285 relations: Adlertag, Adolf Hitler, Air Ministry, Air officer commanding, Air Raid Precautions in the United Kingdom, Air raid shelter, Air supremacy, Airborne Interception radar, Airpower, Albert Kesselring, Angus Calder, Anna Freud, Anti-Aircraft Command, Anti-aircraft warfare, Antisemitism, Arc lamp, Atlantic Ocean, Auxiliary Fire Service, Avro Anson, B. H. Liddell Hart, Baedeker Blitz, Balkan Campaign (World War II), Barge, Battersea Power Station, Battle of Berlin (RAF campaign), Battle of Britain, Battle of Britain Day, Battle of France, Battle of Shanghai, Battle of the Atlantic, Battle of the Beams, BBC, Belfast, Belfast Blitz, Bethnal Green tube station, Beveridge Report, Big Week, Billy Mitchell, Birmingham, Birmingham Blitz, Black market, Blackout (wartime), Blast furnace, Bofors 40 mm gun, Bombing of Barcelona, Bombing of Dresden in World War II, Bombing of Guernica, Bombing of Hamburg in World War II, Bombing of Wiener Neustadt in World War II, Boulton Paul Defiant, ..., Bricklayers' Arms, Bristol Beaufighter, Bristol Blenheim, Bristol Blitz, British and French declaration of war on Germany, British Indian, British Red Cross, British Union of Fascists, Cardiff, Cardiff Blitz, Celestial navigation, Churchill war ministry, City of London, Civil Defence Service, Civil defense siren, Close air support, Clydebank, Clydebank Blitz, Coal, Committee of Imperial Defence, Communist Party of Great Britain, Coventry, Coventry Blitz, Cult of the offensive, Daily Worker, Delay-action bomb, Derby, Dornier Do 17, Dunkirk evacuation, East Anglia, East End of London, Ebury Publishing, Economic warfare, Edward Addison, Edward Glover (psychoanalyst), Electronic countermeasure, English Channel, Erich Raeder, Essex, Evacuations of civilians in Britain during World War II, Exeter Blitz, Explosive material, Falklands War, Farnborough Airport, Fighter Interception Unit, Fire-control system, Firebombing, Firestorm, Fliegerführer Atlantik, Flight sergeant, Flying officer, Focke-Wulf Fw 200 Condor, Forgotten Voices of the Blitz and the Battle of Britain, Frederick Alfred Pile, Fuze, Gallup (company), German Air Fleets in World War II, German strategic bombing during World War I, Giulio Douhet, Glasgow, Gloucester, Gosport, Greater London, Greece, Greenock Blitz, H. G. Wells, Hans Jeschonnek, Hans-Jürgen Stumpff, Harold Macmillan, Heavy bomber, Heinkel He 111, Herbert Morrison, Hermann Göring, Hispano-Suiza HS.404, History of Portsmouth, History of the Second World War, Home Guard (United Kingdom), Home Secretary, House of Commons of the United Kingdom, Hugh Dowding, Hugh Trenchard, 1st Viscount Trenchard, Hugo Sperrle, Hull Blitz, John Anderson, 1st Viscount Waverley, John Cunningham (RAF officer), Joseph Stalin, Junkers Ju 87, Junkers Ju 88, Kampfgeschwader, Kampfgeschwader 1, Kampfgeschwader 26, Kampfgeschwader 3, Kampfgeschwader 30, Kampfgeschwader 40, Kampfgeschwader 54, Kampfgeschwader 55, Kampfgruppe 100, Karl Dönitz, Kensal Green station, Kent, Kingston upon Hull, Kriegsmarine, Labour Party (UK), Lehrgeschwader 1, Leslie Gossage, List of crossings of the River Thames, Liverpool, Liverpool Blitz, London, London Docklands, London Underground, London Victoria station, Long ton, Lord's, Lorenz beam, Luftflotte 2, Luftflotte 3, Luftwaffe, M1919 Browning machine gun, Manchester, Manchester Blitz, Max Aitken, 1st Baron Beaverbrook, Meaconing, Medium bomber, Messerschmitt Bf 109, Messerschmitt Bf 110, Metropolitan-Vickers, Minister of Aircraft Production, Ministry of Home Security, Ministry of Supply, Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Munich Agreement, Nazism, Neville Chamberlain, Newcastle Blitz, Newcastle upon Tyne, No. 10 Group RAF, No. 11 Group RAF, No. 12 Group RAF, No. 219 Squadron RAF, No. 604 Squadron RAF, No. 80 Wing RAF, North Sea, Norwegian Campaign, Nottingham Blitz, Oberkommando der Luftwaffe, Office of Public Sector Information, Operation Barbarossa, Operation Sea Lion, Operation Steinbock, Owen Tudor Boyd, Phoney War, Pilot officer, Plymouth, Plymouth Blitz, Port of London, Portsmouth, QF 3-inch 20 cwt, QF 3.7-inch AA gun, Radar, Radio navigation, RAF Bomber Command, RAF Coastal Command, RAF Fighter Command, RAF Kenley, Rail freight transport, Ralph Ingersoll (PM publisher), Rationing in the United Kingdom, Rechlin–Lärz Airfield, Reginald Victor Jones, Reichsmarschall, Richard Overy, Rifle, River Clyde, Royal Air Force, Royal Army Pay Corps, Royal Flying Corps, Royal Navy, Royal Pioneer Corps, Royal Victoria Dock, Samuel Hoare, 1st Viscount Templewood, SC1000 bomb, Schräge Musik, Sebastian Cox, Second Great Fire of London, Sheffield Blitz, Shell shock, Sholto Douglas, 1st Baron Douglas of Kirtleside, Sir Arthur Harris, 1st Baronet, Southampton, Southampton Blitz, Southern Railway (UK), Southsea, Spanish Civil War, St Pancras railway station, St Paul's Cathedral, St Paul's Survives, Stephen Bungay, Strategic bombing, Strategic bombing during World War II, Sunderland, Supermarine Spitfire, Swansea Blitz, Thames Estuary, The bomber will always get through, The Guardian, The Salvation Army, The Scout Association, The Shape of Things to Come, The Wages of Destruction, The Week, Things to Come, Tram, Turbinlite, U-boat, United States Air Force, United States Army Air Corps, United States Army Air Forces, Ural bomber, V-1 flying bomb, V-2 rocket, Victory garden, Walther Wever (general), West Ham Power Station, West Midlands (region), Western Approaches, Western Front (World War II), Westminster Abbey, Whitehall, Winston Churchill, World War I, World War II, Yale University Press, Yugoslavia, 10th Air Corps. 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Adlertag ("Eagle Day") was the first day of Unternehmen Adlerangriff ("Operation Eagle Attack"), which was the codename of a military operation by Nazi Germany's Luftwaffe (German air force) to destroy the British Royal Air Force (RAF).
