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The Cloisters

Index The Cloisters

The Cloisters is a museum in Fort Tryon Park in Washington Heights, Upper Manhattan, New York City specializing in European medieval architecture, sculpture and decorative arts, with a focus on the Romanesque and Gothic periods. [1]

199 relations: Abbey of Saint-Michel-de-Cuxa, Acanthus (ornament), Adam and Eve, Adoration of the Magi, Aisle, Allen & Collens, American Revolution, Apostles, Apse, Arcade (architecture), Archivolt, Art Gallery of Ontario, Astudillo, Palencia, Álvaro, Count of Urgell, Bad Sankt Leonhard im Lavanttal, Barrel vault, Bell tower, Belles Heures of Jean de France, Duc de Berry, Bernard of Clairvaux, Binding of Isaac, Blueprint, Book of hours, Brooch, Burgundy, Bury St Edmunds, Buttress, Byzantine art, Byzantine Empire, C.K.G. Billings, Canigou, Carmelites, Catalonia, Central Park, Chlothar I, Christ in Majesty, Cistercians, Cloister, Cloisters Apocalypse, Cloisters Cross, Clovis I, Coogan's Bluff (film), Coronation of the Virgin, Cotte, Daniel Brodsky, Daniel in the lions' den, Digne Cathedral, Doorway from Moutiers-Saint-Jean, Duchy of Burgundy, Duke of Burgundy, Early Netherlandish painting, ..., Earthenware, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Embrasure, Ermengol IX, Count of Urgell, Ermengol VII, Count of Urgell, Ermengol X, Count of Urgell, Evron Abbey, Facsimile, Flamboyant, Flanders, Flemish, Fontainebleau, Fordham University, Fort Tryon Park, Fort Washington (Manhattan), Franks, Frederick Law Olmsted Jr., French Revolution, French Revolutionary Army, French Wars of Religion, Fresco, Froville, Fuentidueña, Funerary art, Gabriel, George Grey Barnard, George Joseph Demotte, Gothic architecture, Gothic boxwood miniature, Grisaille, Grotesque, Hellmouth, Henry II of England, Heraldry, Holy Land, Horticulture, Hours of Jeanne d'Evreux, Hudson River, Huguenots, Hybrid beasts in folklore, Illuminated manuscript, James Rorimer, Jean Le Noir (illuminator), Jean Pucelle, John D. Rockefeller Jr., John the Apostle, Joseph Breck (curator), Keystone (architecture), Knights Templar, Laféline, Lamb of God, Lancet window, Le Miracle de Théophile, Liège, Life of Christ in art, Lilium, Limbourg brothers, Lleida, Longsword, Mail (armour), Manhattan, Mantle (clothing), Marburg Picture Index, Margaret of Hereford, Margaret the Virgin, Martin of Tours, Mary, mother of Jesus, Matthew the Apostle, Maurice de Rothschild, Maya Deren, Mérode Altarpiece, Medieval art, Mespilus germanica, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Microform, Monastery of San Pedro de Arlanza, Morgan Library & Museum, Mosaic, Moutiers-Saint-Jean Abbey, MTA Regional Bus Operations, Nave, New York City, New York City Subway, New York University, Niche (architecture), Olmsted Brothers, Oolite, Opalescence, Order of Saint Benedict, Pier, Pier (architecture), Pilaster, Poitou, Porcelain, Portrait of Jennie, Pot metal, Prayer Bead with the Adoration of the Magi and the Crucifixion, Presentation of Jesus at the Temple, Proupiary, Psalter of Bonne de Luxembourg, Pyrenees, Quadrangle (architecture), Register (art), Reliquary Cross (The Cloisters), Reliquary Shrine (de Touyl), Renaissance art, Reugny, Indre-et-Loire, Rhineland, Robert Campin, Roger Fry, Rogier van der Weyden, Romanesque architecture, Rose, Rouen, Saint George and the Dragon, Saint-Guilhem-le-Désert, San Baudelio de Berlanga, Sées, Sées Cathedral, Segovia, Sens, Simon Bening, Stained glass, Stone slab, Tapestry, The Crucified Christ (The Cloisters), The Fuentidueña Apse, The Hunt of the Unicorn, The New York Times, The New Yorker, The Palisades (Hudson River), The Second Shepherds' Play, Toulouse, Transept, Trie-sur-Baïse, Triptych, True Cross, Upper Manhattan, Vine, Washington Heights, Manhattan, Wattle (construction), Wellhead, Wild man, William Dieterle, William W. Bosworth, World War II, Wyvern, 190th Street (IND Eighth Avenue Line), 191st Street (IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line). Expand index (149 more) »

Abbey of Saint-Michel-de-Cuxa

The abbey of Saint-Michel-de-Cuxa is a Benedictine abbey located in the territory of the commune of Codalet, in the Pyrénées-Orientales département, in southwestern France.

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Acanthus (ornament)

The acanthus (ἄκανθος) is one of the most common plant forms to make foliage ornament and decoration.

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Adam and Eve

Adam and Eve, according to the creation myth of the Abrahamic religions, were the first man and woman.

