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The Troubles

Index The Troubles

The Troubles (Na Trioblóidí) was an ethno-nationalist conflict in Northern Ireland during the late 20th century. [1]

388 relations: A1 road (Northern Ireland), Abstentionism, Acts of Union 1800, Adam Roberts (scholar), Agent handling, Anglicanism, Anglo-Irish Agreement, Anglo-Irish Treaty, Anthony Berry, Anti H-Block, Apprentice Boys of Derry, Armagh, Army Reserve (United Kingdom), Austin Currie, Ballymoney, Banbridge, Barrack buster, Barrett M82, Battle of Newry Road, Battle of the Bogside, Battle of the Boyne, Belfast, Belfast's Sailortown, Bernard Henry McGinn, Betty Williams (Nobel laureate), Bill Clinton, Billy Wright (loyalist), Birmingham, Birmingham pub bombings, Blanket protest, Bloody Friday (1972), Bloody Sunday (1972), Bloomsbury Publishing, Bobby Sands, Bogside, Bombardier (rank), Border Campaign (Irish Republican Army), Brian Faulkner, Brian Nelson (Northern Irish loyalist), Brighton, Brighton hotel bombing, British Armed Forces, British Army, Burntollet Bridge incident, Caledon, County Tyrone, Campaign for Social Justice, Cathal Goulding, Catholic emancipation, Ceasefire, Church of Ireland, ..., Civil Authorities (Special Powers) Act (Northern Ireland) 1922, Civil disobedience, Classified information, Coalisland, Collusion, Combatant, Combined Loyalist Military Command, Commonwealth of Nations, Conflict Archive on the Internet, Conscription Crisis of 1918, Conservative Party (UK), Continental Europe, Continuity Irish Republican Army, Corporals killings, Counter-insurgency, County Antrim, County Armagh, County Donegal, County Down, County Fermanagh, County Londonderry, County Monaghan, County Sligo, County Tyrone, Creggan, County Armagh, Crossmaglen, CS gas, Cullaville, Cullyhanna, David McKittrick, Dáil Éireann, Decommissioning in Northern Ireland, Defence Forces (Ireland), Defenders (Ireland), Derry, Desmond Lorenz de Silva, Devolution, Diplock courts, Direct rule (Northern Ireland), Dirty protest, Disappeared (Northern Ireland), Dissident Irish Republican campaign, Dissident republican, Dominion, Double agent, Droppin Well bombing, Drumcree Church, Dublin, Dublin and Monaghan bombings, Dungannon, Dungiven, Easter Rising, Ed Moloney, Edward Carson, Electoral district, Embassy of the United Kingdom, Dublin, England, Enniskillen, Eoin MacNeill, Ethnic nationalism, Europa Hotel, Belfast, Exercise Armageddon, Extrajudicial killing, Falls Curfew, Falls Road, Belfast, False flag, Fermanagh, Field hospital, Fionnuala Ní Aoláin, First Dáil, Five techniques, Force Research Unit, Forkhill, Free Derry, Garda Síochána, Garret FitzGerald, General strike, Gerry Adams, Gerrymandering, Gibraltar, Glenanne gang, Good Friday Agreement, Government of Ireland, Government of Ireland Act 1914, Government of Ireland Act 1920, Government of Northern Ireland (1921–1972), Government of the United Kingdom, Grand Brighton Hotel, Greysteel massacre, Guerrilla warfare, Gusty Spence, Harold Wilson, Harry West, History of the British Army, HM Prison Maze, Home rule, Hugh Logue, Humanitarian intervention, Hunger strike, Hunt Report, Ian Corden-Lloyd, Ian Paisley, Improvised vehicle armour, Informant, Internment, Ireland and World War I, Irish Army, Irish Boundary Commission, Irish Catholics, Irish Civil War, Irish Confederate Wars, Irish Free State, Irish general election, 1918, Irish National Liberation Army, Irish nationalism, Irish Parliamentary Party, Irish People's Liberation Organisation, Irish Prison Service, Irish Rebellion of 1798, Irish Republican Army (1922–1969), Irish Republican Brotherhood, Irish republicanism, Irish revolutionary period, Irish security forces, Irish Volunteers, Irish War of Independence, Jack Holland (writer), Jack Lynch, James Callaghan, James Connolly, John Hume, John Wakeham, John Weir (loyalist), Joint Committee on Human Rights, Jonesborough, County Armagh, Kingsmill massacre, Kitchener's Army, Law enforcement in the United Kingdom, Libya, Linen Hall Library, List of bombings during the Northern Ireland Troubles and peace process, List of books about the Troubles, List of chronologies of Provisional Irish Republican Army actions, List of Gardaí killed in the line of duty, London Review of Books, Loughgall, Loughgall ambush, Loughinisland, Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, Low intensity conflict, Loyalist Volunteer Force, M1919 Browning machine gun, Malayan Emergency, Margaret Thatcher, Martin Ingram, Martin McGuinness, Member of parliament, Merlyn Rees, MI5, Miami Showband killings, Michael Stone (loyalist), Military Reaction Force, Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom), Mitchell Principles, Molotov cocktail, Monaghan, Mountainview Tavern bombing 1975, Muammar Gaddafi, Murals in Northern Ireland, Murder of Robert McCartney, National Volunteers, Nelson's Pillar, Newry, No-go area, Nobel Peace Prize, Norman Tebbit, Northern Campaign (Irish Republican Army), Northern Ireland, Northern Ireland (Temporary Provisions) Act 1972, Northern Ireland Assembly (1973), Northern Ireland Assembly election, 1973, Northern Ireland border poll, 1973, Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association, Northern Ireland civil rights movement, Northern Ireland Executive, Northern Ireland peace process, Northern Ireland Prison Service, Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency, Nuala O'Loan, Baroness O'Loan, Official Irish Republican Army, Omagh, Omagh bombing, One man, one vote, Operation Banner, Operation Flavius, Operation Motorman, Orange Order, Outline of the Troubles, Owen Carron, Oxford University Press, Parachute Regiment (United Kingdom), Paramilitary, Parliament of Ireland, Parliament of Northern Ireland, Parliament of the United Kingdom, Parliamentary Secretary to the Treasury, Partition of Ireland, Pat Finucane, Patrick Pearse, Paul Bew, Peep o' Day Boys, Pen and Sword Books, Penal Laws (Ireland), People's Democracy (Ireland), Peter Taylor (journalist), Plantation of Ulster, Pogrom, Police brutality, Police Ombudsman for Northern Ireland, Police Service of Northern Ireland, Political violence, Portadown, Presbyterianism, Presidency of Ronald Reagan, Prime Minister of Northern Ireland, Principle of consent, Protestant Ascendancy, Provisional IRA South Armagh Brigade, Provisional Irish Republican Army, Provisional Irish Republican Army arms importation, Queen's University Belfast, Real Irish Republican Army, Reavey and O'Dowd killings, Red Hand Commando, Religious war, Remembrance Day bombing, Repartition of Ireland, Repeal Association, Republic of Ireland, Republic of Ireland–United Kingdom border, Republican Sinn Féin, Restoration (1660), Richard Bourke (academic), Robin Eames, Robin Jackson, Rocket-propelled grenade, Ronald Reagan, Roy Magee, Royal Air Force, Royal assent, Royal Irish Rangers, Royal Irish Regiment (1992), Royal Navy, Royal Ulster Constabulary, Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, Sectarianism, Segregation in Northern Ireland, Settler, Shankill Road, Shankill Road bombing, Shoot-to-kill policy in Northern Ireland, Shorland armoured car, Silverbridge, County Armagh, Sinn Féin, Smithwick Tribunal, Society of United Irishmen, South Armagh Republican Action Force, South Armagh Sniper (1990–1997), Southern Ireland (1921–22), Special Air Service, Squatting, St Andrews Agreement, Stakeknife, Stevens Inquiries, Stormontgate, Sunningdale Agreement, Taoiseach, Tarring and feathering, Terence O'Neill, The Blitz, The Guardian, The Stationery Office, The Troubles in popular culture, Timeline of Continuity IRA actions, Timeline of Irish National Liberation Army actions, Timeline of Real Irish Republican Army actions, Timeline of the Northern Ireland Troubles and peace process, Timeline of Ulster Defence Association actions, Timeline of Ulster Defence Regiment operations, Timeline of Ulster Volunteer Force actions, Timothy Garton Ash, Torture, Trinity College Dublin, Tullyhommon, Ulster, Ulster Constitution Defence Committee, Ulster Covenant, Ulster Defence Association, Ulster Defence Regiment, Ulster loyalism, Ulster Protestant Volunteers, Ulster Protestants, Ulster Resistance, Ulster Unionist Party, Ulster Volunteer Force, Ulster Volunteers, Ulster Workers' Council, Ulster Workers' Council strike, Unionism in Ireland, United Ireland, United Kingdom general election, February 1974, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, United Nations peacekeeping, United States House Committee on Foreign Affairs, United States House of Representatives, United States Special Envoy for Northern Ireland, UVF Mid-Ulster Brigade, W. T. Cosgrave, War-weariness, Warrenpoint, Warrenpoint ambush, Wars of the Three Kingdoms, White paper, William III of England, Williamite War in Ireland, Workers' Party of Ireland, World War I, 1969 Northern Ireland riots, 1978 British Army Gazelle downing, 1981 Irish hunger strike, 1986 United States bombing of Libya, 1989 Jonesborough ambush, 1990 British Army Gazelle shootdown, 1994 British Army Lynx shootdown, 1996 Docklands bombing, 1996 Manchester bombing, 19th Light Brigade (United Kingdom), 1st Battalion, Parachute Regiment. Expand index (338 more) »