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
The Air Ministry was a department of the Government of the United Kingdom with the responsibility of managing the affairs of the Royal Air Force, that existed from 1918 to 1964.
Air officer commanding (AOC) is a title given in the air forces of Commonwealth (and some other) nations to an air officer who holds a command appointment which typically comprises a large, organized collection of air force assets.
Air Raid Precautions (ARP) was an organisation in the United Kingdom set up in 1937 dedicated to the protection of civilians from the danger of air raids.
Air raid shelters, also known as bomb shelters, are structures for the protection of non-combatants as well as combatants against enemy attacks from the air.
Air supremacy is a position in war where a side holds complete control of air warfare and air power over opposing forces.
Airborne Interception radar, or AI for short, is the British term for radar systems used to equip aircraft in the air-to-air role.
Airpower or air power consists of the application of military strategy and strategic theory to the realm of aerial warfare.
Albert Kesselring (30 November 1885 – 16 July 1960) was a German Luftwaffe Generalfeldmarschall during World War II.
Angus Lindsay Ritchie Calder (5 February 1942 – 5 June 2008) was a Scottish academic, writer, historian, educator and literary editor with a background in English literature, politics and cultural studies.
Anna Freud (3 December 1895 – 9 October 1982) was an Austrian-British psychoanalyst.
Anti-Aircraft Command (AA Command, or "Ack-Ack Command") was a British Army command of the Second World War that controlled the Territorial Army anti-aircraft artillery and searchlight formations and units defending the United Kingdom.
Anti-aircraft warfare or counter-air defence is defined by NATO as "all measures designed to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air action."AAP-6 They include ground-and air-based weapon systems, associated sensor systems, command and control arrangements and passive measures (e.g. barrage balloons).
Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.
An arc lamp or arc light is a lamp that produces light by an electric arc (also called a voltaic arc).
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
The Auxiliary Fire Service (AFS) was first formed in 1938 in Great Britain as part of the Civil Defence Service.
The Avro Anson is a British twin-engined, multi-role aircraft built by the aircraft manufacturer Avro.
Sir Basil Henry Liddell Hart (31 October 1895 – 29 January 1970), commonly known throughout most of his career as Captain B. H. Liddell Hart, was a British soldier, military historian and military theorist.
The Baedeker Blitz or Baedeker raids were a series of attacks by the Luftwaffe on English cities during the Second World War.
The Balkan Campaign of World War II began with the Italian invasion of Greece on 28 October 1940.
A barge is a flat-bottomed ship, built mainly for river and canal transport of heavy goods.
Battersea Power Station is a decommissioned coal-fired power station located on the south bank of the River Thames, in Nine Elms, Battersea, an inner-city district of South West London.
The Battle of Berlin was the British bombing campaign on Berlin from November 1943 to March 1944.
The Battle of Britain (Luftschlacht um England, literally "The Air Battle for England") was a military campaign of the Second World War, in which the Royal Air Force (RAF) defended the United Kingdom (UK) against large-scale attacks by Nazi Germany's air force, the Luftwaffe.
Battle of Britain DayMason 1969, p. 386.
The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War.
The Battle of Shanghai was the first of the twenty-two major engagements fought between the National Revolutionary Army (NRA) of the Republic of China (ROC) and the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) of the Empire of Japan during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
The Battle of the Atlantic was the longest continuous military campaign in World War II, running from 1939 to the defeat of Germany in 1945.
The Battle of the Beams was a period early in the Second World War when bombers of the German Air Force (Luftwaffe) used a number of increasingly accurate systems of radio navigation for night bombing in the United Kingdom.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
Belfast (is the capital city of Northern Ireland, located on the banks of the River Lagan on the east coast of Ireland.
The Belfast Blitz consisted of four German air raids on strategic targets in the city of Belfast in Northern Ireland, in April and May 1941 during World War II, causing high casualties.
