailand.
Rote learning is a memorization technique based on repetition.
Royal assent or sanction is the method by which a country's monarch (possibly through a delegated official) formally approves an act of that nation's parliament.
The Royal Thai Air Force or RTAF (กองทัพอากาศไทย) is the air force of the Kingdom of Thailand.
The Royal Thai Armed Forces (กองทัพไทย) is the name of the military of the Kingdom of Thailand.
The Royal Thai Armed Forces Headquarters (กองบัญชาการกองทัพไทย) or the RTARF HQ, is the "mostly ornamental" joint headquarters of the Royal Thai Armed Forces, which is composed of the Royal Thai Army, the Royal Thai Navy and Royal Thai Marine Corps, and the Royal Thai Air Force. Formerly the Supreme Command Headquarters (กองบัญชาการทหารสูงสุด), the name was changed in February 2008. The headquarters is divided into two branches: the "Command Group" and the "Joint Group". The headquarters is headed by the Chief of Defence Forces (ผู้บัญชาการทหารสูงสุด), currently General Surapong Suwan-ath of the Royal Thai Army. The chief is supported by several departments and directorates, including four deputy chiefs. The headquarters is under the responsibility of the Ministry of Defence of Thailand and the Defence Minister.
The Royal Thai Army or RTA (กองทัพบกไทย) is the army of Thailand responsible for protecting its sovereignty and national interests.
The Royal Thai Navy or RTN (กองทัพเรือไทย) is the naval force of Thailand and part of the Royal Thai Armed Forces.
The Royal Thai Police (RTP) (ตำรวจแห่งชาติ) are the national police force of Thailand.
Rubber stamping, also called stamping, is a craft in which some type of ink made of dye or pigment is applied to an image or pattern that has been carved, molded, laser engraved or vulcanized, onto a sheet of rubber.
Saek (Sek; Thai: ภาษาแสก) is a Tai language spoken in at least ten villages in Khammouane Province, Laos, and at least four villages in Nakhon Phanom Province in northeastern Thailand, just across the Mekong River.
Sakdina (ศักดินา) was a system of social hierarchy in use from the Ayutthaya to early Rattanakosin periods of Thai history.
Samut Prakan (สมุทรปราการ) is one of the central provinces (changwat) of Thailand, established by the Act Establishing Changwat Samut Prakan, Changwat Nonthaburi, Changwat Samut Sakhon and Changwat Nakhon Nayok, Buddhist Era 2489 (1946), which came into force 9 March 1946.
Samut Sakhon (สมุทรสาคร) is one of the central provinces (changwat) of Thailand, established by the Act Establishing Changwat Samut Prakan, Changwat Nonthaburi, Changwat Samut Sakhon, and Changwat Nakhon Nayok, Buddhist Era 2489 (1946), which came into force on March 9, 1946.
Sanitation refers to public health conditions related to clean drinking water and adequate treatment and disposal of human excreta and sewage.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
"Sansoen Phra Barami" (สรรเสริญพระบารมี, lit: glorify his prestige) is the royal anthem of Thailand.
Field Marshal Sarit Thanarat (Thai: สฤษดิ์ ธนะรัชต์, alternatively spelled Dhanarajata) was a Thai officer who staged a coup in 1957, replacing Phibunsongkram as Thailand's prime minister until his death in 1963.
Sattahip (สัตหีบ) is a district (amphoe) in Chonburi Province, Thailand.
Satun (สตูล,; Setul) is one of the southern provinces (changwat) of Thailand.
The Senate (วุฒิสภา;; formerly known as Phruetthasapha or "พฤฒสภา") was the upper house of the National Assembly of Thailand, (Thailand's legislative branch).
Sepak takraw (sepak raga; ตะกร้อ,,; ပိုက်ကျော်ခြင်း; sipà, sipà tákraw, sepák tákraw,; Sepak Takraw/Takrau, Bola Takraw/takrau; សីដក់, Sei Dak; ກະຕໍ້, ka-taw; cầu mây, "calameae ball" or "rattan ball"), or kick volleyball, is a sport native to Southeast Asia.