A1 road (Northern Ireland)

The A1 is a major route in Northern Ireland.

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Abstentionism

Abstentionism is standing for election to a deliberative assembly while refusing to take up any seats won or otherwise participate in the assembly's business.

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Acts of Union 1800

The Acts of Union 1800 (sometimes erroneously referred to as a single Act of Union 1801) were parallel acts of the Parliament of Great Britain and the Parliament of Ireland which united the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland (previously in personal union) to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

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Adam Roberts (scholar)

Sir Adam Roberts (born 29 August 1940) is Emeritus Professor of International Relations at Oxford University, a senior research fellow in Oxford University's Department of Politics and International Relations, and an emeritus fellow of Balliol College, Oxford.

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Agent handling

In intelligence organizations, agent handling is the management of so-called agents (called secret agents or spies in common parlance), principal agents, and agent networks (called "assets") by intelligence officers typically known as case officers.

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Anglicanism

Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.

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Anglo-Irish Agreement

The Anglo-Irish Agreement was a 1985 treaty between the United Kingdom and Ireland which aimed to help bring an end to the Troubles in Northern Ireland.

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Anglo-Irish Treaty

The Anglo-Irish Treaty (An Conradh Angla-Éireannach), commonly known as The Treaty and officially the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was an agreement between the government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and representatives of the Irish Republic that concluded the Irish War of Independence.

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Anthony Berry

Sir Anthony George Berry (12 February 1925 – 12 October 1984) was a British politician, the Conservative Member of Parliament for Enfield Southgate, and a Whip in Margaret Thatcher's government.

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Anti H-Block

Anti H-Block was the political label used in 1981 by supporters of the Irish republican hunger strike who were standing for election in both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland.

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Apprentice Boys of Derry

The Apprentice Boys of Derry is a Protestant fraternal society with a worldwide membership of over 10,000, founded in 1814 and based in the city of Derry, Northern Ireland.

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Armagh

Armagh is the county town of County Armagh and a city in Northern Ireland, as well as a civil parish.

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Army Reserve (United Kingdom)

The Army Reserve is the active-duty volunteer reserve force and integrated element of the British Army.

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Austin Currie

Joseph Austin Currie (born 11 October 1939) is a former Irish Fine Gael politician who served as Minister of State for Justice from 1994 to 1997.

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Ballymoney

Ballymoney is a small town and civil parish in County Antrim, Northern Ireland.

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Banbridge

Banbridge is a town in County Down, Northern Ireland.

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Barrack buster

Barrack buster is the colloquial name given to several improvised mortars, developed in the 1990s by the engineering group of the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA).

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Barrett M82

The Barrett M82, standardized by the U.S. military as the M107, is a recoil-operated, semi-automatic anti-materiel rifle developed by the American Barrett Firearms Manufacturing company.

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Battle of Newry Road

The Battle of Newry Road was a running gun battle between British helicopters and Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) armed trucks, fought along the lanes east of Crossmaglen, County Armagh, on 23 September 1993.

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Battle of the Bogside

The Battle of the Bogside was a very large communal riot that took place from 12 to 14 August 1969 in Derry, Northern Ireland.

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Battle of the Boyne

The Battle of the Boyne (Cath na Bóinne) was a battle in 1690 between the forces of the deposed King James II of England, and those of Dutch Prince William of Orange who, with his wife Mary II (his cousin and James's daughter), had acceded to the Crowns of England and Scotland in 1688.

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Belfast

Belfast (is the capital city of Northern Ireland, located on the banks of the River Lagan on the east coast of Ireland.

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Belfast's Sailortown

Sailortown was a working-class dockland community located in the docks area of Belfast, Northern Ireland.

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Bernard Henry McGinn

Bernard Henry McGinn (c. 1957 – body discovered 21 December 2013) was a Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA) member, specialising in explosives, who was sentenced to a total of 490 years imprisonment in 1999.

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Betty Williams (Nobel laureate)

Betty Williams (born 22 May 1943, Belfast, Northern Ireland) is a co-recipient with Mairead Corrigan of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1976 for her work as a cofounder of Community of Peace People, an organization dedicated to promoting a peaceful resolution to the Troubles in Northern Ireland.