Bethnal Green is a London Underground station in Bethnal Green, Greater London, England, and is served by the Central line between Liverpool Street and Mile End.
The Beveridge Report, officially entitled Social Insurance and Allied Services, is a government report, published in November 1942, influential in the founding of the welfare state in the United Kingdom.
Big Week or Operation Argument was a sequence of raids by the United States Strategic Air Forces (USSTAF) from 20 to 25 February 1944, as part of the European strategic bombing campaign against Nazi Germany.
William Lendrum Mitchell (December 29, 1879 – February 19, 1936) was a United States Army general who is regarded as the father of the United States Air Force.
Birmingham is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England, with an estimated population of 1,101,360, making it the second most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
The Birmingham Blitz was the heavy bombing by the Nazi German Luftwaffe of the city of Birmingham and surrounding towns in central England, beginning on 9 August 1940 and ending on 23 April 1943.
A black market, underground economy, or shadow economy is a clandestine market or transaction that has some aspect of illegality or is characterized by some form of noncompliant behavior with an institutional set of rules.
A blackout during war, or in preparation for an expected war, is the practice of collectively minimizing outdoor light, including upwardly directed (or reflected) light.
A blast furnace is a type of metallurgical furnace used for smelting to produce industrial metals, generally pig iron, but also others such as lead or copper.
--> The Bofors 40 mm gun, often referred to simply as the Bofors gun, is an anti-aircraft/multi-purpose autocannon designed in the 1930s by the Swedish arms manufacturer AB Bofors.
The Bombing of Barcelona was a series of Nationalist airstrikes which took place from 16 to 18 March 1938, during the Spanish Civil War.
The bombing of Dresden was a British/American aerial bombing attack on the city of Dresden, the capital of the German state of Saxony, during World War II in the European Theatre.
The bombing of Guernica (26 April 1937) was an aerial bombing of the Basque town of Guernica during the Spanish Civil War.
The allied bombing of Hamburg during World War II included numerous attacks on civilians.
Wiener Neustadt, a city in Austria, was the target of bombing raids during World War II by the Allies.
The Boulton Paul Defiant was a British interceptor aircraft that served with the Royal Air Force (RAF) during World War II.
Bricklayers' Arms is a busy road intersection between the A2 and the London Inner Ring Road in south London, England.
The Bristol Type 156 Beaufighter (often referred to simply as the "Beau") is a multi-role aircraft developed during the Second World War by the Bristol Aeroplane Company in the United Kingdom.
The Bristol Blenheim is a British light bomber aircraft designed and built by the Bristol Aeroplane Company (Bristol) which was used extensively in the first two years and in some cases throughout the Second World War.
The Bristol Blitz was the heavy bombing of Bristol, England by the Nazi German Luftwaffe during the Second World War.
The Declaration of war by France and the United Kingdom was given on 3 September 1939, after German forces invaded Poland.
British Indians (also Indian British or Indian Britons) are citizens of the United Kingdom (UK) whose ancestral roots lie in India.
The British Red Cross Society is the United Kingdom body of the worldwide neutral and impartial humanitarian network the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement.
The British Union of Fascists, or BUF, was a fascist political party in the United Kingdom formed in 1932 by Oswald Mosley.
Cardiff (Caerdydd) is the capital of, and largest city in, Wales, and the eleventh-largest city in the United Kingdom.
The Cardiff Blitz refers to the bombing of Cardiff, Wales during World War II.
Celestial navigation, also known as astronavigation, is the ancient and modern practice of position fixing that enables a navigator to transition through a space without having to rely on estimated calculations, or dead reckoning, to know their position.
The Churchill war ministry was a Conservative-led coalition government in the United Kingdom that lasted for most of the Second World War.
The City of London is a city and county that contains the historic centre and the primary central business district (CBD) of London.
The Civil Defence Service was a civilian volunteer organisation established in Great Britain by the Home Office in 1935.
A civil defense siren (also known as an air-raid siren or tornado siren) is a siren used to provide emergency population warning of approaching danger and sometimes to indicate when the danger has passed.
In military tactics, close air support (CAS) is defined as air action such as air strikes by fixed or rotary-winged aircraft against hostile targets that are in close proximity to friendly forces and which requires detailed integration of each air mission with fire and movement of these forces and attacks with aerial bombs, glide bombs, missiles, rockets, aircraft cannons, machine guns, and even directed-energy weapons such as lasers.
Clydebank is a town in West Dunbartonshire, Scotland.
The Clydebank Blitz comprised two devastating Luftwaffe air raids on the shipbuilding town of Clydebank in Scotland which took place in March 1941.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
The Committee of Imperial Defence was an important ad hoc part of the government of the United Kingdom and the British Empire from just after the Second Boer War until the start of the Second World War.
The Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB) was a British communist party which was the largest communist party in Great Britain, although it never became a mass party like those in France and Italy.
Coventry is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England.
The Coventry blitz (blitz: from the German word Blitzkrieg meaning "lightning war") was a series of bombing raids that took place on the English city of Coventry.
The cult of the offensive refers to a strategic military dilemma, where leaders believe that offensive advantages are so great that a defending force would have no hope of repelling the attack; consequently, all states choose to attack.
The Daily Worker was a newspaper published in New York City by the Communist Party USA, a formerly Comintern-affiliated organization.
A delay-action bomb is an aerial bomb designed to explode some time after impact, with the bomb's fuzes set to delay the explosion for times ranging from very brief to several weeks.
