228 relations: Abgeordnetenhaus of Berlin, Agence France-Presse, Alliance 90/The Greens, Alliance for Germany, Andrea Ypsilanti, Anti-capitalism, Antimilitarism, Association for Solidarity Perspectives (Germany), Baden-Württemberg state election, 2011, Baden-Württemberg state election, 2016, Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany, Bavarian state election, 2008, Bavarian state election, 2013, Bürgerschaft of Bremen, Berlin, Berlin state election, 2006, Berlin state election, 2011, Berlin state election, 2016, Berlin Wall, Bernd Riexinger, Bodo Ramelow, Brandenburg, Brandenburg state election, 2009, Brandenburg state election, 2014, Bremen, Bremen state election, 2007, Bremen state election, 2011, Bremen state election, 2015, Bundesrat of Germany, Bundestag, Bundeswehr, Business cycle, Capitalism, Caucus, Central Committee, Christian Democratic Union (East Germany), Christian Democratic Union of Germany, Christian Social Union in Bavaria, Christian Wulff, Coalition government, Communism, Communist Platform, Communist Refoundation Party, Competition law, Composition of the German state parliaments, Conservative liberalism, Cooperative, Corporation, Democratic socialism, Der Spiegel, ..., Disarmament, East German general election, 1990, East Germany, Eastern Bloc, Egon Krenz, Erich Honecker, Error, Eurocommunism, European Central Bank, European Parliament, European Parliament election, 2009 (Germany), European Parliament election, 2014 (Germany), European Union, European United Left–Nordic Green Left, Extremism, Far-left politics, Far-right politics, Federal Constitutional Court, Federal Convention (Germany), Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution, Federal Returning Officer, Fourth International (post-reunification), Free Democratic Party (Germany), Gabriele Zimmer, German Communist Party, German federal election, 1990, German federal election, 1994, German federal election, 2002, German federal election, 2005, German federal election, 2009, German federal election, 2013, German federal election, 2017, German presidential election, 2009, German presidential election, 2010, German presidential election, 2012, German reunification, Gesine Lötzsch, Glasnost, Globalization, Government spending, Grand coalition, Grand coalition (Germany), Great Depression, Gregor Gysi, Hamburg, Hamburg Parliament, Hamburg state election, 2008, Hamburg state election, 2011, Hamburg state election, 2015, Hans Modrow, Hesse, Hessian state election, 2008, Hessian state election, 2009, Hessian state election, 2013, Hubertus Knabe, Hydraulic fracturing, Income tax, Inheritance tax, International Marxist Tendency, International Socialist Left (Germany), International Socialist Organisation (Germany), Iraq War, Joachim Gauck, Karl Marx, Karl-Liebknecht-Haus, Katja Kipping, Keynesian economics, Labour and Social Justice – The Electoral Alternative, Landtag, Landtag of Baden-Württemberg, Landtag of Bavaria, Landtag of Brandenburg, Landtag of Hesse, Landtag of Lower Saxony, Landtag of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Landtag of North Rhine-Westphalia, Landtag of Rhineland-Palatinate, Landtag of Saarland, Landtag of Saxony-Anhalt, Landtag of Schleswig-Holstein, Landtag of the Free State of Saxony, Landtag of Thuringia, Left Youth Solid, Left-wing politics, Left-wing populism, Libertarian socialism, Linksruck, List of political parties in Germany, Lothar Bisky, Lower Saxony, Lower Saxony state election, 2008, Lower Saxony state election, 2013, Lower Saxony state election, 2017, Luc Jochimsen, Lucy Redler, Marxism–Leninism, Master contract (labor), Mecklenburg-Vorpommern state election, 2006, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern state election, 2011, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern state election, 2016, Member of the European Parliament, Michael Müller (politician), Mikhail Gorbachev, Minimum wage, Minority government, Mixed-member proportional representation, Myocardial infarction, NATO, Neo-Marxism, Neoliberalism, Neues Deutschland, North Rhine-Westphalia state election, 2005, North Rhine-Westphalia state election, 2010, North Rhine-Westphalia state election, 2012, North Rhine-Westphalia state election, 2017, Opposition (parliamentary), Oskar Lafontaine, Party discipline, Party of Democratic Socialism (Germany), Party of the European Left, Peaceful Revolution, Perestroika, Peter Sodann, Petra Pau, Platform (European politics), Populism, President of