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Bill Clinton

William Jefferson Clinton (born August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.

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Billy Wright (loyalist)

William Stephen "Billy" Wright (7 July 1960 – 27 December 1997) was a prominent Ulster loyalist paramilitary leader during the ethno-nationalist conflict in Northern Ireland known as the Troubles.

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Birmingham

Birmingham is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England, with an estimated population of 1,101,360, making it the second most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Birmingham pub bombings

The Birmingham pub bombings (also known as the Birmingham bombings) occurred on 21 November 1974, when bombs exploded in two public houses in central Birmingham, England.

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Blanket protest

The blanket protest was part of a five-year protest during the Troubles by Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) and Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) prisoners held in the Maze prison (also known as "Long Kesh") in Northern Ireland.

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Bloody Friday (1972)

Bloody Friday is the name given to the bombings by the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) in Belfast on 21 July 1972, during the Troubles.

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Bloody Sunday (1972)

Bloody Sunday – sometimes called the Bogside Massacre – was an incident on 30 January 1972 in the Bogside area of Derry, Northern Ireland, when British soldiers shot 28 unarmed civilians during a peaceful protest march against internment.

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Bloomsbury Publishing

Bloomsbury Publishing plc (formerly M.B.N.1 Limited and Bloomsbury Publishing Company Limited) is a British independent, worldwide publishing house of fiction and non-fiction.

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Bobby Sands

Robert Gerard Sands (Roibeárd Gearóid Ó Seachnasaigh; 9 March 19545 May 1981) was a member of the Provisional Irish Republican Army who died on hunger strike while imprisoned at HM Prison Maze after being sentenced for firearms possession.

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Bogside

The Bogside is a neighbourhood outside the city walls of Derry, County Londonderry, Northern Ireland.

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Bombardier (rank)

Bombardier is a military rank that has existed since the 16th century in artillery regiments of various armies, such as in the British Army and the Royal Prussian Army.

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Border Campaign (Irish Republican Army)

The Border Campaign (12 December 1956 – 26 February 1962) was a guerrilla warfare campaign (codenamed Operation Harvest) carried out by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) against targets in Northern Ireland, with the aim of overthrowing British rule there and creating a united Ireland.

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Brian Faulkner

Arthur Brian Deane Faulkner, Baron Faulkner of Downpatrick, (18 February 1921 – 3 March 1977) was the sixth and last Prime Minister of Northern Ireland, from March 1971 until his resignation in March 1972.

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Brian Nelson (Northern Irish loyalist)

Brian Nelson (30 September 1947 – 11 April 2003) was an Ulster loyalist paramilitary during The Troubles in Northern Ireland.

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Brighton

Brighton is a seaside resort on the south coast of England which is part of the city of Brighton and Hove, East Sussex, 47 miles (75 km) south of London.

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Brighton hotel bombing

The Brighton hotel bombing was a Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) assassination attempt against the top tier of the British government that occurred on 12 October 1984 at the Grand Brighton Hotel in Brighton, England.

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British Armed Forces

The British Armed Forces, also known as Her/His Majesty's Armed Forces, are the military services responsible for the defence of the United Kingdom, its overseas territories and the Crown dependencies.

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British Army

The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.

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Burntollet Bridge incident

Burntollet Bridge was the setting for an attack during the first stages of the Troubles of Northern Ireland.

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Caledon, County Tyrone

Caledon) is a small village and townland (of 232 acres) in County Tyrone, Northern Ireland. It is in the Clogher Valley on the banks of the River Blackwater, 7 miles from Armagh. It lies in the southeast of Tyrone and near the borders of County Armagh and County Monaghan. It is situated in the historic barony of Dungannon Lower and the civil parish of Aghaloo. In the 2001 Census it had a population of 387 people. It is a designated conservation area. It was historically known as Kinnaird (Irish: Cionn Aird, meaning "head/top of the height or hill".

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Campaign for Social Justice

The Campaign for Social Justice (CSJ) was an organisation based in Northern Ireland which campaigned for civil rights in that region.

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Cathal Goulding

Cathal Goulding (Cathal Ó Goillín; 2 January 1923 – 26 December 1998) was Chief of Staff of the Irish Republican Army and the Official IRA.

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Catholic emancipation

Catholic emancipation or Catholic relief was a process in the Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in the late 18th century and early 19th century that involved reducing and removing many of the restrictions on Roman Catholics introduced by the Act of Uniformity, the Test Acts and the penal laws.

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Ceasefire

A ceasefire (or truce), also called cease fire, is a temporary stoppage of a war in which each side agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions.

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Church of Ireland

The Church of Ireland (Eaglais na hÉireann; Ulster-Scots: Kirk o Airlann) is a Christian church in Ireland and an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion.

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Civil Authorities (Special Powers) Act (Northern Ireland) 1922

The Civil Authorities (Special Powers) Act (Northern Ireland) 1922, often referred to simply as the Special Powers Act, was an Act passed by the Parliament of Northern Ireland shortly after the establishment of Northern Ireland, and in the context of violent conflict over the issue of the partition of Ireland.

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Civil disobedience

Civil disobedience is the active, professed refusal of a citizen to obey certain laws, demands, orders or commands of a government or occupying international power.

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Classified information

Classified information is material that a government body deems to be sensitive information that must be protected.

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Coalisland

Coalisland is a small town in County Tyrone, Northern Ireland, with a population of 5,700 in 2011.

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Collusion

Collusion is an agreement between two or more parties, sometimes illegal–but always secretive–to limit open competition by deceiving, misleading, or defrauding others of their legal rights, or to obtain an objective forbidden by law typically by defrauding or gaining an unfair market advantage.

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Combatant

Combatant is a term of art which describes the legal status of an individual who has the right to engage in hostilities during an international armed conflict.

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Combined Loyalist Military Command

The Combined Loyalist Military Command was an umbrella body for loyalist paramilitary groups in Northern Ireland set up in the early 1990s, recalling the earlier Ulster Army Council and Ulster Loyalist Central Co-ordinating Committee.

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Commonwealth of Nations

The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.

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Conflict Archive on the Internet

CAIN (Conflict Archive on the Internet) is a database containing information about Conflict and Politics in Northern Ireland from 1968 to the present.

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Conscription Crisis of 1918

The Conscription Crisis of 1918 stemmed from a move by the British government to impose conscription (military draft) in Ireland in April 1918 during the First World War.

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Conservative Party (UK)

The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom.

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Continental Europe

Continental or mainland Europe is the continuous continent of Europe excluding its surrounding islands.

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Continuity Irish Republican Army

The Continuity Irish Republican Army, usually known as the Continuity IRA (CIRA) is an Irish republican paramilitary group that claims to be the armed forces of the Irish Republic that was proclaimed in 1916.

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Corporals killings

British Army corporals Derek Wood and David HowesTaylor, p.284.