Derby is a city and unitary authority area in Derbyshire, England.
The Dornier Do 17, sometimes referred to as the Fliegender Bleistift ("flying pencil"), was a light bomber of Nazi Germany during World War II.
The Dunkirk evacuation, code-named Operation Dynamo, and also known as the Miracle of Dunkirk, was the evacuation of Allied soldiers during World War II from the beaches and harbour of Dunkirk, in the north of France, between 26 May and 4 June 1940.
East Anglia is a geographical area in the East of England.
The East End of London, usually called the East End, is the historic core of wider East London, east of the Roman and medieval walls of the City of London, and north of the River Thames.
Ebury Publishing is a division of Penguin Random House, and is a well-known publisher of general non-fiction books in the UK.
The Oxford English Dictionary defines economic warfare or economic war as involving "an economic strategy based on the use of measures (e.g. blockade) of which the primary effect is to weaken the economy of another state".
Air Vice Marshal Edward Barker Addison (4 October 1898 – 4 July 1987) was a senior Royal Air Force (RAF) officer who served as Air Officer Commanding No. 100 Group from 1943 to 1945 during the Second World War.
Edward George Glover (13 January 1888 – 16 August 1972) was a British psychoanalyst.
An electronic countermeasure (ECM) is an electrical or electronic device designed to trick or deceive radar, sonar or other detection systems, like infrared (IR) or lasers.
The English Channel (la Manche, "The Sleeve"; Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Mor Bretannek, "Sea of Brittany"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.
Erich Johann Albert Raeder (24 April 1876 – 6 November 1960) was a German grand admiral who played a major role in the naval history of World War II.
Essex is a county in the East of England.
The evacuation of civilians in Britain during the Second World War was designed to protect people, especially children, from the risks associated with aerial bombing of cities by moving them to areas thought to be less at risk.
The term Exeter Blitz refers to the air raids by the German air force on the British city of Exeter, Devon, during the Second World War.
An explosive material, also called an explosive, is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion if released suddenly, usually accompanied by the production of light, heat, sound, and pressure.
The Falklands War (Guerra de las Malvinas), also known as the Falklands Conflict, Falklands Crisis, Malvinas War, South Atlantic Conflict, and the Guerra del Atlántico Sur (Spanish for "South Atlantic War"), was a ten-week war between Argentina and the United Kingdom over two British dependent territories in the South Atlantic: the Falkland Islands, and its territorial dependency, the South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.
Farnborough Airport or TAG London Farnborough Airport (previously called RAE Farnborough, ICAO Code EGUF) is an operational business/executive general aviation airport in Farnborough, Rushmoor, Hampshire, England.
The Fighter Interception Unit (FIU) was a special interceptor aircraft unit of the Royal Air Force (RAF) during the Second World War.
A fire-control system is a number of components working together, usually a gun data computer, a director, and radar, which is designed to assist a weapon system in hitting its target.
Firebombing is a bombing technique designed to damage a target, generally an urban area, through the use of fire, caused by incendiary devices, rather than from the blast effect of large bombs.
A firestorm is a conflagration which attains such intensity that it creates and sustains its own wind system.
Fliegerführer Atlantik (German: "Flyer Command Atlantic") was a World War II Luftwaffe naval command dedicated to maritime patrol.
Flight sergeant (commonly abbreviated to Flt Sgt, F/Sgt, FSGT or, currently correctly in the RAF, FS) is a senior non-commissioned rank in the Royal Air Force and several other air forces which have adopted all or part of the RAF rank structure.
Flying officer (Fg Off in the RAF and IAF; FLGOFF in the RAAF; FGOFF in the RNZAF; formerly F/O in all services and still frequently in the RAF) is a junior commissioned rank in the Royal Air Force and the air forces of many countries which have historical British influence.
The Focke-Wulf Fw 200 Condor, also known as Kurier to the Allies, was a German all-metal four-engined monoplane originally developed by Focke-Wulf as a long-range airliner.
Forgotten Voices of the Blitz and the Battle of Britain uses material from Imperial War Museum’s sound archive.
General Sir Frederick Alfred Pile, 2nd Baronet, (14 September 1884 – 14 November 1976) was a senior British Army officer who served in both World Wars.
In military munitions, a fuze (sometimes fuse) is the part of the device that initiates function.
Gallup, Inc. is an American research-based, global performance-management consulting company.
A list of Luftwaffe "Luftflotten" (Air Fleets) and their locations between 1939 and 1945.
The best-known German strategic bombing campaign during World War I was the campaign against England, although strategic bombing raids were carried out or attempted on other fronts.
General Giulio Douhet (30 May 1869 – 15 February 1930) was an Italian general and air power theorist.
Glasgow (Glesga; Glaschu) is the largest city in Scotland, and third most populous in the United Kingdom.
Gloucester is a city and district in Gloucestershire, England, of which it is the county town.
Gosport is a town in Hampshire on the south coast of England.
Greater London is a region of England which forms the administrative boundaries of London, as well as a county for the purposes of the lieutenancies.
The Greenock Blitz is the name given to two nights of intensive bombing of the town of Greenock, Scotland during the Second World War when the Nazi German Luftwaffe attacked on 6–7 May 1941.
Herbert George Wells.
Hans Jeschonnek (9 April 1899 – 18 August 1943) was a German Generaloberst and a Chief of the General Staff of Nazi Germany′s Luftwaffe during World War II.