Germany, President of the Soviet Union, Privatization, Purple, Real socialism, Red, Reform of the United Nations, Revolutionary Socialist League (Germany), Rhineland-Palatinate state election, 2006, Rhineland-Palatinate state election, 2011, Rhineland-Palatinate state election, 2016, Rosa Luxemburg Foundation, Rudolf Bahro, Saarland state election, 2009, Saarland state election, 2012, Saarland state election, 2017, Sahra Wagenknecht, Saxony state election, 2009, Saxony state election, 2014, Saxony-Anhalt state election, 2006, Saxony-Anhalt state election, 2011, Saxony-Anhalt state election, 2016, Schleswig-Holstein state election, 2009, Schleswig-Holstein state election, 2012, Schleswig-Holstein state election, 2017, Sigmar Gabriel, Social democracy, Social Democratic Party in the GDR, Social Democratic Party of Germany, Social movement, Socialist Alternative (Germany), Socialist Left (Germany), Socialist Party (Netherlands), Socialist Unity Party of Germany, Stalinism, Stasi Records Agency, Stefan Heym, Tatort, The Guardian, Thomas de Maizière, Thorsten Schäfer-Gümbel, Thuringia, Thuringian state election, 2009, Thuringian state election, 2014, Tobias Pflüger, Trade unions in Germany, Treaty of Lisbon, Ulla Jelpke, United Nations, War in Afghanistan (2001–present), World Bank, World Trade Organization. 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The Abgeordnetenhaus of Berlin (House of Representatives) is the state parliament (Landtag) of Berlin, Germany according to the city-state's constitution.
Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris, France.
Alliance 90/The Greens, often simply Greens (Bündnis 90/Die Grünen or Grüne), is a green political party in Germany that was formed from the merger of the German Green Party (founded in West Germany in 1980 and merged with the East Greens in 1990) and Alliance 90 (founded during the Revolution of 1989–1990 in East Germany) in 1993.
The Alliance for Germany (Allianz für Deutschland) was an opposition coalition in East Germany.
Andrea Ypsilanti (née Andrea Dill, 8 April 1957 in Rüsselsheim, Hesse) is a German politician.
Anti-capitalism encompasses a wide variety of movements, ideas and attitudes that oppose capitalism.
Antimilitarism (also spelt anti-militarism) is a doctrine that opposes war, relying heavily on a critical theory of imperialism and was an explicit goal of the First and Second International.
The Association for Solidarity Perspectives (Verein für solidarische Perspektiven, VsP) is a far-left political organization in Germany.
The Baden-Württemberg state election 2011 was held on 27 March 2011 to elect members to Baden-Württemberg's State diet, the Landtag of Baden-Württemberg in Stuttgart.
The Baden-Württemberg state election 2016 was held on 13 March 2016 to elect members to Baden-Württemberg's State diet, the Landtag of Baden-Württemberg in Stuttgart.
The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitution of the Federal Republic of Germany.
The 2008 Bavarian state election was held on 28 September 2008.
The 2013 Bavarian state election was held on 15 September 2013 to elect the 180 members of the 17th Landtag of Bavaria.
The Bremische Bürgerschaft (Parliament of Bremen) is the legislative branch of the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen in Germany.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
The Berlin state election, 2006, was held on 17 September 2006 to elect members to the Abgeordnetenhaus (House of Deputies) of Berlin.
The last Berlin state election was held on 18 September 2011, to elect members to the Abgeordnetenhaus (House of Deputies) of Berlin.
The 18th Berlin state election was held on 18 September 2016 to elect 149 members to the Abgeordnetenhaus of Berlin (Berlin state parliament).
The Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer) was a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989.
Bernd Riexinger (born 30 October 1955 in Leonberg) is a German politician of the Left Party.
Bodo Ramelow (born 16 February 1956 in Osterholz-Scharmbeck) is a German politician of the Left Party who has been Minister President of Thuringia since 2014.
Brandenburg (Brannenborg, Lower Sorbian: Bramborska, Braniborsko) is one of the sixteen federated states of Germany.
State elections were held in Brandenburg on 27 September 2009, the same day as the German federal elections and the Schleswig-Holstein state elections.
State elections were held in Brandenburg on 14 September 2014.