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Counter-insurgency

A counter-insurgency or counterinsurgency (COIN) can be defined as "comprehensive civilian and military efforts taken to simultaneously defeat and contain insurgency and address its root causes".

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County Antrim

County Antrim (named after the town of Antrim)) is one of six counties that form Northern Ireland. Adjoined to the north-east shore of Lough Neagh, the county covers an area of and has a population of about 618,000. County Antrim has a population density of 203 people per square kilometre or 526 people per square mile. It is also one of the thirty-two traditional counties of Ireland, as well as part of the historic province of Ulster. The Glens of Antrim offer isolated rugged landscapes, the Giant's Causeway is a unique landscape and a UNESCO World Heritage Site, Bushmills produces whiskey, and Portrush is a popular seaside resort and night-life area. The majority of Belfast, the capital city of Northern Ireland, is in County Antrim, with the remainder being in County Down. It is currently one of only two counties of Ireland to have a majority of the population from a Protestant background, according to the 2001 census. The other is County Down to the south.

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County Armagh

County Armagh (named after its county town, Armagh) is one of six counties that form Northern Ireland.

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County Donegal

County Donegal (Contae Dhún na nGall) is a county of Ireland in the province of Ulster.

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County Down

County Down is one of six counties that form Northern Ireland in the northeast of the island of Ireland.

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County Fermanagh

County Fermanagh is one of the thirty-two counties of Ireland and one of the six counties of Northern Ireland.

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County Londonderry

County Londonderry (Contae Dhoire; Ulster-Scots: Coontie Lunnonderrie), also known as County Derry, is one of the six counties of Northern Ireland.

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County Monaghan

County Monaghan (Contae Mhuineacháin) is a county in Ireland.

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County Sligo

County Sligo (Contae Shligigh) is a county in Ireland.

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County Tyrone

County Tyrone is one of the six historic counties of Northern Ireland.

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Creggan, County Armagh

Creggan is a small village, townland and civil parish near Crossmaglen in County Armagh, Northern Ireland.

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Crossmaglen

Crossmaglen is a village and townland in County Armagh, Northern Ireland.

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CS gas

The compound 2-chlorobenzalmalononitrile (also called o-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile; chemical formula: C10H5ClN2), a cyanocarbon, is the defining component of a tear gas commonly referred to as CS gas, which is used as a riot control agent.

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Cullaville

Cullaville or Culloville is a small village and townland near Crossmaglen in County Armagh, Northern Ireland.

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Cullyhanna

Cullyhanna (or Coill Uí hAnnaidh meaning "Ó Hanna's wood") is a small village and townland in County Armagh, Northern Ireland.

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David McKittrick

David McKittrick (born 1949) is a Belfast-born journalist who has reported on Northern Ireland since 1971.

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Dáil Éireann

Dáil Éireann (lit. Assembly of Ireland) is the lower house, and principal chamber, of the Oireachtas (Irish legislature), which also includes the President of Ireland and Seanad Éireann (the upper house).

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Decommissioning in Northern Ireland

Decommissioning in Northern Ireland was a process in the Belfast Agreement as part of the Northern Ireland peace process.

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Defence Forces (Ireland)

The Defence Forces (Fórsaí Cosanta, officially styled Óglaigh na hÉireann),Óglaigh na hÉireann derives its origins from the Irish Volunteers.

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Defenders (Ireland)

The Defenders were a Roman Catholic agrarian secret society in 18th-century Ireland, founded in County Armagh.

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Derry

Derry, officially Londonderry, is the second-largest city in Northern Ireland and the fourth-largest city on the island of Ireland.

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Desmond Lorenz de Silva

The Rt Hon.

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Devolution

Devolution is the statutory delegation of powers from the central government of a sovereign state to govern at a subnational level, such as a regional or local level.

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Diplock courts

Diplock courts were a type of court established by the Government of the United Kingdom in Northern Ireland on 8 August 1973 during The Troubles.

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Direct rule (Northern Ireland)

Direct rule is the term given to the administration of Northern Ireland directly by the Government of the United Kingdom.

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Dirty protest

The dirty protest (also called the no wash protest) was part of a five-year protest during the Troubles by Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) and Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) prisoners held in the Maze Prison (also known as "Long Kesh") and a protest at Armagh Women's Prison in Northern Ireland.

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Disappeared (Northern Ireland)

The Disappeared is a term which refers to people believed to have been abducted, murdered and secretly buried in Northern Ireland, the majority of which occurred during the Troubles.

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Dissident Irish Republican campaign

Since the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA or PIRA) called a ceasefire and ended its armed campaign in 1997, breakaway groups opposed to the ceasefire ("dissident Irish republicans") have continued a low-level armed campaign against the security forces in Northern Ireland.

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Dissident republican

Dissident republicans, renegade republicans, anti-Agreement republicans or anti-ceasefire republicans (poblachtach easaontach) are Irish republicans who do not support the current peace agreements in Northern Ireland.

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Dominion

Dominions were semi-independent polities under the British Crown, constituting the British Empire, beginning with Canadian Confederation in 1867.

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Double agent

In the field of counterintelligence, a double agent (also double secret agent) is an employee of a secret intelligence service for one country, whose primary purpose is to spy on a target organization of another country, but who, in fact, has been discovered by the target organization and is now spying on their own country's organization for the target organization.

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Droppin Well bombing

The Droppin Well bombing or Ballykelly bombing occurred on 6 December 1982, when the Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) exploded a time bomb at a disco in Ballykelly, Northern Ireland.

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Drumcree Church

Drumcree Parish Church, officially The Church of the Ascension, is the Church of Ireland parish church within the townland of Drumcree, roughly 1.5 miles (2.3 km) to the northeast of Portadown, County Armagh.

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Dublin

Dublin is the capital of and largest city in Ireland.

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Dublin and Monaghan bombings

The Dublin and Monaghan bombings of 17 May 1974 were a series of co-ordinated bombings in Dublin and Monaghan, Ireland.

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Dungannon

Dungannon is a town in County Tyrone, Northern Ireland.

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Dungiven

Dungiven is a small town, townland and civil parish in County Londonderry, Northern Ireland.

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Easter Rising

The Easter Rising (Éirí Amach na Cásca), also known as the Easter Rebellion, was an armed insurrection in Ireland during Easter Week, April 1916.

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Ed Moloney

Edmund "Ed" Moloney (born 1948–9) is an Irish journalist and author best known for his coverage of the Troubles in Northern Ireland, and the activities of the Provisional IRA, in particular.

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Edward Carson

Edward Henry Carson, Baron Carson, PC, PC (Ire), KC (9 February 1854 – 22 October 1935), from 1900 to 1921 known as Sir Edward Carson, was an Irish unionist politician, barrister and judge.

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Electoral district

An electoral district, (election) precinct, election district, or legislative district, called a voting district by the US Census (also known as a constituency, riding, ward, division, electoral area, or electorate) is a territorial subdivision for electing members to a legislative body.

