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Otto Adolf Eichmann (19 March 1906 – 1 June 1962) was a German Nazi SS-Obersturmbannführer (lieutenant colonel) and one of the major organizers of the Holocaust.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Adolf Hitler's rise to power began in Germany in September 1919 when Hitler joined the political party known as the Deutsche Arbeiterpartei – DAP (German Workers' Party).
The Aktion Erntefest (Operation Harvest Festival) was a World War II mass shooting action carried out by the SS, the Order police, and the Ukrainian Sonderdienst formations in the General Government territory of occupied Poland.
Aktion T4 (German) was a postwar name for mass murder through involuntary euthanasia in Nazi Germany.
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
Alexander Ernst Alfred Hermann Freiherr von Falkenhausen (29 October 1878 – 31 July 1966) was a German General and military advisor to Chiang Kai-shek.
Alfred Josef Ferdinand Jodl (10 May 1890 – 16 October 1946) was a German general during World War II, who served as the Chief of the Operations Staff of the Armed Forces High Command (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht).
Alfred Ernst Rosenberg (12 January 1893 – 16 October 1946) was a German theorist and an influential ideologue of the Nazi Party.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Alltagsgeschichte is a form of microhistory that was particularly prevalent amongst German historians during the 1980s.
The Imperial Territory of Alsace-Lorraine (Reichsland Elsaß-Lothringen or Elsass-Lothringen, or Alsace-Moselle) was a territory created by the German Empire in 1871, after it annexed most of Alsace and the Moselle department of Lorraine following its victory in the Franco-Prussian War.
The American Academy of Political and Social Science was founded in 1889 to promote progress in the social sciences.
Anschluss ('joining') refers to the annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany on 12 March 1938.
Robert Anthony Eden, 1st Earl of Avon, (12 June 1897 – 14 January 1977) was a British Conservative politician who served three periods as Foreign Secretary and then a relatively brief term as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1955 to 1957.
Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.
Armée Juive or Jewish Army, was a Zionist resistance movement in Nazi occupied World War II France which was created during January 1942 in Toulouse.
The Arrow Cross Party (Nyilaskeresztes Párt – Hungarista Mozgalom, literally "Arrow Cross Party-Hungarist Movement") was a Nazi party led by Ferenc Szálasi, which formed a government in Hungary known as the Government of National Unity.
Arthur Seyss-Inquart (German:; 22 July 189216 October 1946) was an Austrian Nazi politician who served as Chancellor of Austria for two days – from 11 to 13 March 1938 – before the Anschluss annexation of Austria by Nazi Germany, signing the constitutional law as acting head of state upon the resignation of President Wilhelm Miklas.
The Aryan race was a racial grouping used in the period of the late 19th century and mid-20th century to describe people of European and Western Asian heritage.
The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Territory, on the morning of December 7, 1941.
The Auschwitz Album is a unique photographic record of the Holocaust of the Second World War.
Auschwitz concentration camp was a network of concentration and extermination camps built and operated by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland during World War II.
The Auschwitz trial began on November 24, 1947, in Kraków, when Polish authorities (the Supreme National Tribunal) tried 40 former staff of the Auschwitz concentration camps.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
The Avalon Project is a digital library of documents relating to law, history and diplomacy.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
The Łódź Ghetto (Ghetto Litzmannstadt) was a World War II ghetto established by the Nazi German authorities for Polish Jews and Roma following the 1939 invasion of Poland.
Babi Yar (Бабин Яр, Babyn Yar; Бабий Яр, Babiy Yar) is a ravine in the Ukrainian capital Kiev and a site of massacres carried out by German forces and by local Ukrainian collaborators during their campaign against the Soviet Union in World War II.
The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War.
The Battle of Greece (also known as Operation Marita, Unternehmen Marita) is the common name for the invasion of Allied Greece by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany in April 1941 during World War II.
The Battle of the Netherlands (Slag om Nederland) was a military campaign part of Case Yellow (Fall Gelb), the German invasion of the Low Countries (Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands) and France during World War II.
Bełżec (in Belzec) was a Nazi German extermination camp built by the SS for the purpose of implementing the secretive Operation Reinhard, the plan to eradicate Polish Jewry, a key part of the "Final Solution" which entailed the murder of some 6 million Jews in the Holocaust.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
Benedict F. "Ben" Kiernan (born 1953 in Melbourne) is the Whitney Griswold Professor of History, Professor of International and Area Studies and Director of the Genocide Studies Program at Yale University.
Bensheim is a town in the Bergstraße district in southern Hesse, Germany.
Bergen-Belsen, or Belsen, was a Nazi concentration camp in what is today Lower Saxony in northern Germany, southwest of the town of Bergen near Celle.
The Berlin Philharmonic (Berliner Philharmoniker) is a German orchestra based in Berlin.
The Białystok Ghetto (getto w Białymstoku) was a World War II Jewish ghetto set up by Nazi Germany between July 26 and early August 1941 in the newly formed Bezirk Bialystok district within Nazi occupied Poland.
The Białystok Ghetto uprising was a Jewish insurrection in the Białystok Ghetto against the Nazi German occupation authorities during World War II.
The Bielski partisans were a unit of Jewish partisans who rescued Jews from extermination and fought the German occupiers and their collaborators around Nowogródek (Navahrudak) and Lida (now in western Belarus) in German-occupied Poland.
Blood libel (also blood accusation) is an accusationTurvey, Brent E. Criminal Profiling: An Introduction to Behavioral Evidence Analysis, Academic Press, 2008, p. 3.
Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin is a book by Yale historian Timothy D. Snyder, first published by Basic Books on October 28, 2010.
BMW (Bayerische Motoren Werke in German, or Bavarian Motor Works in English) is a German multinational company which currently produces luxury automobiles and motorcycles, and also produced aircraft engines until 1945.
Boris III (Борѝс III; 28 August 1943), originally Boris Klemens Robert Maria Pius Ludwig Stanislaus Xaver (Boris Clement Robert Mary Pius Louis Stanislaus Xavier), was Tsar of Bulgaria from 1918 until his death.
Bruno Walter (born Bruno Schlesinger, September 15, 1876February 17, 1962) was a German-born conductor, pianist and composer.
Buchenwald concentration camp (German: Konzentrationslager (KZ) Buchenwald,; literally, in English: beech forest) was a German Nazi concentration camp established on Ettersberg hill near Weimar, Germany, in July 1937, one of the first and the largest of the concentration camps on German soil, following Dachau's opening just over four years earlier.
The Budapest Ghetto was a Nazi ghetto set up in Budapest, Hungary, where Jews were forced to relocate by a decree of the Hungarian Government during the final stages of World War II.
The Bulgarian Orthodox Church (Българска православна църква, Balgarska pravoslavna tsarkva) is an autocephalous Orthodox Church.
Carpathian Ruthenia, Carpatho-Ukraine or Zakarpattia (Rusyn and Карпатська Русь, Karpats'ka Rus' or Закарпаття, Zakarpattja; Slovak and Podkarpatská Rus; Kárpátalja; Transcarpatia; Zakarpacie; Karpatenukraine) is a historic region in the border between Central and Eastern Europe, mostly located in western Ukraine's Zakarpattia Oblast, with smaller parts in easternmost Slovakia (largely in Prešov Region and Košice Region) and Poland's Lemkovyna.