The City Municipality of Bremen (Stadtgemeinde Bremen) is a Hanseatic city in northwestern Germany, which belongs to the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (also called just "Bremen" for short), a federal state of Germany.
State elections were held in the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen on 13 May 2007 to elect the Bürgerschaft (city and state legislature).
A Bremen state election was held on 22 May 2011, to elect the Bürgerschaft (city and state legislature).
A Bremen state election were held on 10 May 2015, to elect the Bürgerschaft (state legislature) as well as the Bremische Stadtbürgerschaft and the Stadtverordnetenversammlung Bremerhaven (city legislatures).
The German Bundesrat (literally "Federal Council") is a legislative body that represents the sixteen Länder (federated states) of Germany at the national level.
The Bundestag ("Federal Diet") is the German federal parliament.
The Bundeswehr (Federal Defence) is the unified armed forces of Germany and their civil administration and procurement authorities.
The business cycle, also known as the economic cycle or trade cycle, is the downward and upward movement of gross domestic product (GDP) around its long-term growth trend.
Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.
A caucus is a meeting of supporters or members of a specific political party or movement.
Central Committee was the common designation of a standing administrative body of communist parties, analogous to a board of directors, whether ruling or non-ruling in the 20th century and of the surviving communist states in the 21st century.
The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (Christlich-Demokratische Union Deutschlands, CDU) was an East German political party founded in 1945.
The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands, CDU) is a Christian democratic and liberal-conservative political party in Germany.
The Christian Social Union in Bavaria is a Christian-democratic and conservative political party in Germany.
Christian Wilhelm Walter Wulff (born 1959) is a German politician and lawyer.
A coalition government is a cabinet of a parliamentary government in which many or multiple political parties cooperate, reducing the dominance of any one party within that "coalition".
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
The Communist Platform (Kommunistische Plattform, KPF) is an association within the German Left Party.
The Communist Refoundation Party (Partito della Rifondazione Comunista, PRC) is a communist party in Italy.
Competition law is a law that promotes or seeks to maintain market competition by regulating anti-competitive conduct by companies.
Germany's federal system comprises 16 state parliaments (the German terms are: Landtag in large states, Bürgerschaft in Bremen and Hamburg, Abgeordnetenhaus in Berlin), each including directly elected representatives.
Conservative liberalism is a variant of liberalism, combining liberal values and policies with conservative stances, or simply representing the right-wing of the liberal movement.
A cooperative (also known as co-operative, co-op, or coop) is "an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social, and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly-owned and democratically-controlled enterprise".
A corporation is a company or group of people or an organisation authorized to act as a single entity (legally a person) and recognized as such in law.
Democratic socialism is a political philosophy that advocates political democracy alongside social ownership of the means of production with an emphasis on self-management and/or democratic management of economic institutions within a market socialist, participatory or decentralized planned economy.
Der Spiegel (lit. "The Mirror") is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg.
Disarmament is the act of reducing, limiting, or abolishing weapons.
Legislative elections were held in the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) on 18 March 1990.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
Egon Rudi Ernst Krenz (born 19 March 1937) is a former East German politician who was the last communist leader of East Germany during the final months of 1989.
Erich Honecker (25 August 1912 – 29 May 1994) was a German politician who, as the General Secretary of the Socialist Unity Party, led the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) from 1971 until the weeks preceding the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. From 1976 onward he was also the country's official head of state as chairman of the State Council following Willi Stoph's relinquishment of the post. Honecker's political career began in the 1930s when he became an official of the Communist Party of Germany, a position for which he was imprisoned during the Nazi era. Following World War II, he was freed and soon relaunched his political activities, founding the youth organisation the Free German Youth in 1946 and serving as the group's chairman until 1955. As the Security Secretary of the Party’s Central Committee in the new East German state, he was the prime organiser of the building of the Berlin Wall in 1961 and, in this function, bore responsibility for the "order to fire" along the Inner German border. In 1971, he initiated a political power struggle that led, with Soviet support, to his replacing Walter Ulbricht as First Secretary of the Central Committee and as chairman of the state's National Defense Council. Under his command, the country adopted a programme of "consumer socialism" and moved toward the international community by normalising relations with West Germany and also becoming a full member of the UN, in what is considered one of his greatest political successes. As Cold War tensions eased in the late 1980s under perestroika and glasnost, the liberal reforms of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, Honecker refused all but cosmetic changes to the East German political system, citing the continual hardliner attitudes of Kim Il-sung and Fidel Castro, whose respective regimes of North Korea and Cuba had been critical of reforms, leaders who ruthlessly suppressed opposition. As anticommunist protests grew, Honecker begged the USSR to intervene and suppress the protests to maintain communist rule in East Germany like the Prague Spring of 1968 and the Hungarian Revolution of 1956; Gorbachev refused. Honecker was forced to resign by his party in October 1989 in a bid to improve the government's image before the public. Honecker's eighteen years at the helm of the soon-to-collapse German Democratic Republic came to an end. Following German reunification, he sought asylum in the Chilean embassy in Moscow in 1991 but was extradited back to Germany a year later to stand trial for his role in the human rights abuses committed by the East German government. However, the proceedings were abandoned due to illness and he was freed from custody to travel to join his family in exile in Chile, where he died in May 1994 from liver cancer.