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Embassy of the United Kingdom, Dublin

The Embassy of the United Kingdom in Dublin is the chief diplomatic mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Ireland.

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England

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.

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Enniskillen

Enniskillen is a town and civil parish in County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland.

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Eoin MacNeill

Eóin MacNeill (Eóin Mac Néill; 15 May 1867 – 15 October 1945) was an Irish scholar, Irish language enthusiast, Gaelic revivalist, nationalist, and Sinn Féin politician.

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Ethnic nationalism

Ethnic nationalism, also known as ethno-nationalism, is a form of nationalism wherein the nation is defined in terms of ethnicity.

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Europa Hotel, Belfast

The Europa Hotel is a four-star hotel in Great Victoria Street, Belfast, Northern Ireland.

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Exercise Armageddon

Exercise ArmageddonClonan, Tom.

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Extrajudicial killing

An extrajudicial killing (also known as extrajudicial execution) is the killing of a person by governmental authorities without the sanction of any judicial proceeding or legal process.

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Falls Curfew

The Falls Curfew, also called the Battle of the Falls (or Lower Falls), was a British Army operation during 3–5 July 1970 in the Falls district of Belfast, Northern Ireland.

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Falls Road, Belfast

The Falls Road is the main road through west Belfast, Northern Ireland, running from Divis Street in Belfast city centre to Andersonstown in the suburbs.

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False flag

A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.

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Fermanagh

Fermanagh (Fear Manach) was a kingdom of Gaelic Ireland, associated geographically with present-day County Fermanagh.

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Field hospital

A field hospital is a small mobile medical unit, or mini hospital, that temporarily takes care of casualties on-site before they can be safely transported to more permanent facilities.

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Fionnuala Ní Aoláin

Fionnuala Ní Aoláin (born Galway, 1967) is an Irish academic lawyer specialising in human rights law.

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First Dáil

The First Dáil (An Chéad Dáil) was Dáil Éireann as it convened from 1919–1921.

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Five techniques

The five techniques were illegal interrogation methods which were originally developed by the British military in other operational theatres and then applied to detainees during the Troubles in Northern Ireland.

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Force Research Unit

The Force Research Unit (FRU) is a covert military intelligence unit of the British Army part of the Intelligence Corps.

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Forkhill

Forkhill or Forkill (meaning "trough/hollow") is a small village and civil parish in south County Armagh, Northern Ireland.

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Free Derry

Free Derry was a self-declared autonomous nationalist area of Derry, Northern Ireland, that existed between 1969 and 1972.

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Garda Síochána

An Garda Síochána (meaning "the Guardian of the Peace"), more commonly referred to as the Gardaí ("Guardians") or "the Guards", is the police force of the Republic of Ireland.

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Garret FitzGerald

Garret Desmond FitzGerald (9 February 192619 May 2011) was an Irish Fine Gael politician who served as Taoiseach from 1981 to 1982 and 1982 to 1987, Leader of Fine Gael from 1977 to 1987, Leader of the Opposition from 1977 to 1981 and March 1982 to December 1982 and Minister for Foreign Affairs from 1973 to 1977.

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General strike

A general strike (or mass strike) is a strike action in which a substantial proportion of the total labour force in a city, region, or country participates.

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Gerry Adams

Gerard Adams (Gearóid Mac Ádhaimh; born 6 October 1948) is an Irish republican politician who was the Leader of the Sinn Féin political party between 13 November 1983 and 10 February 2018, and has been a Teachta Dála (TD) for Louth since the 2011 general election.

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Gerrymandering

Gerrymandering is a practice intended to establish a political advantage for a particular party or group by manipulating district boundaries.

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Gibraltar

Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.

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Glenanne gang

The Glenanne gang or Glenanne group was a secret informal alliance of Ulster loyalists who carried out shooting and bombing attacks against Catholics and Irish nationalists in the 1970s, during the Troubles.

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Good Friday Agreement

The Good Friday Agreement (GFA) or Belfast Agreement (Comhaontú Aoine an Chéasta or Comhaontú Bhéal Feirste; Ulster-Scots: Guid Friday Greeance or Bilfawst Greeance) was a major political development in the Northern Ireland peace process of the 1990s.

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Government of Ireland

The Government of Ireland (Rialtas na hÉireann) is the cabinet that exercises executive authority in the Republic of Ireland.

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Government of Ireland Act 1914

The Government of Ireland Act 1914 (4 & 5 Geo. 5 c. 90), also known as the Home Rule Act, and before enactment as the Third Home Rule Bill, was an Act passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom intended to provide home rule (self-government within the United Kingdom) for Ireland.

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Government of Ireland Act 1920

The Government of Ireland Act 1920 (10 & 11 Geo. 5 c. 67) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Government of Northern Ireland (1921–1972)

The Executive Committee or the Executive Committee of the Privy Council of Northern Ireland was the government of Northern Ireland created under the Government of Ireland Act 1920.

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Government of the United Kingdom

The Government of the United Kingdom, formally referred to as Her Majesty's Government, is the central government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

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Grand Brighton Hotel

The Grand Brighton Hotel is a historic Victorian sea front hotel in Brighton on the south coast of England.

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Greysteel massacre

The Greysteel massacreCrawford, Colin.

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Guerrilla warfare

Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.

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Gusty Spence

Augustus Andrew "Gusty" Spence (28 June 1933. Conflict Archive on the Internet (CAIN). Retrieved 5 April 2011. – 25 September 2011) was a leader of the paramilitary Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) and a leading loyalist politician in Northern Ireland.

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Harold Wilson

James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, (11 March 1916 – 24 May 1995) was a British Labour politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1964 to 1970 and from 1974 to 1976.

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Harry West

Henry William West (27 March 1917 – 5 February 2004) was a politician in Northern Ireland who served as leader of the Ulster Unionist Party from 1974 until 1979.

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History of the British Army

The history of the British Army spans over three and a half centuries since its founding in 1660 and involves numerous European wars, colonial wars and world wars.

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HM Prison Maze

Her Majesty's Prison Maze (previously Long Kesh Detention Centre and known colloquially as the Maze Prison, The Maze, the H Blocks or Long Kesh) was a prison in Northern Ireland that was used to house paramilitary prisoners during the Troubles from mid-1971 to mid-2000.

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Home rule

Home rule is government of a colony, dependent country, or region by its own citizens.

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Hugh Logue

Hugh Anthony Logue (born 23 January 1949) is a Northern Irish former Social Democratic and Labour Party politician and economist who now works as a commentator on political and economic issues.

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Humanitarian intervention

Humanitarian Intervention has been defined as a state's use of "military force (publicly stated that its use is for ending the violation of human rights) against another state."Marjanovic, Marko (2011-04-04), Mises Institute This definition may be too narrow as it precludes non-military forms of intervention such as humanitarian aid and international sanctions.