The Shan language (Shan written: လိၵ်ႈတႆး), Shan spoken: ၵႂၢမ်းတႆး), or ၽႃႇသႃႇတႆး,; ရှမ်းဘာသာ,; ภาษาไทใหญ่) is the native language of the Shan people and is mostly spoken in Shan State, Burma. It is also spoken in pockets of Kachin State in Burma, in northern Thailand, and decreasingly in Assam. Shan is a member of the Tai–Kadai language family, and is related to Thai. It has five tones, which do not correspond exactly to Thai tones, plus a "sixth tone" used for emphasis. It is called Tai Yai, or Tai Long in the Tai languages. The number of Shan speakers is not known in part because the Shan population is unknown. Estimates of Shan people range from four million to 30 million, though the true number is somewhere around six million, with about half speaking the Shan language. In 2001 Patrick Johnstone and Jason Mandryk estimated 3.2 million Shan speakers in Myanmar; the Mahidol University Institute for Language and Culture gave the number of Shan speakers in Thailand as 95,000 in 2006.http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code.
The Shan (တႆး;, ရှမ်းလူမျိုး;; ไทใหญ่ or ฉาน) are a Tai ethnic group of Southeast Asia.
Si Lom (or Silom, สีลม,; "windmill") is a sub-district and road in Bang Rak District, Bangkok, Thailand.
The Siamese revolution of 1688 was a major popular upheaval in the Siamese Ayutthaya Kingdom (modern Thailand) which led to the overthrow of the pro-foreign Siamese king Narai.
The Siamese revolution of 1932 or the Siamese coup d'état of 1932 (การปฏิวัติสยาม.. or การเปลี่ยนแปลงการปกครองสยาม..) was a crucial turning point in 20th-century Thai history.
Sikhism (ਸਿੱਖੀ), or Sikhi,, from Sikh, meaning a "disciple", or a "learner"), is a monotheistic religion that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent about the end of the 15th century. It is one of the youngest of the major world religions, and the fifth-largest. The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, divine unity and equality of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. In the early 21st century there were nearly 25 million Sikhs worldwide, the great majority of them (20 million) living in Punjab, the Sikh homeland in northwest India, and about 2 million living in neighboring Indian states, formerly part of the Punjab. Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Guru (1469–1539), and the nine Sikh gurus that succeeded him. The Tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, named the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus and making the scripture the eternal, religious spiritual guide for Sikhs.Louis Fenech and WH McLeod (2014),, 3rd Edition, Rowman & Littlefield,, pages 17, 84-85William James (2011), God's Plenty: Religious Diversity in Kingston, McGill Queens University Press,, pages 241–242 Sikhism rejects claims that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly on Absolute Truth. The Sikh scripture opens with Ik Onkar (ੴ), its Mul Mantar and fundamental prayer about One Supreme Being (God). Sikhism emphasizes simran (meditation on the words of the Guru Granth Sahib), that can be expressed musically through kirtan or internally through Nam Japo (repeat God's name) as a means to feel God's presence. It teaches followers to transform the "Five Thieves" (lust, rage, greed, attachment, and ego). Hand in hand, secular life is considered to be intertwined with the spiritual life., page.
Sikhism is a recognised minority religion in Thailand, with about 70,000 adherents.
The Sino-Tibetan languages, in a few sources also known as Trans-Himalayan, are a family of more than 400 languages spoken in East Asia, Southeast Asia and South Asia.
Snooker is a cue sport which originated among British Army officers stationed in India in the latter half of the 19th century.
Somsak Chunharas (สมศักดิ์ ชุณหรัศมิ์) is a Thai medical doctor and public health official.
Songkhla (สงขลา,; Singgora) is one of the southern provinces (changwat) of Thailand.
Songkran (เทศกาลสงกรานต์) is the Thai New Year's national holiday.
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
The South Thailand insurgency (ความไม่สงบในชายแดนภาคใต้ของประเทศไทย; Pemberontakan di Selatan Thailand) is an ongoing conflict centered in southern Thailand.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) was an international organization for collective defense in Southeast Asia created by the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty, or Manila Pact, signed in September 1954 in Manila, Philippines.