An error (from the Latin error, meaning "wandering") is an action which is inaccurate or incorrect.
Eurocommunism (adherents sometimes referred to as Gramscians) was a revisionist trend in the 1970s and 1980s within various Western European communist parties.
The European Central Bank (ECB) is the central bank for the euro and administers monetary policy of the euro area, which consists of 19 EU member states and is one of the largest currency areas in the world.
The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).
The European Parliament election of 2009 in Germany was the German part of the European Parliament election, 2009.
The European Parliament election, 2014 was held on 25 May 2014 in Germany.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
European United Left–Nordic Green Left (Gauche unitaire européenne, GUE-NGL) is a left-wing political group in the European Parliament, established in 1995.
Extremism means, literally, "the quality or state of being extreme" or the "advocacy of extreme measures or views".
Far-left politics are political views located further on the left of the left-right spectrum than the standard political left.
Far-right politics are politics further on the right of the left-right spectrum than the standard political right, particularly in terms of more extreme nationalist, and nativist ideologies, as well as authoritarian tendencies.
The Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht; abbreviated: BVerfG) is the supreme constitutional court for the Federal Republic of Germany, established by the constitution or Basic Law of Germany.
The Federal Convention, also known as the Federal Assembly (Bundesversammlung), is a special constitutional body in the political and federal institutional system of Germany, convened solely for the purpose of electing the President of the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundespräsident), either every five years or within 30 days of the premature termination of a presidential term.
The Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution (Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz or BfV) is the Federal Republic of Germany's domestic security agency.
In Germany, the Federal Returning Officer ("Bundeswahlleiter") is the Returning Officer responsible for overseeing elections on the federal level.
The Fourth International (FI), founded in 1938, is a Trotskyist international.
The Free Democratic Party (Freie Demokratische Partei, FDP) is a liberal and classical liberal political party in Germany.
Gabriele "Gabi" Zimmer (born 7 May 1955) is a German politician and Member of the European Parliament (MEP) from Germany.
The German Communist Party (Deutsche Kommunistische Partei, DKP) is a minor communist party in Germany.
Federal elections were held in Germany on 2 December 1990 to elect the members of the 12th Bundestag.
Federal elections were held in Germany on 16 October 1994 to elect the members of the 13th Bundestag.
Federal elections were held in Germany on 22 September 2002 to elect the members of the 15th Bundestag.
Federal elections were held in Germany on 18 September 2005 to elect the members of the 16th Bundestag.
Federal elections took place on 27 September 2009 to elect the members of the 17th Bundestag (parliament) of Germany.
Federal elections were held on 22 September to elect the members of the 18th Bundestag of Germany.
Federal elections were held in Germany on 24 September 2017 to elect the members of the 19th Bundestag.
An indirect presidential election (officially the 13th Federal Convention) was held in Germany on 23 May 2009.
An indirect presidential election (officially the 14th Federal Convention) was held in Germany on 30 June 2010 following the resignation of Horst Köhler as President of Germany on 31 May 2010.
An early indirect presidential election (officially the 15th Federal Convention) was held in Germany on 18 March 2012, the last possible day following the resignation of Christian Wulff as President of Germany on 17 February 2012.