Hans-Jürgen Stumpff (15 June 1889 – 9 March 1968), was a German general during World War II and was one of the signatories to Germany's unconditional surrender at the end of the war.
Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, (10 February 1894 – 29 December 1986) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1963.
Heavy bombers are bomber aircraft capable of delivering the largest payload of air-to-ground weaponry (usually bombs) and longest range of their era.
The Heinkel He 111 was a German aircraft designed by Siegfried and Walter Günter at Heinkel Flugzeugwerke in 1934.
Herbert Stanley Morrison, Baron Morrison of Lambeth, (3 January 1888 – 6 March 1965) was a British Labour politician who held a variety of senior positions in the Cabinet.
Hermann Wilhelm Göring (or Goering;; 12 January 1893 – 15 October 1946) was a German political and military leader as well as one of the most powerful figures in the Nazi Party (NSDAP) that ruled Germany from 1933 to 1945.
The HS.404 is an autocannon originally designed and produced by Hispano-Suiza in the mid-1930s.
Portsmouth is an island port city situated on Portsea Island in the county of Hampshire, England.
The History of the Second World War is the official history of the British contribution to the Second World War and was published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office (HMSO).
The Home Guard (initially Local Defence Volunteers or LDV) was a defence organisation of the British Army during the Second World War.
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for the Home Department, normally referred to as the Home Secretary, is a senior official as one of the Great Offices of State within Her Majesty's Government and head of the Home Office.
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Air Chief Marshal Hugh Caswall Tremenheere Dowding, 1st Baron Dowding, (24 April 1882 – 15 February 1970) was an officer in the Royal Air Force.
Marshal of the Royal Air Force Hugh Montague Trenchard, 1st Viscount Trenchard, (3 February 1873 – 10 February 1956) was a British officer who was instrumental in establishing the Royal Air Force.
Hugo Sperrle (7 February 1885 – 2 April 1953) was a German field marshal of the Luftwaffe during World War II.
The Hull Blitz was the Nazi German bombing campaign targeting the English port city of Kingston upon Hull during the Second World War.
John Anderson, 1st Viscount Waverley, (8 July 1882 – 4 January 1958) was a British civil servant and politician who is best known for his service in the Cabinet during the Second World War, for which he was nicknamed the "Home Front Prime Minister".
John "Cat's Eyes" Cunningham (27 July 1917 – 21 July 2002) was a Royal Air Force (RAF) night fighter ace during the Second World War and a test pilot.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
The Junkers Ju 87 or Stuka (from Sturzkampfflugzeug, "dive bomber") is a German dive bomber and ground-attack aircraft.
The Junkers Ju 88 was a German World War II Luftwaffe twin-engined multirole combat aircraft.
Kampfgeschwader are the German-language name for (air force) bomber units.
Kampfgeschwader 1 (KG 1) (Battle Wing 1) was a German medium bomber wing that operated in the Luftwaffe during World War II.
Kampfgeschwader 26 (KG 26) "Löwengeschwader" (in English Bomber Wing 26 aka "Lions' Wing" by virtue of its insignia) was a German air force Luftwaffe bomber wing unit during World War II.
Kampfgeschwader 3 "Blitz" (KG 3) was a Luftwaffe bomber wing during World War II.
Kampfgeschwader 30 (KG 30) was a Luftwaffe bomber wing during World War II.
Kampfgeschwader 40 (KG 40) was a Luftwaffe medium and heavy bomber wing of World War II, and the primary maritime patrol unit of any size within the World War II Luftwaffe.
Kampfgeschwader 54 "Totenkopf"() (KG 54) was a Luftwaffe bomber wing during World War II.
Kampfgeschwader 55 "Greif" (KG 55 or Battle Wing 55) was a ''Luftwaffe'' bomber unit during World War II.
Kampfgruppe 100 (KGr 100) was a specialist unit of the Luftwaffe during the early stages of World War II.
Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz (sometimes spelled Doenitz;; 16 September 1891 24 December 1980) was a German admiral who played a major role in the naval history of World War II.
Kensal Green is a Network Rail station served by London Underground Bakerloo line and London Overground trains.
Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties.
Kingston upon Hull, usually abbreviated to Hull, is a city and unitary authority in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England.
The Kriegsmarine (literally "War Navy") was the navy of Germany from 1935 to 1945.
The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom.
Lehrgeschwader 1 (LG 1) (Demonstration Wing 1) formerly Lehrgeschwader Greifswald was a Luftwaffe multi-purpose unit during World War II, operating fighter, bomber and dive-bomber Gruppen.
Air Marshal Sir Ernest Leslie Gossage, (3 February 1891 – 8 July 1949) was a former artillery officer who become a pilot in the Royal Flying Corps and later a senior officer in the Royal Air Force during the Second World War.
This is a list of crossings of the River Thames comprising over 200 bridges, 27 tunnels, six public ferries, one cable car link, and one ford.
Liverpool is a city in North West England, with an estimated population of 491,500 in 2017.
The Liverpool Blitz was the heavy and sustained bombing of the English city of Liverpool and its surrounding area, during the Second World War by the German Luftwaffe.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
London Docklands is the name for the riverfront and former docks in London, the capital of the United Kingdom.
The London Underground (also known simply as the Underground, or by its nickname the Tube) is a public rapid transit system serving London and some parts of the adjacent counties of Buckinghamshire, Essex and Hertfordshire in the United Kingdom.