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Hunger strike

A hunger strike is a method of non-violent resistance or pressure in which participants fast as an act of political protest, or to provoke feelings of guilt in others, usually with the objective to achieve a specific goal, such as a policy change.

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Hunt Report

The Hunt Report, or the Report of the Advisory Committee on Police in Northern Ireland, was produced by a committee headed by Baron Hunt in 1969.

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Ian Corden-Lloyd

Lieutenant Colonel Iain Douglas Corden-Lloyd (27 May 1938 – 17 February 1978) was a British Army officer and one of the highest ranking soldiers to be killed in action during the Troubles in Northern Ireland.

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Ian Paisley

Ian Richard Kyle Paisley, Baron Bannside, (6 April 1926 – 12 September 2014), was a loyalist politician and Protestant religious leader from Northern Ireland.

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Improvised vehicle armour

Improvised vehicle armour is vehicle armour added in the field that was not originally part of the design, in any sort of official up-armour kit, nor centrally planned.

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Informant

An informant (also called an informer) is a person who provides privileged information about a person or organization to an agency.

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Internment

Internment is the imprisonment of people, commonly in large groups, without charges or intent to file charges, and thus no trial.

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Ireland and World War I

During World War I (1914–1918), Ireland was part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, which entered the war in August 1914 as one of the Entente Powers, along with France, and the Russian Empire.

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Irish Army

The Irish Army, known simply as the Army (an tArm), is the land component of the Defence Forces of Ireland.

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Irish Boundary Commission

The Irish Boundary Commission (Coimisiún na Teorainne) met in 1924–25 to decide on the precise delineation of the border between the Irish Free State and Northern Ireland.

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Irish Catholics

Irish Catholics are an ethnoreligious group native to Ireland that are both Catholic and Irish.

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Irish Civil War

The Irish Civil War (Cogadh Cathartha na hÉireann; 28 June 1922 – 24 May 1923) was a conflict that followed the Irish War of Independence and accompanied the establishment of the Irish Free State, an entity independent from the United Kingdom but within the British Empire.

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Irish Confederate Wars

The Irish Confederate Wars, also called the Eleven Years' War (derived from the Irish language name Cogadh na hAon Bhliana Déag), took place in Ireland between 1641 and 1653.

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Irish Free State

The Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann; 6 December 192229 December 1937) was a state established in 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 1921.

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Irish general election, 1918

The Irish general election of 1918 was that part of the 1918 general election which took place in Ireland.

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Irish National Liberation Army

The Irish National Liberation Army (INLA, Arm Saoirse Náisiúnta na hÉireann) is an Irish republican socialist paramilitary group formed on 10 December 1974, during "the Troubles".

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Irish nationalism

Irish nationalism is an ideology which asserts that the Irish people are a nation.

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Irish Parliamentary Party

The Irish Parliamentary Party (IPP; commonly called the Irish Party or the Home Rule Party) was formed in 1874 by Isaac Butt, the leader of the Nationalist Party, replacing the Home Rule League, as official parliamentary party for Irish nationalist Members of Parliament (MPs) elected to the House of Commons at Westminster within the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland up until 1918.

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Irish People's Liberation Organisation

The Irish People's Liberation Organisation was a small Irish republican paramilitary organisation which was formed in 1986 by disaffected and expelled members of the Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) whose factions coalesced in the aftermath of the supergrass trials.

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Irish Prison Service

The Irish Prison Service (IPS) manages the day-to-day operation of prisons in the Republic of Ireland.

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Irish Rebellion of 1798

The Irish Rebellion of 1798 (Éirí Amach 1798), also known as the United Irishmen Rebellion (Éirí Amach na nÉireannach Aontaithe), was an uprising against British rule in Ireland lasting from May to September 1798.

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Irish Republican Army (1922–1969)

The original Irish Republican Army (IRA) fought a guerrilla war against British rule in Ireland in the Irish War of Independence between 1919 and 1921.

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Irish Republican Brotherhood

The Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB) was a secret oath-bound fraternal organisation dedicated to the establishment of an "independent democratic republic" in Ireland between 1858 and 1924.

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Irish republicanism

Irish republicanism (poblachtánachas Éireannach) is an ideology based on the belief that all of Ireland should be an independent republic.

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Irish revolutionary period

The revolutionary period in Irish history was the period in the 1910s and early 1920s when Irish nationalist opinion shifted from the Home Rule-supporting the Irish Parliamentary Party to the republican Sinn Féin movement.

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Irish security forces

Irish security forces is a term used to describe all security forces of the Republic of Ireland.

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Irish Volunteers

The Irish Volunteers (Óglaigh na hÉireann), sometimes called the Irish Volunteer Force or Irish Volunteer Army, was a military organisation established in 1913 by Irish nationalists.

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Irish War of Independence

The Irish War of Independence (Cogadh na Saoirse) or Anglo-Irish War was a guerrilla war fought from 1919 to 1921 between the Irish Republican Army (IRA, the army of the Irish Republic) and the British security forces in Ireland.

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Jack Holland (writer)

Jack Holland (4 June 1947 – 14 May 2004) was an Irish journalist, novelist, and poet who built a reputation chronicling "The Troubles" in his native Northern Ireland.

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Jack Lynch

John Mary Lynch (15 August 1917 – 20 October 1999), known as Jack Lynch, was an Irish Fianna Fáil politician who served as Taoiseach from 1966 to 1973 and 1977 to 1979, Leader of Fianna Fáil from 1966 to 1979, Leader of the Opposition from 1973 to 1977, Minister for Finance from 1965 to 1966, Minister for Industry and Commerce from 1959 to 1965, Minister for Education 1957 to 1959, Minister for Gaeltacht Affairs from March 1957 to June 1957, Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister for Lands and Parliamentary Secretary to the Taoiseach from 1951 to 1954.

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James Callaghan

Leonard James Callaghan, Baron Callaghan of Cardiff, (27 March 1912 – 26 March 2005), often known as Jim Callaghan, served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1976 to 1979 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1976 to 1980.

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James Connolly

James Connolly (Séamas Ó Conghaile; 5 June 1868 – 12 May 1916) was an Irish republican and socialist leader.

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John Hume

John Hume, KCSG (born 18 January 1937) is an Irish former politician from Derry, Northern Ireland.

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John Wakeham

John Wakeham, Baron Wakeham, PC, DL (born 22 June 1932) is a British businessman and Conservative Party politician.

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John Weir (loyalist)

John Oliver Weir (born 1950) is an Ulster loyalist born in the Republic of Ireland.

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Joint Committee on Human Rights

The Joint Committee on Human Rights is a select committee of both the House of Commons and House of Lords in the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Jonesborough, County Armagh

Jonesborough or Jonesboro (Irish: Baile an Chláir) is a small village and civil parish in the Ring of Gullion in County Armagh, Northern Ireland.

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Kingsmill massacre

The Kingsmill massacre was a mass shooting that took place on 5 January 1976 near the village of Kingsmill in south County Armagh, Northern Ireland.