The German reunification (Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) was the process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic (GDR, colloquially East Germany; German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik/DDR) became part of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, colloquially West Germany; German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland/BRD) to form the reunited nation of Germany, and when Berlin reunited into a single city, as provided by its then Grundgesetz (constitution) Article 23.
Gesine Lötzsch (born 7 August 1961) is a German politician of the left-wing party Die Linke ("The Left").
In the Russian language the word glasnost (гла́сность) has several general and specific meanings.
Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.
Government spending or expenditure includes all government consumption, investment, and transfer payments.
A grand coalition is an arrangement in a multi-party parliamentary system in which the two largest political parties of opposing political ideologies unite in a coalition government.
In modern Germany with its parliamentary system of government on federal and on state level, grand coalition (Große Koalition) describes a governing coalition of the two biggest parties in one parliament.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
Gregor Gysi (born 16 January 1948) is a German attorney and key politician of the political party The Left (Die Linke).
Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.
The Hamburg Parliament (Hamburgische Bürgerschaft; literally the Hamburg citizenry) is the unicameral legislature of the German state of Hamburg according to the constitution of Hamburg.
On 24 February 2008 state elections were held in Hamburg, Germany, for the 19th legislative period of the Hamburg Parliament.
On 20 February 2011, a state election was held in Hamburg, Germany, for the 20th legislative period of the Hamburg Parliament after World War II.
On 15 February 2015, a state election was held in Hamburg, Germany, for the 21st legislative period of the Hamburg Parliament after World War II.
Hans Modrow (born 27 January 1928) is a German politician, best known as the last communist premier of East Germany.
Hesse or Hessia (Hessen, Hessian dialect: Hesse), officially the State of Hesse (German: Land Hessen) is a federal state (''Land'') of the Federal Republic of Germany, with just over six million inhabitants.
The state election to elect members of the Landtag of Hesse was held in the German state of Hesse on 27 January 2008.
Early state elections for the Landtag of Hesse were held in Hesse on 18 January 2009.
A state election was held in Hesse on 22 September 2013, coinciding with the 2013 federal election.
Hubertus Knabe (born 1959 in Unna, North Rhine-Westphalia) is a German historian and the scientific director of the Berlin-Hohenschönhausen Memorial, a museum and memorial in a notorious former Stasi torture prison in Berlin.
Hydraulic fracturing (also fracking, fraccing, frac'ing, hydrofracturing or hydrofracking) is a well stimulation technique in which rock is fractured by a pressurized liquid.
An income tax is a tax imposed on individuals or entities (taxpayers) that varies with respective income or profits (taxable income).
A tax paid by a person who inherits money or property or a levy on the estate (money and property) of a person who has died.
The International Marxist Tendency (IMT) is an international Trotskyist tendency founded by Ted Grant and his followers following their break with the Committee for a Workers International in the early 1990s.
The International Socialist Left (internationale sozialistische linke, isl) was a Trotskyist group in Germany.
The International Socialist Organisation (Internationale Sozialistische Organisation, ISO) is a Trotskyist group in Germany.
The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.
Joachim Wilhelm Gauck (born 24 January 1940) is a retired German civil rights activist and nonpartisan politician who served as President of Germany from 2012 to 2017.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
The Karl-Liebknecht-Haus or Karl Liebknecht House is the headquarters of the Party The Left in Germany.
Katja Kipping (born 18 January 1978) is a German politician who is chairperson of The Left and a member of the Bundestag (German Parliament).
Keynesian economics (sometimes called Keynesianism) are the various macroeconomic theories about how in the short run – and especially during recessions – economic output is strongly influenced by aggregate demand (total demand in the economy).
Labour and Social Justice – The Electoral Alternative (Arbeit und soziale Gerechtigkeit – Die Wahlalternative, WASG) was a left-wing German political party founded in 2005 by activists disenchanted with the ruling Red-Green coalition government.
A Landtag (State Diet) is a representative assembly (parliament) in German-speaking countries with legislative authority and competence over a federated state (Land).
The Landtag of Baden-Württemberg is the state diet of the German federal state of Baden-Württemberg.
The Landtag of Bavaria (State Diet of Bavaria) is the unicameral legislature of the state of Bavaria in Germany.
The Landtag of Brandenburg (Brandenburg State Parliament) is the unicameral legislature of the state of Brandenburg in Germany.