Victoria station, also known as London Victoria, is a central London railway terminus and connected London Underground station in Victoria, in the City of Westminster, managed by Network Rail.
Long ton, also known as the imperial ton or displacement ton,Dictionary.com - "a unit for measuring the displacement of a vessel, equal to a long ton of 2240 pounds (1016 kg) or 35 cu.
Lord's Cricket Ground, commonly known simply as Lord's, is a cricket venue in St John's Wood, London.
The Lorenz beam was blind-landing radio navigation system developed by C. Lorenz AG in Berlin.
Luftflotte 2 (Air Fleet 2) was one of the primary divisions of the German Luftwaffe in World War II.
Luftflotte 3 (Air Fleet 3) was one of the primary divisions of the German Luftwaffe in World War II.
The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the combined German Wehrmacht military forces during World War II.
The M1919 Browning is a.30 caliber medium machine gun that was widely used during the 20th century, especially during World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War.
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 530,300.
The Manchester Blitz (also known as the Christmas Blitz) was the heavy bombing of the city of Manchester and its surrounding areas in North West England during the Second World War by the Nazi German Luftwaffe.
William Maxwell Aitken, 1st Baron Beaverbrook, PC, ONB (25 May 1879 – 9 June 1964) was a Canadian-British newspaper publisher and backstage politician who was an influential figure in British media and politics of the first half of the 20th century.
Meaconing is the interception and rebroadcast of navigation signals.
A medium bomber is a military bomber aircraft designed to operate with medium-sized bombloads over medium range distances; the name serves to distinguish this type from larger heavy bombers and smaller light bombers.
The Messerschmitt Bf 109 is a German World War II fighter aircraft that was the backbone of the Luftwaffe's fighter force.
--> The Messerschmitt Bf 110, often known non-officially as the Me 110, was a twin-engine heavy fighter (Zerstörer—German for "Destroyer") and fighter-bomber (Jagdbomber or Jabo) developed in Nazi Germany in the 1930s and used by the Luftwaffe during World War II.
Metropolitan-Vickers, Metrovick, or Metrovicks, was a British heavy electrical engineering company of the early-to-mid 20th century formerly known as British Westinghouse.
The Minister of Aircraft Production was the British government position in charge of the Ministry of Aircraft Production, one of the specialised supply ministries set up by the British Government during World War II.
The Ministry of Home Security was a British government department established in 1939 to direct national civil defence (primarily tasked with organising air raid precautions) during the Second World War.
The Ministry of Supply (MoS) was a department of the UK Government formed in 1939 to co-ordinate the supply of equipment to all three British armed forces, headed by the Minister of Supply.
The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, also known as the Nazi–Soviet Pact,Charles Peters (2005), Five Days in Philadelphia: The Amazing "We Want Willkie!" Convention of 1940 and How It Freed FDR to Save the Western World, New York: PublicAffairs, Ch.
The Munich Agreement was a settlement permitting Nazi Germany's annexation of portions of Czechoslovakia along the country's borders mainly inhabited by German speakers, for which a new territorial designation, the "Sudetenland", was coined.
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
Arthur Neville Chamberlain (18 March 1869 – 9 November 1940) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from May 1937 to May 1940.
The Newcastle Blitz refers to the strategic bombing of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England by the Nazi German Luftwaffe during the second world war.
Newcastle upon Tyne, commonly known as Newcastle, is a city in Tyne and Wear, North East England, 103 miles (166 km) south of Edinburgh and 277 miles (446 km) north of London on the northern bank of the River Tyne, from the North Sea.
The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.
The Norwegian Campaign (9 April to 10 June 1940) was fought in Norway between Norway, the Allies and Germany in World War II after the latter's invasion of the country.
The Nottingham Blitz was an attack by the German Luftwaffe on Nottingham during the night of 8–9 May 1941.
The Oberkommando der Luftwaffe (OKL), translated as the High Command of the Air Force in English, was the high command of the Luftwaffe.
The Office of Public Sector Information (OPSI) is the body responsible for the operation of Her Majesty's Stationery Office (HMSO) and of other public information services of the United Kingdom.
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
Operation Sea Lion, also written as Operation Sealion (Unternehmen Seelöwe), was Nazi Germany's code name for the plan for an invasion of the United Kingdom during the Battle of Britain in the Second World War.
Baby Blitz or Operation Steinbock (Unternehmen Steinbock) was a strategic bombing campaign by the German air force (the Luftwaffe) during the Second World War.
Air Marshal Owen Tudor Boyd, (30 August 1889 – 5 August 1944) was a British aviator and military officer.
The Phoney War (Drôle de guerre; Sitzkrieg) was an eight-month period at the start of World War II, during which there was only one limited military land operation on the Western Front, when French troops invaded Germany's Saar district.
Pilot officer (Plt Off officially in the RAF; PLTOFF in the RAAF and RNZAF; formerly P/O in all services, and still often used in the RAF) is the lowest commissioned rank in the Royal Air Force and the air forces of many other Commonwealth countries.
Plymouth is a city situated on the south coast of Devon, England, approximately south-west of Exeter and west-south-west of London.
The Plymouth Blitz was a series of bombing raids carried out by the Nazi German Luftwaffe on the English city of Plymouth in the Second World War.
The Port of London lies along the banks of the River Thames from the capital to the North Sea.