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Adoration of the Magi

The Adoration of the Magi or Adoration of the Kings is the name traditionally given to the subject in the Nativity of Jesus in art in which the three Magi, represented as kings, especially in the West, having found Jesus by following a star, lay before him gifts of gold, frankincense, and myrrh, and worship him.

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An aisle is, in general (common), a space for walking with rows of seats on both sides or with rows of seats on one side and a wall on the other.

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Allen & Collens

Allen & Collens was an architectural partnership between Francis Richmond Allen and Charles Collens that was active from 1904 to 1931.

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American Revolution

The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.

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In Christian theology and ecclesiology, the apostles, particularly the Twelve Apostles (also known as the Twelve Disciples or simply the Twelve), were the primary disciples of Jesus, the central figure in Christianity.

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In architecture, an apse (plural apses; from Latin absis: "arch, vault" from Greek ἀψίς apsis "arch"; sometimes written apsis, plural apsides) is a semicircular recess covered with a hemispherical vault or semi-dome, also known as an Exedra.

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Arcade (architecture)

An arcade is a succession of arches, each counter-thrusting the next, supported by columns, piers, or a covered walkway enclosed by a line of such arches on one or both sides.

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An archivolt (or voussure) is an ornamental molding or band following the curve on the underside of an arch.

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Art Gallery of Ontario

The Art Gallery of Ontario (AGO) (Musée des beaux-arts de l'Ontario) is an art museum in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

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Astudillo, Palencia

Astudillo is a Spanish municipality in the autonomous community of Castilla y León belonging to the province of Palencia.

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Álvaro, Count of Urgell

Álvaro (1239 in Burgos – 1268 in Foix), called Àlvar el Castellà ("the Castilian") in Catalan, was the Count of Urgell and Viscount of Àger from 1243.

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Bad Sankt Leonhard im Lavanttal

Bad Sankt Leonhard im Lavanttal (Sveti Lenart v Labotu) is a spa town in the district of Wolfsberg in the Austrian state of Carinthia.

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Barrel vault

A barrel vault, also known as a tunnel vault or a wagon vault, is an architectural element formed by the extrusion of a single curve (or pair of curves, in the case of a pointed barrel vault) along a given distance.

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Bell tower

A bell tower is a tower that contains one or more bells, or that is designed to hold bells even if it has none.

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Belles Heures of Jean de France, Duc de Berry

The Belles Heures of Jean de France, Duc de Berry, or Belles Heures of Jean de Berry (The Beautiful Hours) is an early 15th-century illuminated manuscript book of hours (containing prayers to be said by the faithful at each canonical hour of the day) commissioned by the French prince John, Duke of Berry (Jean, duc de Berry), around 1409, and made for his use in private prayer and especially devotions to the Virgin Mary.

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Bernard of Clairvaux

Bernard of Clairvaux, O.Cist (Bernardus Claraevallensis; 109020 August 1153) was a French abbot and a major leader in the reform of Benedictine monasticism that caused the formation of the Cistercian order.

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Binding of Isaac

The Binding of Isaac (עֲקֵידַת יִצְחַק Aqedat Yitzhaq, in Hebrew also simply "The Binding", הָעֲקֵידָה Ha-Aqedah), is a story from the Hebrew Bible found in Genesis 22.

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A blueprint is a reproduction of a technical drawing, an architectural plan, or an engineering design, using a contact print process on light-sensitive sheets.

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Book of hours

The book of hours is a Christian devotional book popular in the Middle Ages.

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A brooch is a decorative jewelry item designed to be attached to garments, often to hold them closed.

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Burgundy (Bourgogne) is a historical territory and a former administrative region of France.

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Bury St Edmunds

Bury St Edmunds is a historic market town and civil parish in the in St Edmundsbury district, in the county of Suffolk, England.

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A buttress is an architectural structure built against or projecting from a wall which serves to support or reinforce the wall.

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Byzantine art

Byzantine art is the name for the artistic products of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire, as well as the nations and states that inherited culturally from the empire.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).

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C.K.G. Billings

Cornelius Kingsley Garrison Billings (September 17, 1861 in Saratoga, New York – May 6, 1937 in Santa Barbara, California) was a wealthy industrialist, a noted horseman and tycoon.

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The Canigou (Canigó,; el. 2,784.66 m./9137 ft.) is a mountain located in the Pyrenees of southern France.

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The Order of the Brothers of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mount Carmel or Carmelites (sometimes simply Carmel by synecdoche; Ordo Fratrum Beatissimæ Virginis Mariæ de Monte Carmelo) is a Roman Catholic religious order founded, probably in the 12th century, on Mount Carmel in the Crusader States, hence the name Carmelites.

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Catalonia (Catalunya, Catalonha, Cataluña) is an autonomous community in Spain on the northeastern extremity of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy.

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Central Park

Central Park is an urban park in Manhattan, New York City.

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Chlothar I

Chlothar I (c. 497 – 29 November 561), also called "Clotaire I" and the Old (le Vieux), King of the Franks, was one of the four sons of Clovis I of the Merovingian dynasty.