Castration (also known as gonadectomy) is any action, surgical, chemical, or otherwise, by which an individual loses use of the testicles.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Central Agency for Jewish Emigration in Vienna was a Sicherheitsdienst (SD-Security Service) agency established in August 1938 to accelerate the forced emigration of the Austrian Jews and (starting in October 1939) to organize and carry out their deportation.
Central European History is a peer-reviewed academic journal on history published quarterly by Cambridge University Press on behalf of the Conference Group for Central European History of the American Historical Association.
The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia was one of the largest encyclopedic dictionaries of the English language.
Chaim Mordechai Rumkowski (February 27, 1877 – August 28, 1944) was a Polish Jew and wartime businessman appointed by Nazi Germany as the head of the Council of Elders in the Łódź Ghetto during the German occupation of Poland in World War II.
Chełmno extermination camp (Vernichtungslager Kulmhof), built during World War II, was the first of the Nazi German extermination camps and was situated north of the metropolitan city of Łódź (renamed to Litzmannstadt), near the village of Chełmno nad Nerem (Kulmhof an der Nehr in German).
Hans Christian Gerlach is professor of Modern History at the University of Bern.
Christopher Robert Browning (born May 22, 1944) is an American historian, known best for his works on the Holocaust.
The Conference on Jewish Material Claims Against Germany, or Claims Conference, represents the world's Jews in negotiating for compensation and restitution for victims of Nazi persecution and their heirs.
Commissar (or sometimes Kommissar) is an English transliteration of the Russian комиссáр, which means commissary.
The Commissar Order (Kommissarbefehl) was an order issued by the German High Command (OKW) on 6 June 1941 before Operation Barbarossa.
In criminal law, a conspiracy is an agreement between two or more persons to commit a crime at some time in the future.
Cremation is the combustion, vaporization, and oxidation of cadavers to basic chemical compounds, such as gases, ashes and mineral fragments retaining the appearance of dry bone.
A crime against peace, in international law, is "planning, preparation, initiation, or waging of wars of aggression, or a war in violation of international treaties, agreements or assurances, or participation in a common plan or conspiracy for the accomplishment of any of the foregoing".
Dachau concentration camp (Konzentrationslager (KZ) Dachau) was the first of the Nazi concentration camps opened in Germany, intended to hold political prisoners.
The Dachau trials were held for all war criminals caught in the United States zones in occupied Germany and Austria, as well as for those individuals accused of committing war crimes against American citizens and its military personnel.
Dahlem is a locality of the Steglitz-Zehlendorf borough in southwestern Berlin.
David Ben-Gurion (דָּוִד בֶּן-גּוּרִיּוֹן;, born David Grün; 16 October 1886 – 1 December 1973) was the primary national founder of the State of Israel and the first Prime Minister of Israel.
David Cesarani OBE (13 November 1956 – 25 October 2015) was an English historian who specialised in Jewish history, especially the Holocaust.
Deutsche Bank AG is a German investment bank and financial services company headquartered in Frankfurt, Hesse, Germany.
The Deutsches Ärzteblatt is a weekly German-language medical magazine published in Germany.
Dietrich Eckart (23 March 1868 – 26 December 1923) was a German journalist, playwright, poet, and politician who was one of the founders of the Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (German Workers' Party - DAP), which later evolved into the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Disbarment is the removal of a lawyer from a bar association or the practice of law, thus revoking his or her law license or admission to practice law.
The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.
Eberhard Jäckel (June 29, 1929 – August 15, 2017) was a Social Democratic German historian, noted for his studies of Adolf Hitler's role in German history.
Count Edward Bernard Raczyński (December 19, 1891 – July 30, 1993) was a Polish diplomat, writer, politician and President of Poland in exile (between 1979 and 1986).
Einsatzgruppen ("task forces" or "deployment groups") were Schutzstaffel (SS) paramilitary death squads of Nazi Germany that were responsible for mass killings, primarily by shooting, during World War II (1939–45).
The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.
The Encyclopedia of the Holocaust (1990) has been called "the most recognized reference book on the Holocaust".
The final battles of the European Theatre of World War II as well as the German surrender to the Allies took place in late April and early May 1945.
Ernst Toller (1 December 1893 – 22 May 1939) was a German left-wing playwright, best known for his Expressionist plays.
Ernst Eduard vom Rath (3 June 1909 – 9 November 1938) was a German diplomat, remembered for his assassination in Paris in 1938 by a Polish Jewish teenager, Herschel Grynszpan, which provided a pretext for the Kristallnacht, "The Night of Broken Glass.".
Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrödinger (12 August 1887 – 4 January 1961), sometimes written as or, was a Nobel Prize-winning Austrian physicist who developed a number of fundamental results in the field of quantum theory, which formed the basis of wave mechanics: he formulated the wave equation (stationary and time-dependent Schrödinger equation) and revealed the identity of his development of the formalism and matrix mechanics.
Ethnic cleansing is the systematic forced removal of ethnic or racial groups from a given territory by a more powerful ethnic group, often with the intent of making it ethnically homogeneous.
Nazi Germany built extermination camps (also called death camps or killing centers) during the Holocaust in World War II, to systematically kill millions of Jews, Slavs, Communists, and others whom the Nazis considered "Untermenschen" ("subhumans").
Extermination through labour is a term sometimes used to describe the operation of concentration camp, death camp and forced labour systems in Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union, North Korea, and elsewhere, defined as the willful or accepted killing of forced labourers or prisoners through excessively heavy labour, malnutrition and inadequate care.
The Fareynikte Partizaner Organizatsye (Yiddish: פֿאַראײניקטע פּאַרטיזאַנער אָרגאַניזאַציע; "United Partisan Organization"; referred to as FPO by its Yiddish initials) was a Jewish resistance organization based in the Vilna Ghetto that organized armed resistance against the Nazis during World War II.
The Final Solution (Endlösung) or the Final Solution to the Jewish Question (die Endlösung der Judenfrage) was a Nazi plan for the extermination of the Jews during World War II.
In international human rights law, a forced disappearance (or enforced disappearance) occurs when a person is secretly abducted or imprisoned by a state or political organization or by a third party with the authorization, support, or acquiescence of a state or political organization, followed by a refusal to acknowledge the person's fate and whereabouts, with the intent of placing the victim outside the protection of the law.
The use of forced labour and slavery in Nazi Germany and throughout German-occupied Europe during World War II took place on an unprecedented scale.
Ford Motor Company (commonly referred to simply as "Ford") is an American multinational automaker headquartered in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit.
The Foundation Remembrance, Responsibility and Future (German: Stiftung Erinnerung, Verantwortung und Zukunft; acronym EVZ), is a German Federal organisation with the purpose of making financial compensation available "to former forced laborers and to those affected by other injustices from the National Socialist period".