Portsmouth is a port city in Hampshire, England, mainly on Portsea Island, south-west of London and south-east of Southampton.
The QF 3 inch 20 cwt anti-aircraft gun became the standard anti-aircraft gun used in the home defence of the United Kingdom against German airships and bombers and on the Western Front in World War I. It was also common on British warships in World War I and submarines in World War II.
The QF 3.7-inch AA was Britain's primary heavy anti-aircraft gun during World War II.
Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.
Radio navigation or radionavigation is the application of radio frequencies to determine a position of an object on the Earth.
RAF Bomber Command controlled the RAF's bomber forces from 1936 to 1968.
RAF Coastal Command was a formation within the Royal Air Force (RAF).
RAF Fighter Command was one of the commands of the Royal Air Force.
The former Royal Air Force Station Kenley, more commonly known as RAF Kenley was a station of the Royal Flying Corps in the First World War and the RAF in the Second World War.
Rail freight transport is the use of railroads and trains to transport cargo as opposed to human passengers.
Ralph McAllister Ingersoll (December 8, 1900 in New Haven, Connecticut – March 8, 1985 in Miami Beach, Florida) was an American writer, editor, and publisher.
Rationing was introduced temporarily by the British government several times during the 20th century, during and immediately after a war.
Rechlin–Lärz Airfield (German: Flugplatz Rechlin-Lärz) is an airfield in the village of Rechlin, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany.
Reginald Victor Jones, FRSE, LLD (29 September 1911 – 17 December 1997) was a British physicist and scientific military intelligence expert who played an important role in the defence of Britain in.
Reichsmarschall, Marshal of the Reich (literal translation: Empire or Realm), was the highest rank in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II.
Richard James Overy (born 23 December 1947) is a British historian who has published extensively on the history of World War II and Nazi Germany.
A rifle is a portable long-barrelled firearm designed for precision shooting, to be held with both hands and braced against the shoulder for stability during firing, and with a barrel that has a helical pattern of grooves ("rifling") cut into the bore walls.
The River Clyde (Abhainn Chluaidh,, Watter o Clyde) is a river that flows into the Firth of Clyde in Scotland.
The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.
The Royal Army Pay Corps (RAPC) was the corps of the British Army responsible for administering all financial matters.
The Royal Flying Corps (RFC) was the air arm of the British Army before and during the First World War, until it merged with the Royal Naval Air Service on 1 April 1918 to form the Royal Air Force.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
The Royal Pioneer Corps was a British Army combatant corps used for light engineering tasks.
The Royal Victoria Dock is the largest of three docks in the Royal Docks of east London, now part of the redeveloped Docklands.
Samuel John Gurney Hoare, 1st Viscount Templewood, (24 February 1880 – 7 May 1959), more commonly known as Sir Samuel Hoare, was a senior British Conservative politician who served in various Cabinet posts in the Conservative and National governments of the 1920s and 1930s.
The SC 1000 (Sprengbombe Cylindrisch 1000) was a large air-dropped general-purpose thin cased high explosive demolition bomb used by Germany during World War II.
In World War II, Schräge Musik was the name Germans gave to upward-firing autocannon that the Luftwaffe mounted in night fighter aircraft.
Sebastian Cox, MA (born in 1956), is the Head of the Air Historical Branch (AHB) of the Royal Air Force, a specialist archive and history unit based at RAF Northolt, Middlesex, which seeks to maintain and preserve the historical memory of the RAF and to develop and encourage "an informed understanding of RAF and air power history by providing accurate and timely advice to Ministers, the RAF, other government departments and the general public".
The "Second Great Fire of London" refers to one of the most destructive air raids of the Blitz.
The Sheffield Blitz is the name given to the worst nights of German Luftwaffe bombing in Sheffield, England, during the Second World War.
Shell shock is a term coined in World War I to describe the type of posttraumatic stress disorder many soldiers were afflicted with during the war (before PTSD itself was a term).
Marshal of the Royal Air Force William Sholto Douglas, 1st Baron Douglas of Kirtleside, (23 December 1893 – 29 October 1969) was a senior commander in the Royal Air Force.
Marshal of the Royal Air Force Sir Arthur Travers Harris, 1st Baronet, (13 April 1892 – 5 April 1984), commonly known as "Bomber" Harris by the press and often within the RAF as "Butcher" Harris, was Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief (AOC-in-C) RAF Bomber Command during the height of the Anglo-American strategic bombing campaign against Nazi Germany in the Second World War.
Southampton is the largest city in the ceremonial county of Hampshire, England.
The Southampton Blitz was the heavy bombing of Southampton by the Nazi German Luftwaffe during World War II.
The Southern Railway (SR), sometimes shortened to 'Southern', was a British railway company established in the 1923 Grouping.
Southsea is a seaside resort and geographic area, located in Portsmouth at the southern end of Portsea Island, Hampshire, England.
The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.
St Pancras railway station, also known as London St Pancras and officially since 2007 as St Pancras International, is a central London railway terminus located on Euston Road in the London Borough of Camden.
St Paul's Cathedral, London, is an Anglican cathedral, the seat of the Bishop of London and the mother church of the Diocese of London.
St Paul's Survives is a photograph taken in London during the night air raid of 29/30 December 1940, the 114th night of the Blitz of World War II.
Stephen Francis Bungay (born 2 September 1954) is a British management consultant, historian and author who has made a special study of the Battle of Britain.