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Christ in Majesty

Christ in Majesty or Christ in Glory (Maiestas Domini) is the Christian image of Christ seated on a throne as ruler of the world, always seen frontally in the centre of the composition, and often flanked by other sacred figures, whose membership changes over time and according to the context.

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A Cistercian is a member of the Cistercian Order (abbreviated as OCist, SOCist ((Sacer) Ordo Cisterciensis), or ‘’’OCSO’’’ (Ordo Cisterciensis Strictioris Observantiae), which are religious orders of monks and nuns. They are also known as “Trappists”; as Bernardines, after the highly influential St. Bernard of Clairvaux (though that term is also used of the Franciscan Order in Poland and Lithuania); or as White Monks, in reference to the colour of the "cuccula" or white choir robe worn by the Cistercians over their habits, as opposed to the black cuccula worn by Benedictine monks. The original emphasis of Cistercian life was on manual labour and self-sufficiency, and many abbeys have traditionally supported themselves through activities such as agriculture and brewing ales. Over the centuries, however, education and academic pursuits came to dominate the life of many monasteries. A reform movement seeking to restore the simpler lifestyle of the original Cistercians began in 17th-century France at La Trappe Abbey, leading eventually to the Holy See’s reorganization in 1892 of reformed houses into a single order Order of Cistercians of the Strict Observance (OCSO), commonly called the Trappists. Cistercians who did not observe these reforms became known as the Cistercians of the Original Observance. The term Cistercian (French Cistercien), derives from Cistercium, the Latin name for the village of Cîteaux, near Dijon in eastern France. It was in this village that a group of Benedictine monks from the monastery of Molesme founded Cîteaux Abbey in 1098, with the goal of following more closely the Rule of Saint Benedict. The best known of them were Robert of Molesme, Alberic of Cîteaux and the English monk Stephen Harding, who were the first three abbots. Bernard of Clairvaux entered the monastery in the early 1110s with 30 companions and helped the rapid proliferation of the order. By the end of the 12th century, the order had spread throughout France and into England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, Spain, Portugal, Italy, and Eastern Europe. The keynote of Cistercian life was a return to literal observance of the Rule of St Benedict. Rejecting the developments the Benedictines had undergone, the monks tried to replicate monastic life exactly as it had been in Saint Benedict's time; indeed in various points they went beyond it in austerity. The most striking feature in the reform was the return to manual labour, especially agricultural work in the fields, a special characteristic of Cistercian life. Cistercian architecture is considered one of the most beautiful styles of medieval architecture. Additionally, in relation to fields such as agriculture, hydraulic engineering and metallurgy, the Cistercians became the main force of technological diffusion in medieval Europe. The Cistercians were adversely affected in England by the Protestant Reformation, the Dissolution of the Monasteries under King Henry VIII, the French Revolution in continental Europe, and the revolutions of the 18th century, but some survived and the order recovered in the 19th century.

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A cloister (from Latin claustrum, "enclosure") is a covered walk, open gallery, or open arcade running along the walls of buildings and forming a quadrangle or garth.

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Cloisters Apocalypse

The Cloisters Apocalypse, MS 68.174 (also the Cloisters Book of Revelations) is a small French illuminated manuscript dated c. 1330.

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Cloisters Cross

The Cloisters Cross, also referred to as the Bury St Edmunds Cross, is an unusually complex 12th century ivory Romanesque altar cross in The Cloisters, part of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York.

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Clovis I

Clovis (Chlodovechus; reconstructed Frankish: *Hlōdowig; 466 – 27 November 511) was the first king of the Franks to unite all of the Frankish tribes under one ruler, changing the form of leadership from a group of royal chieftains to rule by a single king and ensuring that the kingship was passed down to his heirs.

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Coogan's Bluff (film)

Coogan's Bluff is a 1968 American action film directed by Don Siegel, and starring Clint Eastwood, Lee J. Cobb, Don Stroud and Susan Clark.

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Coronation of the Virgin

The Coronation of the Virgin or Coronation of Mary is a subject in Christian art, especially popular in Italy in the 13th to 15th centuries, but continuing in popularity until the 18th century and beyond.

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The cotte (or cote) was a medieval outer garment, a long sleeved shift, or tunic, usually girded, and worn by men and women.

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Daniel Brodsky

Daniel Brodsky (born 1945) is an American real estate developer, art collector, and serves as chairman of the board at the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

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Daniel in the lions' den

The story of Daniel in the lions' den (chapter 6 in the Book of Daniel) tells how Daniel is raised to high office by his royal master Darius the Mede, but jealous rivals trick Darius into issuing a decree which condemns Daniel to death.

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Digne Cathedral

Digne Cathedral (Cathédrale Saint-Jérome de Digne) is a Roman Catholic church located in the town of Digne-les-Bains, France.

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Doorway from Moutiers-Saint-Jean

The Doorway from Moutiers-Saint-Jean is a portal dating from c 1250, originally for the monastery of Moutiers-Saint-Jean, near Dijon, Burgundy, France.

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Duchy of Burgundy

The Duchy of Burgundy (Ducatus Burgundiae; Duché de Bourgogne) emerged in the 9th century as one of the successors of the ancient Kingdom of the Burgundians, which after its conquest in 532 had formed a constituent part of the Frankish Empire.