The Frankfurt Auschwitz trials, known in German as der Auschwitz-Prozess, or der zweite Auschwitz-Prozess, (the "second Auschwitz trial") was a series of trials running from 20 December 1963 to 19 August 1965, charging 22 defendants under German criminal law for their roles in the Holocaust as mid- to lower-level officials in the Auschwitz-Birkenau death and concentration camp complex.
French Algeria (Alger to 1839, then Algérie afterwards; unofficially Algérie française, االجزائر المستعمرة), also known as Colonial Algeria, began in 1830 with the invasion of Algiers and lasted until 1962, under a variety of governmental systems.
The Colony of Madagascar and Dependencies (Colonie de Madagascar et dépendances) was a French colony off the coast of Southeast Africa between 1897 and 1958.
The French protectorate in Morocco (Protectorat français au Maroc; حماية فرنسا في المغرب Ḥimāyat Faransā fi-l-Maḡrib) was established by the Treaty of Fez.
The French protectorate of Tunisia (Protectorat français de Tunisie; الحماية الفرنسية في تونس) was established in 1881, during the French colonial Empire era, and lasted until Tunisian independence in 1956.
The French Resistance (La Résistance) was the collection of French movements that fought against the Nazi German occupation of France and against the collaborationist Vichy régime during the Second World War.
A gas chamber is an apparatus for killing humans or other animals with gas, consisting of a sealed chamber into which a poisonous or asphyxiant gas is introduced.
A gas van or gas wagon (душегубка (dushegubka); Gaswagen) was a vehicle reequipped as a mobile gas chamber.
A gay bar is a drinking establishment that caters to an exclusively or predominantly lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) clientele; the term gay is used as a broadly inclusive concept for LGBT and queer communities.
The General Government (Generalgouvernement, Generalne Gubernatorstwo, Генеральна губернія), also referred to as the General Governorate, was a German zone of occupation established after the joint invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in 1939 at the onset of World War II.
The Generalplan Ost (Master Plan for the East), abbreviated GPO, was the German government's plan for the genocide and ethnic cleansing on a vast scale, and colonization of Central and Eastern Europe by Germans.
Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.
Geoffrey P. Megargee (born 1959) is an American historian and author who specialises in the World War II military history and the history of the Holocaust.
Gerald Roberts Reitlinger (born 1900 in London, United Kingdom – died 1978 in St Leonards-on-Sea, United Kingdom) was an art historian, especially of Asian ceramics, and a scholar of historical changes in taste in art and their reflection in art prices.
The AB-Aktion (Außerordentliche Befriedungsaktion), was a second stage of the Nazi German campaign of violence during World War II aimed to eliminate the intellectuals and the upper classes of Polish society across the territories slated for eventual annexation.
On 11 December 1941, four days after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and the United States declaration of war against the Japanese Empire, Nazi Germany declared war against the United States, in response to what was claimed to be a series of provocations by the United States government when the US was still officially neutral during World War II.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
The German Federal Archives or Bundesarchiv (BArch) (Bundesarchiv) are the National Archives of Germany.
Federal elections were held in Germany on 5 March 1933, after the Nazi seizure of power and just six days after the Reichstag fire.
The German invasion of Denmark was the fighting that followed the German army crossing the Danish border on 9 April 1940 by land, sea and air.
During World War II, Nazi Germany engaged in a policy of deliberate maltreatment of Soviet prisoners of war (POWs), in contrast to their treatment of British and American POWs.
German resistance to Nazism (German: Widerstand gegen den Nationalsozialismus) was the opposition by individuals and groups in Germany to the National Socialist regime between 1933 and 1945.
German Studies Review is a peer-reviewed academic journal and an official publication of the German Studies Association that is published triannually.
The German Workers' Party (Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, DAP) was a short-lived political party established in Weimar Germany after World War I. It was the precursor of the Nazi Party, which was officially known as the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, NSDAP).
German-occupied Europe refers to the sovereign countries of Europe which were occupied by the military forces of Nazi Germany at various times between 1939 and 1945 and administered by the Nazi regime.
German-occupied Poland during World War II consisted of two major parts with different type of administration.
The Gestapo, abbreviation of Geheime Staatspolizei (Secret State Police), was the official secret police of Nazi Germany and German-occupied Europe.
A ghetto is a part of a city in which members of a minority group live, typically as a result of social, legal, or economic pressure.
The ghetto uprisings during World War II were a series of armed revolts against the regime of Nazi Germany between 1941 and 1943 in the newly established Jewish ghettos across Nazi-occupied Europe.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The Grojanowski Report is an eye-witness account about atrocities in the German Chełmno extermination camp, written in 1942 by Polish-Jewish escapee from the camp, Szlama Ber Winer (also known incorrectly as Szlawek Bajler), under the pseudonym of Yakov (or Jacob) Grojanowski.
Gustav Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach (7 August 1870 – 16 January 1950) ran the German Friedrich Krupp AG heavy industry conglomerate from 1909 until 1941.
Gustav Ludwig Hertz (22 July 1887 – 30 October 1975) was a German experimental physicist and Nobel Prize winner, and a nephew of Heinrich Rudolf Hertz.
The Haavara Agreement was an agreement between Nazi Germany and Zionist German Jews signed on 25 August 1933.
Hans Michael Frank (23 May 1900 – 16 October 1946) was a German war criminal and lawyer who worked for the Nazi Party during the 1920s and 1930s, and later became Adolf Hitler's personal lawyer.
Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was Reichsführer of the Schutzstaffel (Protection Squadron; SS), and a leading member of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) of Germany.
Heinrich Müller (28 April 1900; date of death unknown, but evidence points to May 1945) was a German police official under both the Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany.
Helmut Krausnick (1905–1990) was a German historian and author.
Henri Michel (28 October 1947 – 24 April 2018) was a French football player and coach.
Herschel Feibel Grynszpan (Hermann Grünspan; 28 March 1921 — last rumoured to be alive 1945, declared dead 1960) was a Polish-Jewish refugee, born in Germany.
Jews, originally Judaean Israelite tribes from the Levant in Western Asia, Natural History 102:11 (November 1993): 12-19.
The history of the Jews in France deals with the Jews and Jewish communities in France.
Jews have a long history in the country now known as Hungary, with some records even predating the AD 895 Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin by over 600 years.
The history of the Jews in Libya stretches back to the 3rd century BCE, when Cyrenaica was under Greek rule.
The history of the Jews in Poland dates back over 1,000 years.
Hitler's Chancellery, officially known as the Kanzlei des Führers der NSDAP ("Chancellery of the Führer of the Nazi Party"; abbreviated as KdF) was a Nazi Party organization.
Hitler's Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust is a 1996 book by American writer Daniel Goldhagen, in which he argues that the vast majority of ordinary Germans were "willing executioners" in the Holocaust because of a unique and virulent "eliminationist antisemitism" in the German political culture, which had developed in the preceding centuries.
Holocaust is a 1978 American four part television miniseries which tells the story of the Holocaust from the perspectives of the fictional Weiss family of German Jews and that of a rising member of the SS, who gradually becomes a merciless war criminal.