The Landtag of Hesse (Hessischer Landtag) is the Parliament of the State of Hesse in the Federal Republic of Germany.
The Lower Saxon Landtag (Niedersächsischer Landtag) or the Parliament of Lower Saxony is the state diet of the German state of Lower Saxony.
The Landtag of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (Mecklenburg-West Pomerania) is the state diet of the German federal state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania).
The Landtag of North Rhine-Westphalia is the state parliament (Landtag) of the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia that convenes in the state capital of Düsseldorf, in the eastern part of the district of Hafen.
The Rhineland-Palatinate Landtag is the state diet of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate.
The Landtag of Saarland is the state diet of the German federal state of Saarland.
The Saxony-Anhalt Landtag is the state diet of the German federal state of Saxony-Anhalt.
The Schleswig-Holstein Landtag is the state parliament of the German state of Schleswig-Holstein.
The Landtag of the Free State of Saxony, also referred to as the Saxon Landtag, the Parliament of Saxony or the Saxon Parliament, is the legislative body of the German State of Saxony.
The Landtag of Thuringia is the parliament of the German federal state of Thuringia.
The Left Youth Solid (styled left youth; linksjugend) is a political youth organisation in Germany.
Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy.
Left-wing populism is a political ideology which combines left-wing politics and populist rhetoric and themes.
Libertarian socialism (or socialist libertarianism) is a group of anti-authoritarian political philosophies inside the socialist movement that rejects socialism as centralized state ownership and control of the economy.
Left Shift (Linksruck) was a Trotskyist group in Germany, which was the German affiliate of the International Socialist Tendency (the network founded by the British Socialist Workers Party).
This is a list of political parties in Germany.
Lothar Bisky (17 August 1941 – 13 August 2013) was a German politician.
Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen, Neddersassen) is a German state (Land) situated in northwestern Germany.
The 2008 Lower Saxony state election was held in Lower Saxony in north-western Germany on 27 January 2008.
A state election was held in Lower Saxony on 20 January 2013 to elect the 137 members of the Landtag.
A state election was held on 15 October 2017 to elect the 18th Landtag of Lower Saxony.
Lukrezia Luise "Luc" Jochimsen, née Lukrezia Schleussinger (born 1 March 1936), is a German sociologist, television journalist, and politician of The Left party.
Lucy Redler (born August 17, 1979 in Hann. Münden, Lower Saxony) is a German politician, Socialist Alternative activist, and member of the Left Party.
In political science, Marxism–Leninism is the ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, of the Communist International and of Stalinist political parties.
A master contract or master agreement is a collective bargaining agreement which covers all unionized worksites in an industry, market or company, and which establishes the terms and conditions of employment common to all workers in the industry, market or company.
The 2006 edition of the Mecklenburg-Vorpommern state election was conducted on 17 September 2006, to elect members to the Landtag of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (Mecklenburg-West Pomerania).
The Mecklenburg-Vorpommern state election was conducted on 4 September 2011, to elect members to the Landtag of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (Mecklenburg-West Pomerania).
The Mecklenburg-Vorpommern State Elections, 2016 were held on 4 September 2016, to elect members to the 7th Landtag of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.
A Member of the European Parliament (MEP) is a person who has been elected to serve as a popular representative in the European Parliament.
Michael Müller (born 9 December 1964) is a German politician of the Social Democratic Party of Germany serving as the Governing Mayor of Berlin since 11 December 2014.
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, GCL (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian and former Soviet politician.
A minimum wage is the lowest remuneration that employers can legally pay their workers.
A minority government, or minority cabinet or minority parliament, is a cabinet formed in a parliamentary system when a political party or coalition of parties does not have a majority of overall seats in the parliament.
Mixed-member proportional (MMP) representation is a mixed electoral system in which voters get two votes: one to decide the representative for their single-seat constituency, and one for a political party.
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Neo-Marxism is a broad term encompasing twentieth-century approaches that amend or extend Marxism and Marxist theory, typically by incorporating elements from other intellectual traditions such as critical theory, psychoanalysis, or existentialism (in the case of Jean-Paul Sartre).
Neoliberalism or neo-liberalism refers primarily to the 20th-century resurgence of 19th-century ideas associated with laissez-faire economic liberalism.
Neues Deutschland (ND) (New Germany) is a German daily newspaper, currently headquartered in Berlin.