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Duke of Burgundy

Duke of Burgundy (duc de Bourgogne) was a title borne by the rulers of the Duchy of Burgundy, a small portion of traditional lands of Burgundians west of river Saône which in 843 was allotted to Charles the Bald's kingdom of West Franks.

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Early Netherlandish painting

Early Netherlandish painting is the work of artists, sometimes known as the Flemish Primitives, active in the Burgundian and Habsburg Netherlands during the 15th- and 16th-century Northern Renaissance; especially in the flourishing cities of Bruges, Ghent, Mechelen, Louvain, Tournai and Brussels, all in contemporary Belgium.

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Earthenware is glazed or unglazed nonvitreous pottery that has normally been fired below 1200°C.

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Eleanor of Aquitaine

Eleanor of Aquitaine (Aliénor d'Aquitaine, Éléonore,; 1124 – 1 April 1204) was queen consort of France (1137–1152) and England (1154–1189) and duchess of Aquitaine in her own right (1137–1204).

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In military architecture, an embrasure is the opening in a crenellation or battlement between the two raised solid portions or merlons, sometimes called a crenel or crenelle.

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Ermengol IX, Count of Urgell

Ermengol IX (1243) was a medieval Catalan nobleman.

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Ermengol VII, Count of Urgell

Ermengol VII (or Armengol VII) (died 1184) was the Count of Urgell from 1154 to his death.

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Ermengol X, Count of Urgell

Ermengol X (1254–1314) was the Count of Urgel and Viscount of Àger from 1268, though his succession was disputed.

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Evron Abbey

The Abbaye Notre-Dame d'Évron is a former Benedictine abbey founded in Évron, in the Mayenne department in France; now the seat of the Community of Saint Martin, an association of priests and deacons living their apostolate in community.

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A facsimile (from Latin fac simile (to 'make alike')) is a copy or reproduction of an old book, manuscript, map, art print, or other item of historical value that is as true to the original source as possible.

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Flamboyant (from French flamboyant, "flaming") is the name given to a florid style of late Gothic architecture in vogue in France from about 1350, until it was superseded by Renaissance architecture during the early 16th century.

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Flanders (Vlaanderen, Flandre, Flandern) is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium, although there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language, politics and history.

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Flemish (Vlaams), also called Flemish Dutch (Vlaams-Nederlands), Belgian Dutch (Belgisch-Nederlands), or Southern Dutch (Zuid-Nederlands), is any of the varieties of the Dutch language dialects spoken in Flanders, the northern part of Belgium, as well as French Flanders and the Dutch Zeelandic Flanders by approximately 6.5 million people.

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Fontainebleau is a commune in the metropolitan area of Paris, France.

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Fordham University

Fordham University is a private research university in New York City.

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Fort Tryon Park

Fort Tryon Park is a public park located in the Hudson Heights and Inwood neighborhoods of the borough of Manhattan in New York City.

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Fort Washington (Manhattan)

Fort Washington was a fortified position near the north end of Manhattan Island (now part of the New York City neighborhood of Washington Heights) and was located at the highest point on the island.

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The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.

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Frederick Law Olmsted Jr.

Frederick Law Olmsted Jr. (July 24, 1870 – December 25, 1957) was an American landscape architect and city planner known for his wildlife conservation efforts.

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French Revolution

The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.

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French Revolutionary Army

The French Revolutionary Army (Armée révolutionnaire française) was the French force that fought the French Revolutionary Wars from 1792 to 1802.

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French Wars of Religion

The French Wars of Religion refers to a prolonged period of war and popular unrest between Roman Catholics and Huguenots (Reformed/Calvinist Protestants) in the Kingdom of France between 1562 and 1598.

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Fresco (plural frescos or frescoes) is a technique of mural painting executed upon freshly laid, or wet lime plaster.

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Froville is a commune in the Meurthe-et-Moselle department in north-eastern France.

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Fuentidueña is a municipality located in the province of Segovia, Castile and León, Spain.

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Funerary art

Funerary art is any work of art forming, or placed in, a repository for the remains of the dead.

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Gabriel (lit, lit, ⲅⲁⲃⲣⲓⲏⲗ, ܓܒܪܝܝܠ), in the Abrahamic religions, is an archangel who typically serves as God's messenger.

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George Grey Barnard

George Grey Barnard (May 24, 1863 – April 24, 1938), often written George Gray Barnard, was an American sculptor who trained in Paris.

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George Joseph Demotte

George Joseph Demotte, alternatively Georges-Joseph Demotte (1877-1923) was a Belgian-born art dealer, the owner of galleries in Paris (27 rue de Berri) and New York (8 East 57th Street) specializing in the sale of medieval French art.

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Gothic architecture

Gothic architecture is an architectural style that flourished in Europe during the High and Late Middle Ages.

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Gothic boxwood miniature

Gothic boxwood miniatures are extremely small carved wood miniature sculptures, mostly made in today's Belgium in the 15th and 16th centuries.

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A grisaille (or; gris 'grey') is a painting executed entirely in shades of grey or of another neutral greyish colour.