Holocaust denial is the act of denying the genocide of Jews in the Holocaust during World War II.
Holocaust studies (less often, Holocaust research) is a scholarly discipline that encompasses the historical research and study of the Holocaust.
Holocaust trains were railway transports run by the Deutsche Reichsbahn national railway system under the strict supervision of the German Nazis and their allies, for the purpose of forcible deportation of the Jews, as well as other victims of the Holocaust, to the German Nazi concentration, forced labour, and extermination camps.
The Home Army (Armia Krajowa;, abbreviated AK) was the dominant Polish resistance movement in Poland, occupied by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, during World War II.
Houston Stewart Chamberlain (9 September 1855 – 9 January 1927) was a British-born German philosopher who wrote works about political philosophy and natural science; he is described by Michael D. Biddiss, a contributor to the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, as a "racialist writer".
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN), sometimes called prussic acid, is a chemical compound with the chemical formula HCN.
The Iași pogrom or Jassy pogrom (pronounced:Yash) of 29 June 1941 was a series of pogroms launched by governmental forces under Ion Antonescu in the Romanian city of Iaşi (Jassy) against its Jewish population, resulting in the murder of at least 13,266 Jews, according to Romanian authorities.
Ian Hancock (Romani: Yanko le Redžosko, born 29 August 1942) is a linguist, Romani scholar and political advocate.
Sir Ian Kershaw, FBA (born 29 April 1943) is an English historian and author whose work has chiefly focused on the social history of 20th-century Germany.
Identification of inmates in German concentration camps was performed mostly with identification numbers marked on clothing, or later, tattooed on the skin.
The Independent State of Croatia (Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, NDH; Unabhängiger Staat Kroatien; Stato Indipendente di Croazia) was a World War II fascist puppet state of Germany and Italy.
Indiana University Press, also known as IU Press, is an academic publisher founded in 1950 at Indiana University that specializes in the humanities and social sciences.
The Institute of National Remembrance – Commission for the Prosecution of Crimes against the Polish Nation (Instytut Pamięci Narodowej – Komisja Ścigania Zbrodni przeciwko Narodowi Polskiemu; IPN) is a Polish government-affiliated research institute with lustration prerogatives, as well as prosecution powers.
Intelligenzaktion (Intelligentsia action) was a secret mass murder conducted by Nazi Germany against the Polish élites (the intelligentsia, teachers, priests, physicians, et al.) early in the Second World War (1939–45).
International Holocaust Remembrance Day, is an international memorial day on 27 January commemorating the tragedy of the Holocaust that occurred during the Second World War.
In the decades since the Holocaust, some national governments, international bodies and world leaders have been criticized for their failure to take appropriate action to save the millions of European Jews, Roma, and other victims of the Holocaust.
The Invasion of Poland, known in Poland as the September Campaign (Kampania wrześniowa) or the 1939 Defensive War (Wojna obronna 1939 roku), and in Germany as the Poland Campaign (Polenfeldzug) or Fall Weiss ("Case White"), was a joint invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, the Free City of Danzig, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II.
The invasion of Yugoslavia, also known as the April War or Operation 25, was a German-led attack on the Kingdom of Yugoslavia by the Axis powers which began on 6 April 1941 during World War II.
Is the Holocaust Unique?: Perspectives on Comparative Genocide is a 1995 book edited by Alan Rosenbaum.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
The Israeli Declaration of Independence,Hebrew: הכרזת העצמאות, Hakhrazat HaAtzma'ut/מגילת העצמאות Megilat HaAtzma'utArabic: وثيقة إعلان قيام دولة إسرائيل, Wathiqat 'iielan qiam dawlat 'iisrayiyl formally the Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel (הכרזה על הקמת מדינת ישראל), was proclaimed on 14 May 1948 (5 Iyar 5708) by David Ben-Gurion, the Executive Head of the World Zionist OrganizationThen known as the Zionist Organization.
Italian Libya (Libia Italiana; ليبيا الإيطالية) was a unified colony of Italian North Africa (Africa Settentrionale Italiana, or ASI) established in 1934 in what is now modern Libya.
Jakob Lestschinsky (also Jacob Lestschinsky,Yankev Leshtshinski, לשצ'ינסקי, יעקב; August 26, 1876 in Horodysche, Ukraine – March 22, 1966 in Jerusalem) was a Jewish statistician and sociologist who wrote in Yiddish, German, and English.
Jan Karski (24 June 1914 – 13 July 2000) was a Polish World War II resistance-movement soldier, and later a professor at Georgetown University.
The Jasenovac concentration camp (Logor Jasenovac/Логор Јасеновац,; יאסענאוואץ) was an extermination camp established in Slavonia by the authorities of the Independent State of Croatia (NDH) during World War II.
Józefów also called Józefów Biłgorajski, Józefów Ordynacki and Józefów Roztoczański, is a town in Biłgoraj County, Lublin Voivodeship, Poland, with 2,436 inhabitants (2006).
The Jedwabne pogrom (Pogrom w Jedwabnem) was a World War II massacre committed in the town of Jedwabne, German-occupied Poland, on 10 July 1941.
Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity.
Jeremy Black MBE (born 30 October 1955) is a British historian and a Professor of History at the University of Exeter.
Jewish Bolshevism, also Judeo–Bolshevism, is an anti-communist and antisemitic canard, which alleges that the Jews were the originators of the Russian Revolution in 1917 and that they held the primary power among the Bolsheviks.
The Jewish Infantry Brigade Group, more commonly known as the Jewish Brigade Group or Jewish Brigade, was a military formation of the British Army composed of Jews from the Yishuv in Mandatory Palestine commanded by British-Jewish officers that served in Europe during World War II.
Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm Joachim von Ribbentrop (30 April 1893 – 16 October 1946), more commonly known as Joachim von Ribbentrop, was Foreign Minister of Nazi Germany from 1938 until 1945.
Joel Brand (25 April 1906 – 13 July 1964) was a leading member, in the 1940s, of Budapest's Aid and Rescue Committee, which smuggled Jews out of German-occupied Europe to the relative safety of Hungary during the Holocaust.
The Joint Declaration by Members of the United Nations was a statement issued on December 17, 1942, by the American and British governments on behalf of the Allied Powers.
Josef Mengele (16 March 19117 February 1979) was a German Schutzstaffel (SS) officer and physician in Auschwitz concentration camp during World War II.
Paul Joseph Goebbels (29 October 1897 – 1 May 1945) was a German Nazi politician and Reich Minister of Propaganda of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945.
The Journal of Contemporary History is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering the study of history in all parts of the world since the end of the First World War.
A Judenrat ("Jewish council") was a World War II Jewish-German-collaborative administrative agency imposed by Germany, principally within the ghettos of occupied Europe, including those of German-occupied Poland.
Julius Hallervorden (21 October 1882 – 29 May 1965) was a German physician and neuroscientist.
The Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics was founded in 1927 in Berlin, Germany.
The Kaiser Wilhelm Society for the Advancement of Science (German Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften) was a German scientific institution established in the German Empire in 1911.
