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The Hallmarks of Cancer

Index The Hallmarks of Cancer

"The Hallmarks of Cancer" is a seminal peer-reviewed article published in the journal Cell in January 2000 by the cancer researchers Douglas Hanahan and Robert Weinberg. [1]

53 relations: Adenosine triphosphate, Angiogenesis, Apoptosis, Autocrine signalling, Benign tumor, Biological immortality, Breakage-fusion-bridge cycle, Cancer, Cancer cell, Cancer immunology, Carcinogenesis, Cell (journal), Cell growth, Chromosome abnormality, Citric acid cycle, Contact inhibition, Cytosol, DNA repair, Douglas Hanahan, Electron transport chain, Extracellular matrix, Glycolysis, Growth factor, Hayflick limit, HeLa, Homeostasis, Immune system, Inflammation, Journal of Biosciences, Ketogenic diet, Ketone bodies, Lactic acid fermentation, Metabolic pathway, Metastasis, Mitochondrial permeability transition pore, Mitochondrion, Mutation, Nature Reviews Cancer, Negative feedback, Organ (anatomy), Peer review, Ploidy, Polyploid, Programmed cell death, Pyruvic acid, Robert Weinberg, Senescence, Telomerase, Telomere, Trisomy, ..., Tumor suppressor, Warburg effect, Warburg hypothesis. Expand index (3 more) »

Adenosine triphosphate

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.

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Angiogenesis

Angiogenesis is the physiological process through which new blood vessels form from pre-existing vessels.

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Apoptosis

Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.

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Autocrine signalling

Autocrine signaling is a form of cell signaling in which a cell secretes a hormone or chemical messenger (called the autocrine agent) that binds to autocrine receptors on that same cell, leading to changes in the cell.

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Benign tumor

A benign tumor is a mass of cells (tumor) that lacks the ability to invade neighboring tissue or metastasize.

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Biological immortality

Biological immortality (sometimes referred to bio-indefinite mortality) is a state in which the rate of mortality from senescence is stable or decreasing, thus decoupling it from chronological age.

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Breakage-fusion-bridge cycle

Breakage-fusion-bridge (BFB) cycle (also breakage-rejoining-bridge cycle) is a mechanism of chromosomal instability, discovered by Barbara McClintock in the late 1930s.

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Cancer

Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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Cancer cell

Cancer cells are cells that divide relentlessly, forming solid tumors or flooding the blood with abnormal cells.

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Cancer immunology

Cancer immunology is an interdisciplinary branch of biology that is concerned with understanding the role of the immune system in the progression and development of cancer; the most well known application is cancer immunotherapy, which utilises the immune system as a treatment for cancer.

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Carcinogenesis

Carcinogenesis, also called oncogenesis or tumorigenesis, is the formation of a cancer, whereby normal cells are transformed into cancer cells.

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Cell (journal)

Cell is a peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing research papers across a broad range of disciplines within the life sciences.

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Cell growth

The term cell growth is used in the contexts of biological cell development and cell division (reproduction).

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Chromosome abnormality

A chromosome abnormality, disorder, anomaly, aberration, or mutation is a missing, extra, or irregular portion of chromosomal DNA.

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Citric acid cycle

The citric acid cycle (CAC) – also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle – is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to release stored energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

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Contact inhibition

In cell biology, contact inhibition refers to two different but closely related phenomena: contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL) and contact inhibition of proliferation (CIP).

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Cytosol

The cytosol, also known as intracellular fluid (ICF) or cytoplasmic matrix, is the liquid found inside cells.

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DNA repair

DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome.

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Douglas Hanahan

Douglas Hanahan (born 1951) is an American biologist, professor and director of the Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL).

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Electron transport chain

An electron transport chain (ETC) is a series of complexes that transfer electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors via redox (both reduction and oxidation occurring simultaneously) reactions, and couples this electron transfer with the transfer of protons (H+ ions) across a membrane.

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Extracellular matrix

In biology, the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a collection of extracellular molecules secreted by support cells that provides structural and biochemical support to the surrounding cells.

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Glycolysis

Glycolysis (from glycose, an older term for glucose + -lysis degradation) is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO− + H+.