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Since at least the 18th century (in French and German as well as English), grotesque (or grottoesque) has come to be used as a general adjective for the strange, mysterious, magnificent, fantastic, hideous, ugly, incongruous, unpleasant, or disgusting, and thus is often used to describe weird shapes and distorted forms such as Halloween masks.

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Hellmouth is the entrance to Hell envisaged as the gaping mouth of a huge monster, an image which first appears in Anglo-Saxon art, and then spread all over Europe, remaining very common in depictions of the Last Judgment and Harrowing of Hell until the end of the Middle Ages, and still sometimes used during the Renaissance and after.

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Henry II of England

Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), also known as Henry Curtmantle (Court-manteau), Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, ruled as Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Count of Nantes, King of England and Lord of Ireland; at various times, he also partially controlled Wales, Scotland and Brittany.

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Heraldry is a broad term, encompassing the design, display, and study of armorial bearings (known as armory), as well as related disciplines, such as vexillology, together with the study of ceremony, rank, and pedigree.

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Holy Land

The Holy Land (Hebrew: אֶרֶץ הַקּוֹדֶשׁ, Terra Sancta; Arabic: الأرض المقدسة) is an area roughly located between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea that also includes the Eastern Bank of the Jordan River.

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Horticulture is the science and art of growing plants (fruits, vegetables, flowers, and any other cultivar).

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Hours of Jeanne d'Evreux

The Hours of Jeanne d'Evreux is an illuminated book of hours in the Gothic style.

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Hudson River

The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York in the United States.

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Huguenots (Les huguenots) are an ethnoreligious group of French Protestants who follow the Reformed tradition.

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Hybrid beasts in folklore

Hybrid beasts appear in the folklore of a variety of cultures as legendary creatures.

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Illuminated manuscript

An illuminated manuscript is a manuscript in which the text is supplemented with such decoration as initials, borders (marginalia) and miniature illustrations.

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James Rorimer

James Joseph Rorimer (September 7, 1905 – May 11, 1966), was an American museum curator and former director of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, where he was a primary force behind the creation of the Cloisters, a branch of the museum dedicated to the art and architecture of Medieval Europe.

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Jean Le Noir (illuminator)

Jean le Noir was a French manuscript illuminator active in Paris between 1335 and 1380.

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Jean Pucelle

Jean Pucelle (c. 1300 – 1355), active c. 1320-1350, was a Parisian Gothic-era manuscript illuminator who excelled in the invention of drolleries as well as traditional iconography.

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John D. Rockefeller Jr.

John Davison Rockefeller Jr. (January 29, 1874 – May 11, 1960) was an American financier and philanthropist who was a prominent member of the Rockefeller family.

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John the Apostle

John the Apostle (ܝܘܚܢܢ ܫܠܝܚܐ; יוחנן בן זבדי; Koine Greek: Ιωάννης; ⲓⲱⲁⲛⲛⲏⲥ or ⲓⲱ̅ⲁ; Latin: Ioannes) was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus according to the New Testament, which refers to him as Ἰωάννης.

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Joseph Breck (curator)

Joseph Henry Breck (1885–1933) was an American curator and museum director.

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Keystone (architecture)

A keystone (also known as capstone) is the wedge-shaped stone piece at the apex of a masonry arch, or the generally round one at the apex of a vault.

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Knights Templar

The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Salomonici), also known as the Order of Solomon's Temple, the Knights Templar or simply as Templars, were a Catholic military order recognised in 1139 by papal bull Omne Datum Optimum of the Holy See.

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Laféline is a commune in the Allier department in central France.

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Lamb of God

Lamb of God (Ἀμνὸς τοῦ Θεοῦ, Amnos tou Theou; Agnus Deī) is a title for Jesus that appears in the Gospel of John.

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Lancet window

A lancet window is a tall, narrow window with a pointed arch at its top.

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Le Miracle de Théophile

Le Miracle de Théophile (The Miracle of Theophilus) is a thirteenth-century miracle play written in Langues d'oïl, circa 1261 by the trouvère Rutebeuf.

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Liège (Lidje; Luik,; Lüttich) is a major Walloon city and municipality and the capital of the Belgian province of Liège. The city is situated in the valley of the Meuse, in the east of Belgium, not far from borders with the Netherlands (Maastricht is about to the north) and with Germany (Aachen is about north-east). At Liège, the Meuse meets the River Ourthe. The city is part of the sillon industriel, the former industrial backbone of Wallonia. It still is the principal economic and cultural centre of the region. The Liège municipality (i.e. the city proper) includes the former communes of Angleur, Bressoux, Chênée, Glain, Grivegnée, Jupille-sur-Meuse, Rocourt, and Wandre. In November 2012, Liège had 198,280 inhabitants. The metropolitan area, including the outer commuter zone, covers an area of 1,879 km2 (725 sq mi) and had a total population of 749,110 on 1 January 2008. Population of all municipalities in Belgium on 1 January 2008. Retrieved on 2008-10-19. Definitions of metropolitan areas in Belgium. The metropolitan area of Liège is divided into three levels. First, the central agglomeration (agglomeratie) with 480,513 inhabitants (2008-01-01). Adding the closest surroundings (banlieue) gives a total of 641,591. And, including the outer commuter zone (forensenwoonzone) the population is 810,983. Retrieved on 2008-10-19. This includes a total of 52 municipalities, among others, Herstal and Seraing. Liège ranks as the third most populous urban area in Belgium, after Brussels and Antwerp, and the fourth municipality after Antwerp, Ghent and Charleroi.