Karl Brandt (8 January 1904 – 2 June 1948) was a German physician and Schutzstaffel (SS) officer in Nazi Germany.
Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.
The Kovno ghetto was a ghetto established by Nazi Germany to hold the Lithuanian Jews of Kaunas during the Holocaust.
Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.
The Kraków Ghetto was one of 5 major, metropolitan Jewish Ghettos created by Nazi Germany in the new General Government territory during the German occupation of Poland in World War II.
Kristallnacht (lit. "Crystal Night") or Reichskristallnacht, also referred to as the Night of Broken Glass, Reichspogromnacht or simply Pogromnacht, and Novemberpogrome (Yiddish: קרישטאָל נאַכט krishtol nakt), was a pogrom against Jews throughout Nazi Germany on 9–10 November 1938, carried out by SA paramilitary forces and German civilians.
Laupheim is a city in southern Germany in the state of Baden-Württemberg.
Law for the Prevention of Genetically Diseased Offspring (Ger. Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses) or "Sterilisation Law" was a statute in Nazi Germany enacted on July 14, 1933, (and made active in January 1934) which allowed the compulsory sterilisation of any citizen who in the opinion of a "Genetic Health Court" (Gr. Erbgesundheitsgericht) suffered from a list of alleged genetic disorders – many of which were not, in fact, genetic.
The Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service (Gesetz zur Wiederherstellung des Berufsbeamtentums, shortened to Berufsbeamtengesetz), also known as Civil Service Law, Civil Service Restoration Act, and Law to Re-establish the Civil Service, was a law passed by the National Socialist regime on 7 April 1933, two months after Adolf Hitler attained power.
The German concept of Lebensraum ("living space") comprises policies and practices of settler colonialism which proliferated in Germany from the 1890s to the 1940s.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
The phrase "life unworthy of life" (in "Lebensunwertes Leben") was a Nazi designation for the segments of the populace which, according to the Nazi regime of the time, had no right to live.
A number of organizations, museums and monuments are intended to serve as memorials to the Holocaust, the Nazi Final Solution, and its millions of victims.
The people on this list are or were survivors of Nazi Germany's attempt to exterminate the Jews in Europe before and during World War II.
The Low Countries or, in the geographic sense of the term, the Netherlands (de Lage Landen or de Nederlanden, les Pays Bas) is a coastal region in northwestern Europe, consisting especially of the Netherlands and Belgium, and the low-lying delta of the Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, and Ems rivers where much of the land is at or below sea level.
The Lublin Reservation (Lublin-Reservat) was a concentration camp complex developed by Nazi German Schutzstaffel (SS) in the early stages of World War II, as the so-called "territorial solution to the Jewish Question".
Lucy Schildkret Dawidowicz (June 16, 1915 – December 5, 1990) was an American historian and writer.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
The Lviv pogroms were the consecutive massacres of Jews living in the city of Lwów (now Lviv, Ukraine), perpetrated by the German commandos and the Ukrainian nationalists from 30 June to 2 July 1941, and from 25 to 29 July 1941, during the Wehrmacht's attack on the Soviet positions in occupied eastern Poland in World War II.
The Lwów Ghetto (Ghetto Lemberg; getto we Lwowie) was a World War II Jewish ghetto established and operated by Nazi Germany in the city of Lwów (since 1945 Lviv, Ukraine) in the territory of Nazi-administered General Government in German-occupied Poland.
Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.
Majdanek, or KL Lublin, was a German concentration and extermination camp built and operated by the SS on the outskirts of the city of Lublin during the German occupation of Poland in World War II.
The Trostinets extermination camp, also known as Maly Trostinets, Maly Trastsianiets and Trascianec (see alternative spellings), was a World War II Nazi German death camp located near the village of Maly Trostinets (Малы Трасцянец, "Little Trostinets") on the outskirts of Minsk in Reichskommissariat Ostland.
Mandatory Palestine (فلسطين; פָּלֶשְׂתִּינָה (א"י), where "EY" indicates "Eretz Yisrael", Land of Israel) was a geopolitical entity under British administration, carved out of Ottoman Syria after World War I. British civil administration in Palestine operated from 1920 until 1948.
Martin Broszat (14 August 1926 – 14 October 1989) was a German historian specializing in modern German social history whose work has been described by The Encyclopedia of Historians as indispensable for any serious study of Nazi Germany.
Martin C. Dean (born 1962) is a research scholar at the Center for Advanced Holocaust Studies, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM).
Sir Martin John Gilbert (25 October 1936 – 3 February 2015) was a British historian and honorary Fellow of Merton College, University of Oxford.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
The Mauthausen–Gusen concentration camp complex consisted of the Mauthausen concentration camp on a hill above the market town of Mauthausen (roughly east of Linz, Upper Austria) plus a group of nearly 100 further subcamps located throughout Austria and southern Germany.
Max Heiliger was a fictional name created during the Nazi era under authority of Reichsbank president Walther Funk in a secret arrangement with leader of the Schutzstaffel, Heinrich Himmler.
Michael Berenbaum (born July 31, 1945 in Newark, New Jersey) is an American scholar, professor, rabbi, writer, and filmmaker, who specializes in the study of the Holocaust.
Michael Robert Marrus, (born February 3, 1941) is a Canadian historian of the Holocaust, modern European and Jewish history and International Humanitarian Law.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Milgram experiment on obedience to authority figures was a series of social psychology experiments conducted by Yale University psychologist Stanley Milgram.
Military justice (or military law) is the body of laws and procedures governing members of the armed forces.
The Minsk Ghetto was created soon after the German invasion of the Soviet Union.
Money laundering is the act of concealing the transformation of profits from illegal activities and corruption into ostensibly "legitimate" assets.
Nacht und Nebel was a directive issued by Adolf Hitler on 7 December 1941 targeting political activists and resistance "helpers" in World War II to be imprisoned or killed, while the family and the population remained uncertain as to the fate or whereabouts of the Nazi state's alleged offender.
Natzweiler-Struthof was a German-run concentration camp located in the Vosges Mountains close to the Alsatian village of Natzwiller (German Natzweiler) in France, and the town of Schirmeck, about 50 km (31 m) south west of the city of Strasbourg.
The Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses in Germany began on April 1, 1933, and was claimed to be a defensive reaction to the Jewish boycott of German goods, which had been initiated but quickly abandoned in March 1933.
Nazi concentration camp badges, primarily triangles, were part of the system of identification in Nazi camps.
Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager, KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled before and during the Second World War.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Beginning with the invasion of Poland during World War II, the regime of Nazi Germany set up ghettos across occupied Europe in order to segregate and confine Jews, and sometimes Romani people, into small sections of towns and cities furthering their exploitation.
The National Socialist German Workers' Party (abbreviated NSDAP), commonly referred to in English as the Nazi Party, was a far-right political party in Germany that was active between 1920 and 1945 and supported the ideology of Nazism.
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
The National Broadcasting Company (NBC) is an American English language commercial broadcast television network that is a flagship property of NBCUniversal, a subsidiary of Comcast.
The Neuengamme concentration camp was a German concentration camp, established in 1938 by the SS near the village of Neuengamme in the Bergedorf district of Hamburg, Germany.