The North Rhine-Westphalia state election, 2005, was conducted on 22 May 2005, to elect members to the Landtag (state legislature) of North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany.
The North Rhine-Westphalia state election, 2010, was an election held on 9 May 2010, to elect members to the Landtag (state legislature) of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia.
The North Rhine-Westphalia state election, 2012 was a snap election held on 13 May 2012, to elect members to the Landtag of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, after the former Landtag was dissolved on 14 March 2012.
An election was held on 14 May 2017 to elect members to the Landtag (state legislature) of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia.
Parliamentary opposition is a form of political opposition to a designated government, particularly in a Westminster-based parliamentary system.
Oskar Lafontaine (born 16 September 1943) is a German politician who served in the government of Germany as Minister of Finance from 1998 to 1999.
Party discipline is the ability of a parliamentary group of a political party to get its members to support the policies of their party leadership.
The Party of Democratic Socialism (Partei des Demokratischen Sozialismus, PDS) was a democratic socialist political party in Germany active between 1989 and 2007.
The Party of the European Left (PEL), commonly abbreviated European Left, is a European political party which operates as an association of democratic socialist and communist political parties in the European Union and other European countries.
The Peaceful Revolution (Friedliche Revolution) was the process of sociopolitical change that led to the end of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany of the German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Germany) and the transition to a parliamentary democracy which enabled the reunification of Germany.
Perestroika (a) was a political movement for reformation within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during the 1980s until 1991 and is widely associated with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and his glasnost (meaning "openness") policy reform.
Peter Sodann (born June 1, 1936 in Meissen, Saxony) is a German actor, director and politician.
Petra Pau (born 9 August 1963) is a German politician, as a member of The Left.
Platforms, in European politics, are openly organized political factions within left-wing political parties.
In politics, populism refers to a range of approaches which emphasise the role of "the people" and often juxtapose this group against "the elite".
The President of Germany, officially the Federal President of the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundespräsident der Bundesrepublik Deutschland),The official title within Germany is Bundespräsident, with der Bundesrepublik Deutschland being added in international correspondence; the official English title is President of the Federal Republic of Germany is the head of state of Germany.
The President of the Soviet Union (Президент Советского Союза, Prezident Sovetskogo Soyuza), officially called President of the USSR (Президент СССР) or President of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics (Президент Союза Советских Социалистических Республик), was the head of state of the Soviet Union from 15 March 1990 to 25 December 1991.
Privatization (also spelled privatisation) is the purchase of all outstanding shares of a publicly traded company by private investors, or the sale of a state-owned enterprise to private investors.
Purple is a color intermediate between blue and red.
Real socialism (also actually existing socialism or developed socialism) was an ideological catchphrase popularized during the Brezhnev era within the Eastern Bloc countries and the Soviet Union.
Red is the color at the end of the visible spectrum of light, next to orange and opposite violet.
Since the late 1990s there have been many calls for reform of the United Nations (UN).
The Revolutionary Socialist League (Revolutionär Sozialistischen Bund, RSB) was a small Trotskyist group in Germany.
The Rhineland-Palatinate state election, 2006, was conducted on 26 March 2006, to elect members to the Landtag (state legislature) of Rhineland-Palatinate.
The 2011 Rhineland-Palatinate state election was conducted on 27 March 2011 to elect all 101 members to the Landtag of Rhineland-Palatinate.
The 2016 Rhineland-Palatinate state election was held on 13 March 2016 to elect all 101 members to the Landtag of Rhineland-Palatinate.
The Rosa Luxemburg Foundation (Rosa-Luxemburg-Stiftung) named in recognition of Rosa Luxemburg, occasionally referred to as Rosa-Lux, is a transnational alternative policy group and educational institution, centered in Germany and affiliated to the democratic socialist Left Party.
Rudolf Bahro (November 18, 1935 – December 5, 1997) was a dissident from East Germany who, since his death, has been recognised as a philosopher, political figure and author.
State elections were held in Saarland on 30 August 2009, the same date as the Saxony and Thuringia state elections.
The Saarland state elections, 2012 were held in Saarland on 25 March 2012.
State elections were held in Saarland on 26 March 2017.
Sahra Wagenknecht (born 16 July 1969) is a German left-wing politician, economist, author and publicist.