Southern Thai (Southern Thai/Thai: ภาษาไทยถิ่นใต้), also known as Pak Thai (Southern Thai: ภาษาปักษ์ใต้) or Dambro (ภาษาตามโพร), is a Southwestern Tai language spoken in the fourteen provinces of southern Thailand as well as by small communities in the northernmost Malaysian states.
Southern Thailand is a distinct region of Thailand, connected with the central region by the narrow Kra Isthmus.
The Southerners Sports Club is an informal, non-commercial Bangkok-based club of expats and Thais.
The Southwestern Tai, Southwestern Thai or Thais languages are an established branch of the Tai languages of Southeast Asia.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
The Special 301 Report is prepared annually by the Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR) that identifies trade barriers to United States companies and products due to the intellectual property laws, such as copyright, patents and trademarks, in other countries.
Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.
Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) is an international institute based in Sweden, dedicated to research into conflict, armaments, arms control and disarmament.
The Strait of Malacca (Selat Melaka, Selat Malaka; Jawi: سلت ملاک) or Straits of Malacca is a narrow, stretch of water between the Malay Peninsula (Peninsular Malaysia) and the Indonesian island of Sumatra.
Suchinda Kraprayoon (สุจินดา คราประยูร;, born 6 August 1933) was Prime Minister of Thailand from 7 April 1992 until 24 May 1992.
thumb The Suez Canal (قناة السويس) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez.
The Kingdom of Sukhothai (สุโขทัย, Soo-Ker Ty) was an early kingdom in the area around the city Sukhothai, in north central Thailand.
The sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) is a bear species occurring in tropical forest habitats of Southeast Asia.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
The Suranaree University of Technology (มหาวิทยาลัยเทคโนโลยีสุรนารี, (SUT) is in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand. The university was established on 27 July 1990, becoming fully operational in 1993. It is named after Thao Suranari, the local heroine of Nakhon Ratchasima. It is one of nine National Research Universities of Thailand. The university has a trimester system, consisting of 13 weeks for each trimester. The university houses the Synchrotron Light Research Institute (SLRI), formerly the National Synchrotron Research Center (NSRC) that enables advanced research on physics, materials science, and related areas.
The Surin Elephant Round-up is a cultural festival held every year in Surin Province, Isan, Thailand.
Surin (สุรินทร์) is a town in Thailand, capital of Surin province, east-northeast of Bangkok.
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a good collection of 17 global goals set by the United Nations in 2015.
Suwannaphum (สุวรรณภูมิ) is a district (amphoe) of Roi Et Province, in eastern Thailand.
Suzerainty (and) is a back-formation from the late 18th-century word suzerain, meaning upper-sovereign, derived from the French sus (meaning above) + -erain (from souverain, meaning sovereign).
A synchrotron light source is a source of electromagnetic radiation (EM) usually produced by a storage ring, for scientific and technical purposes.
Taekwondo (from Korean 태권도, 跆拳道) is a Korean martial art, characterised by its emphasis on head-height kicks, jumping and spinning kicks, and fast kicking techniques.
The Tai or Zhuang–Tai languages (ภาษาไท or ภาษาไต, transliteration: or) are a branch of the Kra–Dai language family.
Tai peoples refers to the population of descendants of speakers of a common Tai language, including sub-populations that no longer speak a Tai language.
Tai Yo, also known as Tai Mene and Nyaw, is a Tai language of Southeast Asia.
Taksin the Great (สมเด็จพระเจ้าตากสินมหาราช) or the King of Thonburi (สมเด็จพระเจ้ากรุงธนบุรี,;; Teochew: Dên Chao; Vietnamese: Trịnh Quốc Anh) (April 17, 1734 – April 7, 1782) was the only King of the Thonburi Kingdom.
Tambon (ตำบล) is a local governmental unit in Thailand.
Tambralinga was an ancient kingdom located on the Malay Peninsula that at one time came under the influence of Srivijaya.
The Tapi (or Tapee) river (แม่น้ำตาปี) is the longest river in southern Thailand.
Tata Group is an Indian multinational conglomerate holding company headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
Thailand's telephone numbering plan in Thailand is managed by the National Broadcasting and Telecommunications Commission (NBTC) in accordance with International Telecommunications Union's (ITU) recommendation E.164.