Nisko is a town in Nisko County, Subcarpathian Voivodeship, Poland on the San River, with a population of 15,534 inhabitants as of 2 June 2009.
The Norwegian Campaign (9 April to 10 June 1940) was fought in Norway between Norway, the Allies and Germany in World War II after the latter's invasion of the country.
Nuremberg (Nürnberg) is a city on the river Pegnitz and on the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia, about north of Munich.
The Nuremberg Laws (Nürnberger Gesetze) were antisemitic and racial laws in Nazi Germany.
The Nuremberg trials (Die Nürnberger Prozesse) were a series of military tribunals held by the Allied forces under international law and the laws of war after World War II.
Obergruppenführer ("senior group leader") was a Nazi Party paramilitary rank that was first created in 1932 as a rank of the ''Sturmabteilung'' (SA), and adopted by the Schutzstaffel (SS) one year later.
The occupation of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union during the Second World War (1939–1945) began with the German-Soviet invasion of Poland in September 1939, and it was formally concluded with the defeat of Germany by the Allies in May 1945.
Odessa (Оде́са; Оде́сса; אַדעס) is the third most populous city of Ukraine and a major tourism center, seaport and transportation hub located on the northwestern shore of the Black Sea.
Odilo Globočnik (21 April 1904 – 31 May 1945) was an Austrian war criminal.
The Office of Strategic Services (OSS) was a wartime intelligence agency of the United States during World War II, and a predecessor of the modern Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
Opel (Opel) is a German automobile manufacturer, subsidiary of French automaker Groupe PSA since August 2017.
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
Operation Margarethe was the occupation of Hungary by Nazi German forces during World War II, as it was ordered by Hitler on 12 March 1944.
Operation Reinhard or Operation Reinhardt (Aktion Reinhard or Aktion Reinhardt also Einsatz Reinhard or Einsatz Reinhardt) was the codename given to the secretive German Nazi plan to exterminate the majority of Polish Jews in the General Government district of German-occupied Poland during World War II.
Oral history is the collection and study of historical information about individuals, families, important events, or everyday life using audiotapes, videotapes, or transcriptions of planned interviews.
The Ordnungspolizei (Order Police), abbreviated Orpo, were the uniformed police force in Nazi Germany between 1936 and 1945.
The Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN) (Організація Українських Націоналістів, (ОУН), Orhanizatsiya Ukrayins'kykh Natsionalistiv) was a Ukrainian nationalist political organization established in 1929 in Vienna; it first operated in Western Ukraine (at the time part of interwar Poland).
Orthodox Judaism is a collective term for the traditionalist branches of Judaism, which seek to maximally maintain the received Jewish beliefs and observances and which coalesced in opposition to the various challenges of modernity and secularization.
Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer (16 July 1896 – 8 August 1969) was a German human biologist and geneticist, who was the Professor of Human Genetics at the University of Münster until his 1965 retirement.
Paul Anton de Lagarde (2 November 1827 – 22 December 1891) was a German biblical scholar and orientalist, sometimes regarded as one of the greatest orientalists of the 19th century.
Upon the rise of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers Party (the Nazi Party) in Germany, gay men and, to a lesser extent, lesbians, were two of the numerous groups targeted by the Nazis and were ultimately among Holocaust victims.
Jehovah's Witnesses suffered religious persecution in Nazi Germany between 1933 and 1945 after refusing to perform military service, join Nazi organizations or give allegiance to the Hitler regime.
Persecution of Jewish people has been a major part of Jewish history, prompting shifting waves of refugees throughout the Diaspora communities.
Peter Longerich (born 1955) is a German professor of history.
Peter Novick (July 26, 1934, Jersey City – February 17, 2012, Chicago) was an American historian, and Professor of History at the University of Chicago.
Philipp Bouhler (11 September 1899 – 19 May 1945) was a senior Nazi Party functionary who was both a Reichsleiter (National Leader) and Chief of the Chancellery of the Führer of the NSDAP.
The term pogrom has multiple meanings, ascribed most often to the deliberate persecution of an ethnic or religious group either approved or condoned by the local authorities.
The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka), commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history and are native speakers of the Polish language.
Following the Invasion of Poland at the beginning of World War II, nearly a quarter of the entire territory of the Second Polish Republic was annexed by Nazi Germany and placed directly under the German civil administration.
The Polish government-in-exile, formally known as the Government of the Republic of Poland in exile (Rząd Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej na uchodźstwie), was the government in exile of Poland formed in the aftermath of the Invasion of Poland of September 1939, and the subsequent occupation of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, which brought to an end the Second Polish Republic.
The Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia (Protektorat Böhmen und Mähren; Protektorát Čechy a Morava) was a protectorate of Nazi Germany established on 16 March 1939 following the German occupation of Czechoslovakia on 15 March 1939.
The Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences (Königlich-Preußische Akademie der Wissenschaften) was an academy established in Berlin, Germany on 11 July 1700, four years after the Akademie der Künste, or "Arts Academy," to which "Berlin Academy" may also refer.
A race is a grouping of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories generally viewed as distinct by society.
Raul Hilberg (June 2, 1926 – August 4, 2007) was an Austrian-born Jewish-American political scientist and historian.
Ravensbrück was a German concentration camp exclusively for women from 1939 to 1945, located in northern Germany, north of Berlin at a site near the village of Ravensbrück (part of Fürstenberg/Havel).
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
The Reich Central Office for the Combating of Homosexuality and Abortion was the central instrument of Nazi Germany for the fight against homosexuality in Nazi Germany and the fight against abortion.
The Reich Main Security OfficeReichssicherheitshauptamt is variously translated as "Reich Main Security Office", "Reich Security Main Office", "Reich Central Security Main Office", "Reich Security Central Office", "Reich Head Security Office", or "Reich Security Head Office".
The Reich Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda (Reichsministerium für Volksaufklärung und Propaganda, RMVP or Propagandaministerium) was a Nazi government agency to enforce Nazi ideology.
The Reichsgau Wartheland (initially Reichsgau Posen, also: Warthegau) was a Nazi German Reichsgau formed from parts of Polish territory annexed in 1939 during World War II.
Reichskommissar (rendered as Commissioner of the Empire or as Reich - or Imperial Commissioner), in German history, was an official gubernatorial title used for various public offices during the period of the German Empire and the Nazi Third Reich.
Nazi Germany established the Reichskommissariat Ostland (RKO) in 1941 as the civilian occupation regime in the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania), the northeastern part of Poland and the west part of the Belarusian SSR during World War II.
Reichsleiter (national leader or Reich leader) was the second highest political rank of the Nazi Party (NSDAP), next only to the office of Führer.
The Reichsmark (sign: ℛℳ) was the currency in Germany from 1924 until 20 June 1948 in West Germany, where it was replaced with the Deutsche Mark, and until 23 June in East Germany when it was replaced by the East German mark.
Reinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich (7 March 1904 – 4 June 1942) was a high-ranking German Nazi official during World War II, and a main architect of the Holocaust.