State elections took place in Saxony on 30 August 2009, the same day as the Saarland and Thuringia state elections.
A state election was held on 31 August 2014 in the state of Saxony in Germany, as required by the state constitution.
The Saxony-Anhalt state election, 2006, was conducted on 26 March 2006, to elect members to the Landtag of Saxony-Anhalt.
The Saxony-Anhalt state election was held on 20 March 2011 in Saxony-Anhalt for the 20th legislative period of the Landtag of Saxony-Anhalt.
The Saxony-Anhalt state election was held on 13 March 2016 in Saxony-Anhalt for the 7th legislative period of the Landtag of Saxony-Anhalt.
State elections were held in Schleswig-Holstein on 27 September 2009, the same day as the German federal elections and the Brandenburg state elections.
A state election occurred in Schleswig-Holstein on 6 May 2012.
State elections were held in Schleswig-Holstein on 7 May 2017.
Sigmar Hartmut Gabriel (born 12 September 1959) is a German politician who was Minister for Foreign Affairs from 2017 to 2018 and Vice-Chancellor of Germany from 2013 to 2018.
Social democracy is a political, social and economic ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and capitalist economy.
The Social Democratic Party in the GDR (Sozialdemokratische Partei in der DDR) was a reconstituted Social Democratic Party existing during the last phase of the East German state.
The Social Democratic Party of Germany (Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, SPD) is a social-democratic political party in Germany.
A social movement is a type of group action.
Socialist Alternative (Sozialistische Alternative., SAV) is a German Trotskyist organization and the German section of the Committee for a Workers' International (CWI).
The Socialist Left (Sozialistische Linke, SL) is a political caucus in the Left Party of Germany.
The Socialist Party (Socialistische Partij,; abbreviated SP) is a left-wing, democratic socialist political party in the Netherlands.
The Socialist Unity Party of Germany (Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands, SED), established in April 1946, was the governing Marxist–Leninist political party of the German Democratic Republic from the country's foundation in October 1949 until it was dissolved after the Peaceful Revolution in 1989.
Stalinism is the means of governing and related policies implemented from the 1920s to 1953 by Joseph Stalin (1878–1953).
The Federal Commissioner for the Records of the State Security Service of the former German Democratic Republic, also known as the Stasi Records Agency or BStU, (see §Name below) is an upper-level federal agency of Germany that preserves and protects the archives and investigates the past actions of the former Stasi, which served as the secret police and foreign intelligence organization of the communist German Democratic Republic (East Germany).
Helmut Flieg or Hellmuth Fliegel (10 April 1913 – 16 December 2001) was a German writer, known by his pseudonym Stefan Heym.
Tatort (Crime scene) is a German language police procedural television series that has been running continuously since 1970 with some 30 feature-length episodes per year, which makes it the longest-running German TV drama.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
Karl Ernst Thomas de Maizière (born 21 January 1954) is a German politician of the Christian Democratic Union serving as the Federal Minister of the Interior since 17 December 2013 as part of the third cabinet of Chancellor Angela Merkel.
Thorsten Schäfer-Gümbel (né Schäfer, born 1 October 1969) is a German politician of the SPD.
The Free State of Thuringia (Freistaat Thüringen) is a federal state in central Germany.
Thuringia held state elections on 30 August 2009, the same day as the Saarland and Saxony state elections.
An election to the Landtag of Thuringia was held on 14 September 2014.
Tobias Pflüger (born 1 February 1965 in Stuttgart) is a German politician and former Member of the European Parliament (2004 - 2009).
Trade unions in Germany have a history reaching back to the German revolution in 1848, and still play an important role in the German economy and society.
The Treaty of Lisbon (initially known as the Reform Treaty) is an international agreement that amends the two treaties which form the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU).
Ursula "Ulla" Jelpke (born 9 June 1951 in Hamburg) is a German journalist and politician.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The War in Afghanistan (or the U.S. War in Afghanistan; code named Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan (2001–2014) and Operation Freedom's Sentinel (2015–present)) followed the United States invasion of Afghanistan of October 7, 2001.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
DIE LINKE, Die Linke., Die Linkspartei, Die Linkspartei., Left Party (Germany), Left Party of Germany, Linkspartei, The Left Party, The Left Party (Germany), The Left., The Left. (Germany), The Party of the Left..