Teochew (Chaozhou dialect: Diê⁵ziu¹ uê⁷; Shantou dialect: Dio⁵ziu¹ uê⁷) is a variant of Southern Min spoken mainly by the Teochew people in the Chaoshan region of eastern Guangdong and by their diaspora around the world.
Terengganu (Jawi:ترڠڬانو, Terengganu Malay: Tranung, Ganu, Teganu, Ganung, Teganung), formerly spelled Trengganu or Tringganu, is a sultanate and constitutive state of federal Malaysia.
Territorial defence students (นักศึกษาวิชาทหาร) are a military youth organization in Thailand under control of the Royal Thai Army, and recently the Royal Thai Navy and Royal Thai Air Force.
Thai alphabet (อักษรไทย) is used to write the Thai, Southern Thai and other languages in Thailand.
The baht (บาท,; sign: ฿; code: THB) is the currency of Thailand.
The Thai Canal, also known as Kra Canal or Kra Isthmus Canal, refers to proposals for a canal that would connect the Gulf of Thailand with the Andaman Sea across southern Thailand.
Thai of Chinese origin, often called Thai Chinese, consist of Thai people of full or partial Chinese ancestry – particularly Han Chinese.
Thai cuisine (อาหารไทย) is the national cuisine of Thailand.
The cultural mandates or state decrees (รัฐนิยม;; literally "state fashion" or "state customs') were a series of 12 edicts issued between 1939 and 1942 by the government of Field Marshal Plaek Pibulsonggram during his first term as prime minister and military dictator of Thailand.
The 2007 Thai general elections were held on 23 December.
A general election for the 24th House of Representatives took place throughout Thailand on Sunday, 3 July 2011, by virtue of the Royal Decree Dissolving the House of Representatives, 2554 BE (2011), which caused the House of Representatives to be dissolved on 10 May 2011.
General elections were held in Thailand on 22 March 1992, the first after the National Peace Keeping Council overthrew the elected government of Chatichai Choonhavan in a coup on 23 February 1991.
The Thai greeting referred to as the wai (ไหว้) consists of a slight bow, with the palms pressed together in a prayer-like fashion.
The Thai highlands or Hills of northern Thailand is a mountainous natural region in the north of Thailand.
Thai, Central Thai, or Siamese, is the national and official language of Thailand and the first language of the Central Thai people and vast majority Thai of Chinese origin.
Thai Malays (Orang Melayu Thai, ไทยเชื้อสายมลายู, Jawi: ملايو تاي, Pattani Malay: Oré Nayu, Jawi or Bangso Yawi) is a term used to refer to ethnic Malays in Thailand.
"Thai massage" or "Thai yoga massage" is an ancient healing system combining acupressure, Indian Ayurvedic principles, and assisted yoga postures.
The national anthem of Thailand was adopted on 10 December 1939.
Thai people or the Thais (ชาวไทย), also known as Siamese (ไทยสยาม), are a nation and Tai ethnic group native to Southeast Asia, primarily living mainly Central Thailand (Siamese proper).
The Thai Rak Thai Party (พรรคไทยรักไทย, lit. Thais Love Thais; TRT) was a Thai political party founded in 1998.
The Thai solar calendar (ปฏิทินสุริยคติ,, "solar calendar") was adopted by King Chulalongkorn (Rama V) in AD 1888 as the Siamese version of the Gregorian calendar, replacing the Thai lunar calendar as the legal calendar in Thailand (though the latter is still also used, especially for traditional and religious events).
Thailand adopted the metric system on 17 December 1923.
Thailand in World War II officially adopted a position of neutrality until it was invaded by Japan in December 1941.
The Thailand men's national volleyball team is the men's national volleyball team of Thailand.
The Thailand men's national basketball team represents Thailand in international competitions.
The Thailand national football team (ฟุตบอลทีมชาติไทย) represents Thailand in international men's association football.
The Thailand national rugby union team represents Thailand in international rugby union.
The women's national volleyball team of Thailand (วอลเลย์บอลหญิงทีมชาติไทย) represents the Thailand in international volleyball competitions.
Thaksin Shinawatra (ทักษิณ ชินวัตร,,; born 26 July 1949) is a Thai and Montenegrin businessman and politician.