Polish Jews were the primary victims of the German-organized Holocaust. Throughout the German occupation of Poland, some Poles risked their lives – and the lives of their families – to rescue Jews from the Germans. Poles were, by nationality, the most numerous persons who rescued Jews during the Holocaust. To date, ethnic Poles have been recognized by the State of Israel as Righteous among the Nations – more, by far, than the citizens of any other country. The Home Army (the Polish Resistance) alerted the world to the Holocaust through the reports of Polish Army officer Witold Pilecki, conveyed by Polish Government-in-Exile courier Jan Karski. The Polish Government-in-Exile and the Polish Secret State pleaded, to no avail, for American and British help to stop the Holocaust. Some estimates put the number of Polish rescuers of Jews as high as 3 million, and credit Poles with saving up to some 450,000 Jews, temporarily, from certain death. The rescue efforts were aided by one of the largest resistance movements in Europe, the Polish Underground State and its military arm, the Home Army. Supported by the Government Delegation for Poland, these organizations operated special units dedicated to helping Jews; of those units, the most notable was the Żegota Council, based in Warsaw, with branches in Kraków, Wilno, and Lwów. Polish rescuers of Jews were hampered by the most stringent conditions in all of German-occupied Europe. Occupied Poland was the only country where the Germans decreed that any kind of help to Jews was punishable by death for the rescuer and the rescuer's entire family. Of the estimated 3 million non-Jewish Poles killed in World War II, thousands – perhaps as many as 50,000 – were executed by the Germans solely for saving Jews.
Rescuers of Jews during the Holocaust are those who, during World War II, helped Jews and others escape the Holocaust conducted by Nazi Germany.
Reserve Police Battalion 101 was a Nazi German paramilitary formation of Ordnungspolizei (Order Police, abbreviated as Orpo), serving under the control of the SS by law.
Responsibility for the Holocaust is the subject of an ongoing historical debate that has spanned several decades.
Frederick Richard Dimbleby, CBE (25 May 1913 – 22 December 1965) was an English journalist and broadcaster, who became the BBC’s first war correspondent, and then its leading TV news commentator.
Sir Richard John Evans (born 29 September 1947), is a British historian of nineteenth- and twentieth-century Europe with a focus on Germany.
The Riga Ghetto was a small area in Maskavas Forštate, a neighborhood of Riga, Latvia, designated by the Nazis where Jews from Latvia, and later from Germany, were forced to live during World War II.
Righteous Among the Nations (חֲסִידֵי אֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם, khasidei umót ha'olám "righteous (plural) of the world's nations") is an honorific used by the State of Israel to describe non-Jews who risked their lives during the Holocaust to save Jews from extermination by the Nazis.
The Ringelblum Archive is a collection of documents from the World War II Warsaw Ghetto, collected and preserved by the group known under code name Oyneg Shabbos (in Modern Israeli Hebrew: Oneg Shabbat, עונג שבת), led by Jewish historian Dr.
Robert Ley (15 February 1890 – 25 October 1945) was a German politician during the Nazi era who headed the German Labour Front from 1933 to 1945.
The Romani genocide or the Romani Holocaust—also known as the Porajmos (Romani pronunciation), the Pharrajimos ("Cutting up", "Fragmentation", "Destruction"), and the Samudaripen ("Mass killing")—was the effort by Nazi Germany and its World War II allies to commit genocide against Europe's Romani people.
The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.
Rudolf Höss (also Höß, Hoeß or Hoess; 25 November 1901 – 16 April 1947) was a Nazi German SS-Obersturmbannführer (lieutenant colonel) and the longest-serving commandant of Auschwitz concentration and extermination camp in World War II.
Rudolph Joseph Rummel (October 21, 1932 – March 2, 2014) was professor of political science who taught at the Indiana University, Yale University, and University of Hawaii.
Sachsenhausen ("Saxon's Houses") or Sachsenhausen-Oranienburg was a Nazi concentration camp in Oranienburg, Germany, used primarily for political prisoners from 1936 to the end of the Third Reich in May 1945.
Saul Friedländer (born October 11, 1932) is an Israeli/American historian and currently a professor emeritus of history at UCLA.
Schloss Hartheim, also known as Hartheim Castle, is a castle at Alkoven in Upper Austria, some from Linz, Austria.
The Schutzstaffel (SS; also stylized as with Armanen runes;; literally "Protection Squadron") was a major paramilitary organization under Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP) in Nazi Germany, and later throughout German-occupied Europe during World War II.
Scientific racism (sometimes referred to as race biology, racial biology, or race realism) is the pseudoscientific belief that empirical evidence exists to support or justify racism (racial discrimination), racial inferiority, or racial superiority.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
Shanghai (Wu Chinese) is one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of China and the most populous city proper in the world, with a population of more than 24 million.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
Sicherheitsdienst (Security Service), full title Sicherheitsdienst des Reichsführers-SS (Security Service of the Reichsführer-SS), or SD, was the intelligence agency of the SS and the Nazi Party in Nazi Germany.
Siemens AG is a German conglomerate company headquartered in Berlin and Munich and the largest industrial manufacturing company in Europe with branch offices abroad.
Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
The Société nationale des chemins de fer français (SNCF, "French National Railway Company") is France's national state-owned railway company.
Sobibór (or Sobibor) was a Nazi German extermination camp built and operated by the SS near the railway station of Sobibór during World War II, within the semi-colonial territory of General Government of the occupied Second Polish Republic.
Sonderkommandos (special unit) were work units made up of German Nazi death camp prisoners.
The Soviet partisans were members of resistance movements that fought a guerrilla war against the Axis forces in the Soviet Union, the previously Soviet-occupied territories of interwar Poland in 1941–45 and eastern Finland.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The stab-in-the-back myth (Dolchstoßlegende) was the notion, widely believed and promulgated in right-wing circles in Germany after 1918, that the German Army did not lose World War I on the battlefield but was instead betrayed by the civilians on the home front, especially the republicans who overthrew the monarchy in the German Revolution of 1918–19.
Stalinism is the means of governing and related policies implemented from the 1920s to 1953 by Joseph Stalin (1878–1953).
A Stolperstein (plural Stolpersteine; literally "stumbling stone", metaphorically a "stumbling block") is a cobblestone-size, concrete cube bearing a brass plate inscribed with the name and life dates of victims of Nazi extermination or persecution.
The Sturmabteilung (SA), literally Storm Detachment, functioned as the original paramilitary wing of the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Stutthof was a Nazi German concentration camp established in a secluded, wet, and wooded area near the small town of Sztutowo (Stutthof) 34 km (21 mi) east of the city of Gdańsk in the former territory of the Free City of Danzig.
A synagogue, also spelled synagog (pronounced; from Greek συναγωγή,, 'assembly', בית כנסת, 'house of assembly' or, "house of prayer", Yiddish: שול shul, Ladino: אסנוגה or קהל), is a Jewish house of prayer.
Szlama Ber Winer, nom de guerre Yakov (Ya'akov) Grojanowski (23 September 1911 – c. 10 April 1942), was a Polish Jew from Izbica Kujawska, who escaped from the Chełmno extermination camp during the Holocaust in Poland.