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Life of Christ in art

The Life of Christ as a narrative cycle in Christian art comprises a number of different subjects narrating the events from the life of Jesus on earth.

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Lilium (members of which are true lilies) is a genus of herbaceous flowering plants growing from bulbs, all with large prominent flowers.

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Limbourg brothers

The Limbourg brothers (Gebroeders van Limburg; fl. 1385 – 1416) were famous Dutch miniature painters (Herman, Paul, and Johan) from the city of Nijmegen.

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Lleida (Lérida) is a city in the west of Catalonia, Spain.

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A longsword (also spelled as long sword or long-sword) is a type of European sword characterized as having a cruciform hilt with a grip for two-handed use (around), a straight double-edged blade of around, and weighing approximately.

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Mail (armour)

Mail or maille (also chain mail(le) or chainmail(le)) is a type of armour consisting of small metal rings linked together in a pattern to form a mesh.

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Manhattan is the most densely populated borough of New York City, its economic and administrative center, and its historical birthplace.

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Mantle (clothing)

A mantle (from mantellum, the Latin term for a cloak) is a type of loose garment usually worn over indoor clothing to serve the same purpose as an overcoat.

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Marburg Picture Index

The Bildindex der Kunst und Architektur is an open online database of 2.2 million photographs of 1.7 million artworks and architectural objects.

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Margaret of Hereford

Margaret of Hereford (also Margaret de Bohun née Margaret of Gloucester, 1122/1123 – 6 April 1197) was an English noblewoman and the eldest daughter of Miles de Gloucester, 1st Earl of Hereford by his wife, the wealthy Cambro-Norman heiress Sibyl de Neufmarché.

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Margaret the Virgin

Margaret, known as Margaret of Antioch in the West, and as (Ἁγία Μαρίνα) in the East, is celebrated as a saint on July 20 in the Western Rite Orthodox, Roman Catholic and Anglican Churches, on July 17 (Julian calendar) by the Eastern-Rite Orthodox Church and on Epip 23 and Hathor 23 in the Coptic Churchs.

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Martin of Tours

Saint Martin of Tours (Sanctus Martinus Turonensis; 316 or 336 – 8 November 397) was Bishop of Tours, whose shrine in France became a famous stopping-point for pilgrims on the road to Santiago de Compostela in Spain.

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Mary, mother of Jesus

Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran.

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Matthew the Apostle

Matthew the Apostle (מַתִּתְיָהוּ Mattityahu or Mattay, "Gift of YHVH"; Ματθαῖος; ⲙⲁⲧⲑⲉⲟⲥ, Matthaios; also known as Saint Matthew and as Levi) was, according to the Christian Bible, one of the twelve apostles of Jesus and, according to Christian tradition, one of the four Evangelists.

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Maurice de Rothschild

Maurice Edmond Karl de Rothschild (19 May 1881 – 4 September 1957) was a French art collector, vineyard owner, financier and politician.

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Maya Deren

Maya Deren (April 29, 1917 – October 13, 1961), born Eleonora Derenkowska (Елеоно́ра Деренко́вська), was a Ukrainian-born American filmmaker and one of the most important American experimental filmmakers and entrepreneurial promoters of the avant-garde in the 1940s and 1950s.

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Mérode Altarpiece

The Mérode Altarpiece (or Annunciation Triptych) is an oil on oak panel triptych, now in The Cloisters, in New York City.

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Medieval art

The medieval art of the Western world covers a vast scope of time and place, over 1000 years of art in Europe, and at times the Middle East and North Africa.

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Mespilus germanica

Mespilus germanica, known as the medlar or common medlar, is a large shrub or small tree, and the name of the fruit of this tree.

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Metropolitan Museum of Art

The Metropolitan Museum of Art of New York, colloquially "the Met", is the largest art museum in the United States.

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Microforms are scaled-down reproductions of documents, typically either films or paper, made for the purposes of transmission, storage, reading, and printing.

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Monastery of San Pedro de Arlanza

San Pedro de Arlanza is a ruined Benedictine monastery in north central Spain.

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Morgan Library & Museum

The Morgan Library & Museum – formerly the Pierpont Morgan Library – is a museum and research library located at 225 Madison Avenue at East 36th Street in the Murray Hill neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City.

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A mosaic is a piece of art or image made from the assemblage of small pieces of colored glass, stone, or other materials.

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Moutiers-Saint-Jean Abbey

Moutiers-Saint-Jean Abbey (from Latin monasterium sancti Johannis, Abbaye de Moutiers-Saint-Jean, also Abbaye Saint-Jean-de-Réome) was a monastery located in what is now the village of Moutiers-Saint-Jean (named after the monastery) in the Côte-d'Or department in eastern France.

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MTA Regional Bus Operations

MTA Regional Bus Operations (RBO) is the surface transit division of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA).