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Kitchener's Army

The New Army, often referred to as Kitchener's Army or, disparagingly, as Kitchener's Mob, was an (initially) all-volunteer army of the British Army formed in the United Kingdom from 1914 onwards following the outbreak of hostilities in the First World War in late July 1914.

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Law enforcement in the United Kingdom

Law enforcement in the United Kingdom is organised separately in each of the legal systems of the United Kingdom: England and Wales, Northern Ireland and Scotland.

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Libya

Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.

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Linen Hall Library

The Linen Hall Library is located at 17 Donegall Square North, Belfast, Northern Ireland.

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List of bombings during the Northern Ireland Troubles and peace process

This is a list of notable bombings related to the Northern Ireland "Troubles" and their aftermath.

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List of books about the Troubles

List of books about the Troubles are works of literature cited using APA style citations.

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List of chronologies of Provisional Irish Republican Army actions

The chronology of Provisional Irish Republican Army actions is divided into five parts.

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List of Gardaí killed in the line of duty

This is a list of Irish (Republic of Ireland) police officers killed in the line of duty since the establishment of the Garda Síochána in 1922.

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London Review of Books

The London Review of Books (LRB) is a British journal of literary essays.

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Loughgall

Loughgall is a small village, townland (of 131 acres) and civil parish in County Armagh, Northern Ireland.

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Loughgall ambush

The Loughgall Ambush took place on 8 May 1987 at the village of Loughgall, County Armagh, Northern Ireland.

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Loughinisland

Loughinisland is a small village and civil parish in County Down, Northern Ireland.

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Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma

Admiral of the Fleet Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, (born Prince Louis of Battenberg; 25 June 1900 – 27 August 1979) was a British Royal Navy officer and statesman, an uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, and second cousin once removed of Queen Elizabeth II.

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Low intensity conflict

A low-intensity conflict (LIC) is a military conflict, usually localised, between two or more state or non-state groups which is below the intensity of conventional war.

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Loyalist Volunteer Force

The Loyalist Volunteer Force (LVF) is a small Ulster loyalist paramilitary group in Northern Ireland.

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M1919 Browning machine gun

The M1919 Browning is a.30 caliber medium machine gun that was widely used during the 20th century, especially during World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War.

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Malayan Emergency

The Malayan Emergency (Darurat Malaya) was a guerrilla war fought in pre- and post-independence Federation of Malaya, from 1948 until 1960.

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Margaret Thatcher

Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, (13 October 19258 April 2013) was a British stateswoman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990.

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Martin Ingram

Martin Ingram is the pseudonym of an ex-British Army soldier Ian Hurst who served in the Intelligence Corps and Force Research Unit (FRU).

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Martin McGuinness

James Martin Pacelli McGuinness (Séamus Máirtín Pacelli Mag Aonghusa; 23 May 1950 – 21 March 2017) was an Irish republican and Sinn Féin politician who was the deputy First Minister of Northern Ireland from May 2007 to January 2017.

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Member of parliament

A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament.

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Merlyn Rees

Merlyn Merlyn-Rees, Baron Merlyn-Rees, PC (18 December 1920 – 5 January 2006), born Merlyn Rees, was a Welsh-born Labour party Member of Parliament from 1963 until 1992, who served as Secretary of State for Northern Ireland (1974–76) and Home Secretary (1976–79).

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MI5

The Security Service, also MI5 (Military Intelligence, Section 5), is the United Kingdom's domestic counter-intelligence and security agency and is part of its intelligence machinery alongside the Secret Intelligence Service (MI6), Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) and Defence Intelligence (DI).

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Miami Showband killings

The Miami Showband killings (also called the Miami Showband Massacre) was an attack by the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF), a loyalist paramilitary group, on 31 July 1975.

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Michael Stone (loyalist)

Michael Stone (born 2 April 1955) is an Ulster loyalist who was a volunteer in the Ulster Defence Association (UDA).

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Military Reaction Force

The Military Reaction Force, Military Reconnaissance Force or Mobile Reconnaissance Force (MRF)Taylor, Peter (2001).

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Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom)

The Ministry of Defence (MoD or MOD) is the British government department responsible for implementing the defence policy set by Her Majesty's Government and is the headquarters of the British Armed Forces.

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Mitchell Principles

The Mitchell Principles were six ground rules agreed by the Irish and British governments and the political parties in Northern Ireland regarding participation in talks on the future of the region.

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Molotov cocktail

A Molotov cocktail, also known as a petrol bomb, bottle bomb, poor man's grenade, Molotovin koktaili (Finnish), polttopullo (Finnish), fire bomb (not to be confused with an actual fire bomb) or just Molotov, commonly shortened as Molly, is a generic name used for a variety of bottle-based improvised incendiary weapons.

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Monaghan

Monaghan (pronounced) is the county town of County Monaghan, Ireland.

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Mountainview Tavern bombing 1975

On 5 April 1975 Irish Republican paramilitary members killed a UDA volunteer and four Protestant civilians in a gun and bomb attack at the Mountainview Tavern on the Shankill Road - the heart of Loyalist Belfast.

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Muammar Gaddafi

Muammar Mohammed Abu Minyar Gaddafi (20 October 2011), commonly known as Colonel Gaddafi, was a Libyan revolutionary, politician and political theorist.

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Murals in Northern Ireland

Murals in Northern Ireland have become symbols of Northern Ireland, depicting the region's past and present political and religious divisions.

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Murder of Robert McCartney

The murder of Robert McCartney (1971 – 31 January 2005) occurred in Belfast, Northern Ireland, allegedly carried out by members of the Provisional Irish Republican Army.

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National Volunteers

The National Volunteers was the name taken by the majority of the Irish Volunteers that sided with Irish Parliamentary Party leader John Redmond after the movement split over the question of the Volunteers' role in World War I.

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Nelson's Pillar

Nelson's Pillar (also known as the Nelson Pillar or simply the Pillar) was a large granite column capped by a statue of Horatio Nelson, built in the centre of what was then Sackville Street (later renamed O'Connell Street) in Dublin, Ireland.

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Newry

Newry is a city in Northern Ireland, divided by the Clanrye river in counties Armagh and Down, from Belfast and from Dublin.

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No-go area

A "no-go area" (or "no-go zone") is an area in a town barricaded off to civil authorities by a force such as a paramilitary, or an area barred to certain individuals or groups.

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Nobel Peace Prize

The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is one of the five Nobel Prizes created by the Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature.

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Norman Tebbit

Norman Beresford Tebbit, Baron Tebbit, (born 29 March 1931) is a British politician and life peer.

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Northern Campaign (Irish Republican Army)

The Northern Campaign was a series of attacks by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) Northern Command between September 1942 and December 1944 against the security forces in Northern Ireland.

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Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.

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Northern Ireland (Temporary Provisions) Act 1972

The Northern Ireland (Temporary Provisions) Act 1972 (c. 22) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that introduced direct rule in Northern Ireland with effect from 30 March 1972.