The Wages of Destruction is a non-fiction book detailing the economic history of Nazi Germany.
Theresienstadt concentration camp, also referred to as Theresienstadt ghetto, was a concentration camp established by the SS during World War II in the garrison city of Terezín (Theresienstadt), located in German-occupied Czechoslovakia.
Tiergarten (German for Animal Garden, historically for Deer Garden) is a locality within the borough of Mitte, in central Berlin (Germany).
Tiergartenstraße is a street in the Tiergarten district in central Berlin, the capital of Germany.
This is a timeline of deportations of French Jews to Nazi extermination camps in German-occupied Europe during World War II.
..A timeline of the Holocaust is detailed in the events listed below.
Timothy David Snyder (born 1969) is an American author and historian specializing in the history of Central and Eastern Europe, and the Holocaust.
Transnistria, the self-proclaimed Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR; Приднестровская Молдавская Республика, ПМР; Republica Moldovenească Nistreană, RMN; Република Молдовеняскэ Нистрянэ; Придністровська Молдавська Республіка), and also called Transdniester, Trans-Dniestr, Transdniestria, or Pridnestrovie, is a non-recognized state which controls part of the geographical region Transnistria (the area between the Dniester river and Ukraine) and also the city of Bender and its surrounding localities on the west bank.
Treblinka was an extermination camp, built and operated by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland during World War II.
Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to ''Salmonella'' typhi that causes symptoms.
Typhus, also known as typhus fever, is a group of infectious diseases that include epidemic typhus, scrub typhus and murine typhus.
Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for those work relations, especially in modern or early modern history, in which people are employed against their will with the threat of destitution, detention, violence (including death), compulsion, or other forms of extreme hardship to themselves or members of their families.
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America.
The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM) is the United States' official memorial to the Holocaust.
The University of Tübingen, officially the Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen (Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen; Universitas Eberhardina Carolina), is a German public research university located in the city of Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg.
Untermensch (underman, sub-man, subhuman; plural: Untermenschen) is a term that became infamous when the Nazis used it to describe non-Aryan "inferior people" often referred to as "the masses from the East", that is Jews, Roma, and Slavs – mainly ethnic Poles, Serbs, and later also Russians.
The Ustasha – Croatian Revolutionary Movement (Ustaša – Hrvatski revolucionarni pokret), commonly known as Ustashe (Ustaše), was a Croatian fascist, racist, ultranationalist and terrorist organization, active, in its original form, between 1929 and 1945.
The Ustashe Militia (Ustaška vojnica) was the party army of the Ustashe (or Ustaše), established by the fascist regime of Ante Pavelić in the Axis puppet state the Independent State of Croatia (NDH) in Yugoslavia during World War II.
The völkisch movement (völkische Bewegung, "folkish movement") was the German interpretation of a populist movement, with a romantic focus on folklore and the "organic", i.e.: a "naturally grown community in unity", characterised by the one-body-metaphor (Volkskörper) for the entire population during a period from the late 19th century up until the Nazi era.
The Völkischer Beobachter ("Völkisch Observer") was the newspaper of the National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP or Nazi Party) from 25 December 1920.
Vichy France (Régime de Vichy) is the common name of the French State (État français) headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II.
The Vilna Ghetto was a World War II Jewish ghetto established and operated by Nazi Germany in the city of Vilnius in the territory of Nazi-administered Reichskommissariat Ostland.
In Nazi German terminology, Volksdeutsche were "Germans in regard to people or race" (Ethnic Germans), regardless of citizenship.
Volksgemeinschaft is a German expression meaning "people's community".
Volkswagen, shortened to VW, is a German automaker founded on 28 May 1937 by the German Labour Front under Adolf Hitler and headquartered in Wolfsburg.
Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov (né Skryabin; 9 March 1890 – 8 November 1986) was a Soviet politician and diplomat, an Old Bolshevik, and a leading figure in the Soviet government from the 1920s, when he rose to power as a protégé of Joseph Stalin.
Wannsee is a locality in the southwestern Berlin borough of Steglitz-Zehlendorf, Germany.
The Wannsee Conference (Wannseekonferenz) was a meeting of senior government officials of Nazi Germany and Schutzstaffel (SS) leaders, held in the Berlin suburb of Wannsee on 20 January 1942.
A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.
A war of aggression, sometimes also war of conquest, is a military conflict waged without the justification of self-defense, usually for territorial gain and subjugation.
Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
The Warsaw Ghetto (Warschauer Ghetto, officially Jüdischer Wohnbezirk in Warschau Jewish Residential District in Warsaw; getto warszawskie) was the largest of all the Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Europe during World War II.
The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (אױפֿשטאַנד אין װאַרשעװער געטאָ; powstanie w getcie warszawskim; Aufstand im Warschauer Ghetto) was the 1943 act of Jewish resistance that arose within the Warsaw Ghetto in German-occupied Poland during World War II, and which opposed Nazi Germany's final effort to transport the remaining Ghetto population to Treblinka.
The Warsaw Uprising (powstanie warszawskie; Warschauer Aufstand) was a major World War II operation, in the summer of 1944, by the Polish underground resistance, led by the Home Army (Armia Krajowa), to liberate Warsaw from German occupation.
The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".
West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.
Wilhelm Keitel (22 September 1882 – 16 October 1946) was a German field marshal who served as Chief of the Armed Forces High Command (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht or OKW) in Nazi Germany during World War II.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
Witold Pilecki (13 May 190125 May 1948;; codenames Roman Jezierski, Tomasz Serafiński, Druh, Witold) was a Polish cavalryman and intelligence officer.
Wolfgang Benz (born 9 June 1941) is a German historian from Ellwangen.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yad Vashem (יָד וַשֵׁם; literally, "a monument and a name") is Israel's official memorial to the victims of the Holocaust.
Yehuda Bauer (Hebrew: יהודה באואר; born April 6, 1926) is an Israeli historian and scholar of the Holocaust.
Zionism (צִיּוֹנוּת Tsiyyonut after Zion) is the national movement of the Jewish people that supports the re-establishment of a Jewish homeland in the territory defined as the historic Land of Israel (roughly corresponding to Canaan, the Holy Land, or the region of Palestine).
The Zionist Federation of Germany (Zionistische Vereinigung für Deutschland) also known as the Zionist Association for Germany was a Zionist organisation in Germany that was formed in 1897 in Cologne by Max Bodenheimer.
Zyklon B (translated Cyclone B) was the trade name of a cyanide-based pesticide invented in Germany in the early 1920s.
The 11th Armoured Division, also known as The Black Bull, was an armoured division of the British Army which was created in March 1941 during the Second World War.
The Odessa massacre is the name given to the mass murder of Jewish population of Odessa and surrounding towns in the Transnistria Governorate during the autumn of 1941 and winter of 1942 while under Romanian control.
The 6th Army, a field-army unit of the German Wehrmacht during World War II (1939-1945), has become widely remembered for its destruction by the Red Army at the Battle of Stalingrad in the winter of 1942/43.
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