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The nave is the central aisle of a basilica church, or the main body of a church (whether aisled or not) between its rear wall and the far end of its intersection with the transept at the chancel.

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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New York City Subway

The New York City Subway is a rapid transit system owned by the City of New York and leased to the New York City Transit Authority, a subsidiary agency of the state-run Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA).

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New York University

New York University (NYU) is a private nonprofit research university based in New York City.

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Niche (architecture)

A niche (CanE, or) in classical architecture is an exedra or an apse that has been reduced in size, retaining the half-dome heading usual for an apse.

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Olmsted Brothers

The Olmsted Brothers company was an influential landscape architectural firm in the United States, established in 1898 by brothers John Charles Olmsted (1852–1920) and Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr. (1870–1957), sons of the eminent landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted.

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Oolite or oölite (egg stone) is a sedimentary rock formed from ooids, spherical grains composed of concentric layers.

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Opalescence is a type of dichroism seen in highly dispersed systems with little opacity.

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Order of Saint Benedict

The Order of Saint Benedict (OSB; Latin: Ordo Sancti Benedicti), also known as the Black Monksin reference to the colour of its members' habitsis a Catholic religious order of independent monastic communities that observe the Rule of Saint Benedict.

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Seaside pleasure pier in Brighton, England. The first seaside piers were built in England in the early 19th century. A pier is a raised structure in a body of water, typically supported by well-spaced piles or pillars.

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Pier (architecture)

A pier, in architecture, is an upright support for a structure or superstructure such as an arch or bridge.

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The pilaster is an architectural element in classical architecture used to give the appearance of a supporting column and to articulate an extent of wall, with only an ornamental function.

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Poitou, in Poitevin: Poetou, was a province of west-central France whose capital city was Poitiers.

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Porcelain is a ceramic material made by heating materials, generally including kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between.

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Portrait of Jennie

Portrait of Jennie is a 1948 fantasy film based on the novella by Robert Nathan.

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Pot metal

Pot metal—also known as monkey metal, white metal, or die-cast zinc—is a colloquial term that refers to alloys of low-melting point metals that manufacturers use to make fast, inexpensive castings.

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Prayer Bead with the Adoration of the Magi and the Crucifixion

Prayer Bead with the Adoration of the Magi and the Crucifixion (MS 17.190.475) is a small south Netherlandish prayer nut, carved in fine-grained boxwood,"".

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Presentation of Jesus at the Temple

The Presentation of Jesus at the Temple is an early episode in the life of Jesus, describing his presentation at the Temple in Jerusalem in order to officially induct him into Judaism, that is celebrated by many Christian Churches on the holiday of Candlemas.

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Proupiary is a commune in the Haute-Garonne department in southwestern France.

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Psalter of Bonne de Luxembourg

The Psalter of Bonne de Luxembourg is a small 14th-century illuminated manuscript in tempera, grisaille, ink and gold leaf on vellum, now in the collection of The Cloisters, New York, and is usually on display.

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The Pyrenees (Pirineos, Pyrénées, Pirineus, Pirineus, Pirenèus, Pirinioak) is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between Spain and France.

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Quadrangle (architecture)

In architecture, a quadrangle (or colloquially, a quad) is a space or courtyard, usually rectangular (square or oblong) in plan, the sides of which are entirely or mainly occupied by parts of a large building (or several smaller buildings).

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Register (art)

In art and archaeology, in sculpture as well as in painting, a register is a horizontal level in a work that consists of several levels arranged one above the other, especially where the levels are clearly separated by lines.

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Reliquary Cross (The Cloisters)

The Reliquary Cross is a small (29.8 × 12.5 cm) French metalwork sculpture dated c. 1180, now in The Cloisters museum in New York.

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Reliquary Shrine (de Touyl)

Jean de Touyl's Reliquary Shrine is an especially complex 14th century container for relics, now in The Cloisters, New York.

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Renaissance art

Contributions to painting and architecture have been especially rich.

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Reugny, Indre-et-Loire

Reugny is a commune in the Indre-et-Loire department in central France.

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The Rhineland (Rheinland, Rhénanie) is the name used for a loosely defined area of Western Germany along the Rhine, chiefly its middle section.

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Robert Campin

Robert Campin (c. 1375 – 26 April 1444), now usually identified with the Master of Flémalle (earlier the Master of the Merode Triptych, before the discovery of three other similar panels), was the first great master of Flemish and Early Netherlandish painting.

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Roger Fry

Roger Eliot Fry (14 December 1866 – 9 September 1934) was an English painter and critic, and a member of the Bloomsbury Group.

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Rogier van der Weyden

Rogier van der Weyden or Roger de la Pasture (1399 or 140018 June 1464) was an Early Netherlandish painter whose surviving works consist mainly of religious triptychs, altarpieces and commissioned single and diptych portraits.

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Romanesque architecture

Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches.

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A rose is a woody perennial flowering plant of the genus Rosa, in the family Rosaceae, or the flower it bears.

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Rouen (Frankish: Rodomo; Rotomagus, Rothomagus) is a city on the River Seine in the north of France.