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Growth factor

A growth factor is a naturally occurring substance capable of stimulating cellular growth, proliferation, healing, and cellular differentiation.

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Hayflick limit

The Hayflick limit or Hayflick phenomenon is the number of times a normal human cell population will divide before cell division stops.

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HeLa

HeLa (also Hela or hela) is a cell type in an immortal cell line used in scientific research.

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Homeostasis

Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.

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Immune system

The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.

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Inflammation

Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.

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Journal of Biosciences

The Journal of Biosciences is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Indian Academy of Sciences, Bengaluru, India.

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Ketogenic diet

The ketogenic diet is a high-fat, adequate-protein, low-carbohydrate diet that in medicine is used primarily to treat difficult-to-control (refractory) epilepsy in children.

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Ketone bodies

Ketone bodies are three water-soluble molecules (acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and their spontaneous breakdown product, acetone) containing the ketone group that are produced by the liver from fatty acids during periods of low food intake (fasting), carbohydrate restrictive diets, starvation, prolonged intense exercise, alcoholism or in untreated (or inadequately treated) type 1 diabetes mellitus.

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Lactic acid fermentation

Lactic acid fermentation is a metabolic process by which glucose and other six-carbon sugars (also, disaccharides of six-carbon sugars, e.g. sucrose or lactose) are converted into cellular energy and the metabolite lactate, which is lactic acid in solution.

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Metabolic pathway

In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a linked series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell.

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Metastasis

Metastasis is a pathogenic agent's spread from an initial or primary site to a different or secondary site within the host's body; it is typically spoken of as such spread by a cancerous tumor.

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Mitochondrial permeability transition pore

The mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP or MPTP; also referred to as PTP, mTP or MTP) is a protein that is formed in the inner membrane of the mitochondria under certain pathological conditions such as traumatic brain injury and stroke.

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Mitochondrion

The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.

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Mutation

In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.

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Nature Reviews Cancer

Nature Reviews Cancer is a monthly review journal covering the field of oncology.

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Negative feedback

Negative feedback (or balancing feedback) occurs when some function of the output of a system, process, or mechanism is fed back in a manner that tends to reduce the fluctuations in the output, whether caused by changes in the input or by other disturbances.

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Organ (anatomy)

Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.

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Peer review

Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people of similar competence to the producers of the work (peers).

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Ploidy

Ploidy is the number of complete sets of chromosomes in a cell, and hence the number of possible alleles for autosomal and pseudoautosomal genes.

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Polyploid

Polyploid cells and organisms are those containing more than two paired (homologous) sets of chromosomes.

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Programmed cell death

Programmed cell death (or PCD) is the death of a cell in any form, mediated by an intracellular program.

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Pyruvic acid

Pyruvic acid (CH3COCOOH) is the simplest of the alpha-keto acids, with a carboxylic acid and a ketone functional group.

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Robert Weinberg

Robert Allan Weinberg (born November 11, 1942) is a biologist, Daniel K. Ludwig Professor for Cancer Research at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), director of the Ludwig Center of the MIT, and American Cancer Society Research Professor.

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Senescence

Senescence or biological ageing is the gradual deterioration of function characteristic of most complex lifeforms, arguably found in all biological kingdoms, that on the level of the organism increases mortality after maturation.

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Telomerase

Telomerase, also called terminal transferase, is a ribonucleoprotein that adds a species-dependent telomere repeat sequence to the 3' end of telomeres.

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Telomere

A telomere is a region of repetitive nucleotide sequences at each end of a chromosome, which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration or from fusion with neighboring chromosomes.

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Trisomy

A trisomy is a type of polysomy in which there are three instances of a particular chromosome, instead of the normal two.

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Tumor suppressor

A tumor suppressor gene, or antioncogene, is a gene that protects a cell from one step on the path to cancer.

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Warburg effect

"Warburg effect" describes two unrelated observations in biochemistry, one in plant physiology and the other in oncology, both due to Nobel laureate Otto Heinrich Warburg.

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Warburg hypothesis

The Warburg hypothesis, sometimes known as the Warburg theory of cancer, postulates that the driver of tumorigenesis is an insufficient cellular respiration caused by insult to mitochondria.

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Hallmarks of cancer.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Hallmarks_of_Cancer

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