Strategic bombing is a military strategy used in a total war with the goal of defeating the enemy by destroying its morale or its economic ability to produce and transport materiel to the theatres of military operations, or both.
Strategic bombing during World War II was the sustained aerial attack on railways, harbours, cities, workers' housing, and industrial districts in enemy territory during World War II.
Sunderland is a city at the centre of the City of Sunderland metropolitan borough, in Tyne and Wear, North East England, 10 miles southeast of Newcastle upon Tyne, 12 miles northeast of Durham, 101 miles southeast of Edinburgh, 104 miles north-northeast of Manchester, 77 miles north of Leeds, and 240 miles north-northwest of London.
The Supermarine Spitfire is a British single-seat fighter aircraft used by the Royal Air Force and other Allied countries before, during and after World War II.
The Swansea Blitz was the heavy and sustained bombing of Swansea by the Luftwaffe of Nazi Germany from 19–21 February 1941.
The Thames Estuary is the estuary in which the River Thames meets the waters of the North Sea, in the south-east of Great Britain.
The bomber will always get through was a phrase used by Stanley Baldwin in 1932 (although the theory was originally developed by Italian General Giulio Douhet), in the speech "A Fear for the Future" to the British Parliament.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Salvation Army is a Protestant Christian church and an international charitable organisation structured in a quasi-military fashion.
The Scout Association is the largest Scouting organisation in the United Kingdom and is the World Organization of the Scout Movement's recognised member for the United Kingdom (UK).
The Shape of Things to Come is a work of science fiction by H. G. Wells, published in 1933, which speculates on future events from 1933 until the year 2106.
The Wages of Destruction is a non-fiction book detailing the economic history of Nazi Germany.
The Week is a weekly news magazine with editions in the United Kingdom and United States.
Things to Come (also known in promotional material as H. G. Wells' Things to Come) is a 1936 British black-and-white science fiction film from United Artists, produced by Alexander Korda, directed by William Cameron Menzies, and written by H. G. Wells.
A tram (also tramcar; and in North America streetcar, trolley or trolley car) is a rail vehicle which runs on tramway tracks along public urban streets, and also sometimes on a segregated right of way.
The Helmore/GEC Turbinlite was a 2,700 million candela (2.7 Gcd) searchlight fitted in the nose of a number of British Douglas Havoc night fighters during the early part of the Second World War and around the time of The Blitz.
U-boat is an anglicised version of the German word U-Boot, a shortening of Unterseeboot, literally "undersea boat".
The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Army Air Corps (USAAC) was the aerial warfare service of the United States of America between 1926 and 1941.
The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF or AAF), informally known as the Air Force, was the aerial warfare service of the United States of America during and immediately after World War II (1939/41–1945), successor to the previous United States Army Air Corps and the direct predecessor of the United States Air Force of today, one of the five uniformed military services.
The Ural bomber was the initial aircraft design program/competition to develop a long-range bomber for the Luftwaffe, created and led by General Walther Wever in the early 1930s.
The V-1 flying bomb (Vergeltungswaffe 1 "Vengeance Weapon 1")—also known to the Allies as the buzz bomb, or doodlebug, and in Germany as Kirschkern (cherrystone) or Maikäfer (maybug)—was an early cruise missile and the only production aircraft to use a pulsejet for power.
The V-2 (Vergeltungswaffe 2, "Retribution Weapon 2"), technical name Aggregat 4 (A4), was the world's first long-range guided ballistic missile.
Victory gardens, also called war gardens or food gardens for defense, were vegetable, fruit, and herb gardens planted at private residences and public parks in the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and Germany during World War I and World War II.
Walther Wever (11 November 1887 – 3 June 1936) was a pre-World War II Luftwaffe Commander.
West Ham Power Station was a coal-fired power station on Bow Creek (the tidal mouth of the River Lea) at Canning Town, in east London.
The West Midlands is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes.
The Western Approaches is an approximately rectangular area of the Atlantic ocean lying immediately to the west of Ireland and parts of Great Britain.
The Western Front was a military theatre of World War II encompassing Denmark, Norway, Luxembourg, Belgium, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Germany. World War II military engagements in Southern Europe and elsewhere are generally considered under separate headings. The Western Front was marked by two phases of large-scale combat operations. The first phase saw the capitulation of the Netherlands, Belgium, and France during May and June 1940 after their defeat in the Low Countries and the northern half of France, and continued into an air war between Germany and Britain that climaxed with the Battle of Britain. The second phase consisted of large-scale ground combat (supported by a massive air war considered to be an additional front), which began in June 1944 with the Allied landings in Normandy and continued until the defeat of Germany in May 1945.
Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic abbey church in the City of Westminster, London, England, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster.
Whitehall is a road in the City of Westminster, Central London, which forms the first part of the A3212 road from Trafalgar Square to Chelsea.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija/Југославија; Jugoslavija; Југославија; Pannonian Rusyn: Югославия, transcr. Juhoslavija)Jugosllavia; Jugoszlávia; Juhoslávia; Iugoslavia; Jugoslávie; Iugoslavia; Yugoslavya; Югославия, transcr. Jugoslavija.
Blitz of London, Bombing campaign of London, Bombing of Britain, Bombing of London, Bombing of London in World War II, Der Blitz, London Blitz, London blitz, The London Blitz, The London blitz, The blitz, The london blitz, World War II/London.