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Saint George and the Dragon

The legend of Saint George and the Dragon describes the saint taming and slaying a dragon that demanded human sacrifices; the saint thereby rescues the princess chosen as the next offering.

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Saint-Guilhem-le-Désert (Occitan: Sant Guilhèm dau Desèrt) is a commune in the Hérault department in the Occitanie region in southern France.

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San Baudelio de Berlanga

The Hermitage of San Baudelio de Berlanga (Ermita de San Baudelio de Berlanga) is an early 11th-century church at Caltojar in the province of Soria, Castile and León, Spain, 80 km south of Berlanga de Duero.

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Sées is a commune in the Orne department in north-western France.

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Sées Cathedral

Sées Cathedral (Basilique Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Sées) is a Roman Catholic church and national monument of France in Sées (formerly also Séez) in Normandy.

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Segovia is a city in the autonomous region of Castile and León, Spain.

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Sens is a commune in the Yonne department in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in north-central France, 120 km from Paris.

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Simon Bening

Simon Bening (c. 1483 – 1561) was a Flemish miniaturist, generally regarded as the last major artist of the Netherlandish tradition.

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Stained glass

The term stained glass can refer to coloured glass as a material or to works created from it.

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Stone slab

A stone slab is a big stone, flat and of little thickness, that are generally used for paving floors, for covering walls or as headstones.

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Tapestry is a form of textile art, traditionally woven on a vertical loom.

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The Crucified Christ (The Cloisters)

The Crucified Christ (MA 2005.274) is a sculpture in walrus ivory, probably from Paris c 1300, now in The Cloisters, New York.

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The Fuentidueña Apse

The Fuentidueña Apse is a Romanesque apse dated 1175–1200 that was built as part of the San Martín Church at Fuentidueña, province of Segovia, Castile and León, Spain.

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The Hunt of the Unicorn

The Hunt of the Unicorn, or the Unicorn Tapestries, is a series of seven tapestries dating from between 1495 and 1505, now in The Cloisters in New York, probably woven in Brussels.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The New Yorker

The New Yorker is an American magazine of reportage, commentary, criticism, essays, fiction, satire, cartoons, and poetry.

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The Palisades (Hudson River)

The Palisades, also called the New Jersey Palisades or the Hudson River Palisades, are a line of steep cliffs along the west side of the lower Hudson River in northeastern New Jersey and southeastern New York in the United States.

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The Second Shepherds' Play

The Second Shepherds' Play (also known as The Second Shepherds' Pageant) is a famous medieval mystery play which is contained in the manuscript HM1, the unique manuscript of the Wakefield Cycle.

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Toulouse (Tolosa, Tolosa) is the capital of the French department of Haute-Garonne and of the region of Occitanie.

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A transept (with two semitransepts) is a transverse part of any building, which lies across the main body of the edifice.

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Trie-sur-Baïse (Tria de Baïsa) is a commune in the Hautes-Pyrénées department in south-western France.

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A triptych (from the Greek adjective τρίπτυχον "triptukhon" ("three-fold"), from tri, i.e., "three" and ptysso, i.e., "to fold" or ptyx, i.e., "fold") is a work of art (usually a panel painting) that is divided into three sections, or three carved panels that are hinged together and can be folded shut or displayed open.

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True Cross

The True Cross is the name for physical remnants which, by a Christian Church tradition, are said to be from the cross upon which Jesus was crucified.

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Upper Manhattan

Upper Manhattan denotes the most northern region of the New York City Borough of Manhattan.

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A vine (Latin vīnea "grapevine", "vineyard", from vīnum "wine") is any plant with a growth habit of trailing or scandent (that is, climbing) stems, lianas or runners.

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Washington Heights, Manhattan

Washington Heights is a neighborhood in the northern portion of the New York City borough of Manhattan.

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Wattle (construction)

Wattle is a lightweight construction material made by weaving thin branches (either whole, or more usually split) or slats between upright stakes to form a woven lattice.

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A wellhead is the component at the surface of an oil or gas well that provides the structural and pressure-containing interface for the drilling and production equipment.

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Wild man

The wild man (also wildman, or "wildman of the woods") is a mythical figure that appears in the artwork and literature of medieval Europe, comparable to the satyr or faun type in classical mythology and to Silvanus, the Roman god of the woodlands.

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William Dieterle

William Dieterle (July 15, 1893 – December 9, 1972) was a German actor and film director, who worked in Hollywood for much of his career.

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William W. Bosworth

William Welles Bosworth (May 8, 1869 – June 3, 1966) was an American architect whose most famous designs include MIT's Cambridge campus, the AT&T Building in New York City, and the Theodore N. Vail mansion in Morristown, New Jersey (1916), now the Morristown Town Hall.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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A wyvern (sometimes spelled wivern) is a legendary creature with a dragon's head and wings, a reptilian body, two legs, and a tail often ending in a diamond- or arrow-shaped tip.

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190th Street (IND Eighth Avenue Line)

190th Street (originally 190th Street–Overlook Terrace) is a station on the IND Eighth Avenue Line of the New York City Subway, served by the A train at all times.

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191st Street (IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line)

191st Street is a station on the IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line of the New York City Subway.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Cloisters

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