Thaksinomics (a portmanteau of "Thaksin" and "economics") is a term used to refer to the economic set of policies of Thaksin Shinawatra, Prime Minister of Thailand from 2001–2006.
Thammasat University (มหาวิทยาลัยธรรมศาสตร์) (TU) (ม.), is a public research university in Thailand with campuses in Ta Prachan near the Grand Palace in the heart of Bangkok Old City (also known as Rattanakosin), in Rangsit which is 42 kilometers north of Bangkok, in Pattaya, a popular seaside district in the Eastern Seaboard, and in Lampang Province near Chiang Mai.
The Thammasat University massacre (in Thailand known simply as "the 6 October event", เหตุการณ์ 6 ตุลา) was an attack by Thai state forces and far-right paramilitaries on student protesters on the campus of Thammasat University and the adjacent Sanam Luang Square in Bangkok, Thailand, on 6 October 1976.
The Thanon Thong Chai Range (ทิวเขาถนนธงชัย,, formerly Thanon Range; Burmese Tanen Taunggyi) is a mountain range in northern Thailand.
The Age is a daily newspaper that has been published in Melbourne, Australia, since 1854.
The Heritage Foundation (abbreviated to Heritage) is an American conservative public policy think tank based in Washington, D.C. The foundation took a leading role in the conservative movement during the presidency of Ronald Reagan, whose policies were taken from Heritage's policy study Mandate for Leadership.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The National is a private English-language daily newspaper published in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.
Theravāda (Pali, literally "school of the elder monks") is a branch of Buddhism that uses the Buddha's teaching preserved in the Pāli Canon as its doctrinal core.
Thonburi (ธนบุรี) is an area of modern Bangkok.
Kingdom of Thonburi (Thai: ธนบุรี) was a Siamese kingdom after the downfall of the Ayutthaya Kingdom by the Konbaung Burmese invader.
The tiger (Panthera tigris) is the largest cat species, most recognizable for its pattern of dark vertical stripes on reddish-orange fur with a lighter underside.
The Toungoo dynasty (တောင်ငူမင်းဆက်,; also spelt Taungoo dynasty) was the ruling dynasty of Burma (Myanmar) from the mid-16th century to 1752.
Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours.
Tourism is a major economic contributor to the Kingdom of Thailand.
Trang (ตรัง), also called Mueang Thap Thiang, is one of the southern provinces (changwat) of Thailand, on the west side of the Malay Peninsula facing the Strait of Malacca.
Transparency International e.V. (TI) is an international non-governmental organization which is based in Berlin, Germany, and was founded in 1993.
A tropical monsoon climate (occasionally known as a tropical wet climate or a tropical monsoon and trade-wind littoral climate) is a type of climate that corresponds to the Köppen climate classification category "Am".
Tropical savanna climate or tropical wet and dry climate is a type of climate that corresponds to the Köppen climate classification categories "Aw" and "As".
Unequal treaty is the name given by the Chinese to a series of treaties signed with Western powers during the 19th and early 20th centuries by Qing dynasty China after suffering military defeat by the West or when there was a threat of military action by those powers.
In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
The United Front for Democracy Against Dictatorship (UDD) (แนวร่วมประชาธิปไตยต่อต้านเผด็จการแห่งชาติ; นป., alternatively translated as National Democratic Alliance against Dictatorship), whose supporters are commonly called red shirts, is a political pressure group opposed to the People's Alliance for Democracy (PAD), the 2006 Thai coup d'état, and supporters of the coup.
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the United Nations' global development network.
An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature (or one of three chambers of a tricameral legislature), the other chamber being the lower house.
UTC+07:00 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of +07:00.
U-thongThe Royal Institute.
Maha Vajiralongkorn Bodindradebayavarangkun (มหาวชิราลงกรณ บดินทรเทพยวรางกูร,,; born 28 July 1952) is the King of Thailand since 2016.
Vientiane (ວຽງຈັນ/ວຽງຈັນທນ໌/ວຽງຈັນທະບູຣີ ສຼີສັຕນາຄຄນາຫຸຕ ວິສຸທທິຣັຕນຣາຊທານີ ບໍຣີຣົມຍ໌, Viang chan) is the capital and largest city of Laos, on the banks of the Mekong River near the border with Thailand.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language.
Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net.
Water resource management is the activity of planning, developing, distributing and managing the optimum use of water resources.
Westernization (US) or Westernisation (UK), also Europeanization/Europeanisation or occidentalization/occidentalisation (from the Occident, meaning the Western world; see "occident" in the dictionary), is a process whereby societies come under or adopt Western culture in areas such as industry, technology, law, politics, economics, lifestyle, diet, clothing, language, alphabet, religion, philosophy, and values.
Wi-Fi or WiFi is technology for radio wireless local area networking of devices based on the IEEE 802.11 standards.
William Hubbard Baxter III (born March 3, 1949) is an American linguist specializing in the history of the Chinese language and best known for his work on the reconstruction on Old Chinese.
The World Economic Forum (WEF) is a Swiss nonprofit foundation, based in Cologny, Geneva, Switzerland.
The World Gold Council is the market development organisation for the gold industry.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yala (ยะลา) is the southernmost province (changwat) of Thailand.
Yasothon (ยโสธร) is a town on the Chi River in the north-eastern region of Thailand.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
Yingluck Shinawatra (ยิ่งลักษณ์ ชินวัตร,,; born 21 June 1967), nicknamed Pu (ปู,, meaning "crab"), is a Thai businesswoman and politician.
Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country.
.th is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Thailand.
The 1972 AFC Asian Cup was the 5th edition of the men's AFC Asian Cup, a quadrennial international football tournament organised by the Asian Football Confederation (AFC).
The popular uprising of 14 October 1973 (เหตุการณ์ 14 ตุลา,, "October 14 Event"; or วันมหาวิปโยค,, "Day of Great Sorrow") was a watershed event in Thailand's history.
The Asian financial crisis was a period of financial crisis that gripped much of East Asia beginning in July 1997 and raised fears of a worldwide economic meltdown due to financial contagion.
The 1998 Asian Games, officially known as the XIII Asiad, was an Asian multi-sport event celebrated in Bangkok, Thailand from December 6 to 20, 1998, with 377 events in 36 sports and disciplines participated by 6,554 athletes across the continent.
The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake occurred at 00:58:53 UTC on 26 December with the epicentre off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia.
The 2006 Thai coup d'état took place on 19 September 2006, when the Royal Thai Army staged a coup d'état against the elected caretaker government of Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra.
The 2007 AFC Asian Cup was the 14th edition of the men's AFC Asian Cup, a quadrennial international football tournament organised by the Asian Football Confederation (AFC).
Beginning in 2008, there was worsening conflict between the People's Alliance for Democracy (PAD) and the People's Power Party (PPP) governments of Prime Ministers Samak Sundaravej and Somchai Wongsawat.
A series of political demonstrations and following unrest occurred in Thailand from 26 March to 14 April 2009 in Bangkok and Pattaya against the government of Abhisit Vejjajiva and the military crackdown that followed.
The 2010 Thai political protests were a series of political protests that were organised by the National United Front of Democracy Against Dictatorship (also known as "Red Shirts") in Bangkok, Thailand from 12 March – 19 May 2010 against the Democrat Party-led government.
The 2013–2014 Thai political crisis was a period of political instability in Thailand.
On 22 May 2014, the Royal Thai Armed Forces, led by General Prayut Chan-o-cha, Commander of the Royal Thai Army (RTA), launched a coup d'état, the 12th since the country's first coup in 1932, against the caretaker government of Thailand, following six months of political crisis.
Etymology of Thailand, ISO 3166-1:TH, Kingdom Of Thailand, Kingdom of Thailand, Kingdom of the Thai, Muang Thai, Muang-Thai, Name of Thailand, Prathet Thai, Ratcha Anachak Thai, Sayam, Siam, Siam (Thailand), Skateboarding in Thailand, THAILAND, Taihland, Tailand, Thai Empire, Thai Kingdom, Thailande, Thayland, Thaïlande, The Kingdom Of Thailand, ประเทศไทย, ราชอาณาจักรไทย, เมืองไทย, 泰国.