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Northern Ireland Assembly (1973)

The Northern Ireland Assembly was a legislative assembly set up by the Government of the United Kingdom on 3 May 1973 to restore devolved government to Northern Ireland with the power-sharing Northern Ireland Executive made up of unionists and nationalists.

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Northern Ireland Assembly election, 1973

The 1973 elections to the Northern Ireland Assembly took place following the publication of the British government's white paper Northern Ireland Constitutional Proposals which proposed a 78-member Northern Ireland Assembly, elected by proportional representation.

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Northern Ireland border poll, 1973

The Northern Ireland border poll was a referendum held in Northern Ireland on 8 March 1973 on whether Northern Ireland should remain part of the United Kingdom or join with the Republic of Ireland to form a united Ireland.

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Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association

The Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association was an organisation that campaigned for civil rights in Northern Ireland during the late 1960s and early 1970s.

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Northern Ireland civil rights movement

The Northern Ireland civil rights movement dates to the early 1960s, when a number of initiatives emerged which challenged inequality and discrimination in Northern Ireland.

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Northern Ireland Executive

The Northern Ireland Executive is the devolved government of Northern Ireland, an administrative branch of the legislature Northern Ireland Assembly.

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Northern Ireland peace process

The Northern Ireland peace process is often considered to cover the events leading up to the 1994 Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) ceasefire, the end of most of the violence of the Troubles, the Good Friday (or Belfast) Agreement of 1998, and subsequent political developments.

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Northern Ireland Prison Service

The Northern Ireland Prison Service is an executive agency of the Department of Justice, the headquarters of which are in Dundonald House in the Stormont Estate in Belfast.

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Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency

The Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (NISRA, Gníomhaireacht Thuaisceart Éireann um Staitisticí agus Taighde) is an executive agency within the Department of Finance in Northern Ireland.

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Nuala O'Loan, Baroness O'Loan

Nuala Patricia O'Loan, Baroness O'Loan, DBE (born 20 December 1951), known between 2007 and 2009 as Dame Nuala O'Loan, is a noted public figure in Northern Ireland.

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Official Irish Republican Army

The Official Irish Republican Army or Official IRA (OIRA) was an Irish republican paramilitary group whose goal was to remove Northern Ireland from the United Kingdom and create a "workers' republic" encompassing all of Ireland.

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Omagh

Omagh is the county town of County Tyrone, Northern Ireland.

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Omagh bombing

The Omagh bombing was a car bombing that took place on 15 August 1998 in Omagh, County Tyrone, Northern Ireland.

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One man, one vote

One man, one vote (or one person, one vote) is a slogan used by advocates of political equality through various electoral reforms such as universal suffrage, proportional representation, or the elimination of plurality voting, malapportionment, or gerrymandering.

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Operation Banner

Operation Banner was the operational name for the British Armed Forces' operation in Northern Ireland from August 1969 to July 2007, as part of the Troubles.

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Operation Flavius

Operation Flavius (also referred to as the "Gibraltar killings") was a controversial military operation in which three members of the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) were shot dead by the British Special Air Service (SAS) in Gibraltar on 6 March 1988.

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Operation Motorman

Operation Motorman was a large operation carried out by the British Army (HQ Northern Ireland) in Northern Ireland during the Troubles.

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Orange Order

The Loyal Orange Institution, more commonly known as the Orange Order, is a Protestant fraternal order based primarily in Northern Ireland.

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Outline of the Troubles

The following directory lists and provides links to articles about the Troubles.

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Owen Carron

Owen Gerard Carron (born 9 February 1953) is an Irish republican activist, who was Member of Parliament (MP) for Fermanagh and South Tyrone from 1981 to 1983.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Parachute Regiment (United Kingdom)

The Parachute Regiment, colloquially known as the Paras, is an elite airborne infantry regiment of the British Army.

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Paramilitary

A paramilitary is a semi-militarized force whose organizational structure, tactics, training, subculture, and (often) function are similar to those of a professional military, but which is not included as part of a state's formal armed forces.

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Parliament of Ireland

The Parliament of Ireland was the legislature of the Lordship of Ireland, and later the Kingdom of Ireland, from 1297 until 1800.

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Parliament of Northern Ireland

The Parliament of Northern Ireland was the Home Rule legislature of Northern Ireland, created under the Government of Ireland Act 1920, which sat from 7 June 1921 to 30 March 1972, when it was suspended with the introduction of Direct Rule.

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Parliament of the United Kingdom

The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.

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Parliamentary Secretary to the Treasury

The Parliamentary Secretary to the Treasury is a junior ministerial position in the British Government.

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Partition of Ireland

The partition of Ireland (críochdheighilt na hÉireann) was the division of the island of Ireland into two distinct jurisdictions, Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland.

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Pat Finucane

Patrick Finucane (21 March 1949 – 12 February 1989), commonly known as Pat Finucane, was an Irish human rights lawyer killed by loyalist paramilitaries acting in collusion with the British government intelligence service MI5.

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Patrick Pearse

Patrick Henry Pearse (also known as Pádraig or Pádraic Pearse; Pádraig Anraí Mac Piarais; An Piarsach; 10 November 1879 – 3 May 1916) was an Irish teacher, barrister, poet, writer, nationalist, republican political activist and revolutionary who was one of the leaders of the Easter Rising in 1916.

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Paul Bew

Paul Anthony Elliott Bew, Baron Bew (born 22 January 1950) is an historian and life peer.

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Peep o' Day Boys

The Peep o' Day Boys was an agrarian Protestant association in 18th-century Ireland.

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Pen and Sword Books

Pen and Sword Books is a British publisher which specializes in printing and distributing books on military history, militaria and other niche subjects.

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Penal Laws (Ireland)

In the island of Ireland, Penal Laws (Na Péindlíthe) were a series of laws imposed in an attempt to force Irish Roman Catholics and Protestant dissenters (such as local Presbyterians) to accept the reformed denomination as defined by the English state established Anglican Church and practised by members of the Irish state established Church of Ireland.

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People's Democracy (Ireland)

People's Democracy (PD) was a political organisation that, while supporting the campaign for civil rights for Northern Ireland's Catholic minority, stated that such rights could only be achieved through the establishment of a socialist republic for all of Ireland.

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Peter Taylor (journalist)

Peter Taylor, is a British journalist and documentary-maker.

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Plantation of Ulster

The Plantation of Ulster (Plandáil Uladh; Ulster-Scots: Plantin o Ulstèr) was the organised colonisation (plantation) of Ulstera province of Irelandby people from Great Britain during the reign of James VI and I. Most of the colonists came from Scotland and England, although there was a small number of Welsh settlers.

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Pogrom

The term pogrom has multiple meanings, ascribed most often to the deliberate persecution of an ethnic or religious group either approved or condoned by the local authorities.

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Police brutality

Police brutality is one of several forms of police misconduct which involves undue violence by police members.

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Police Ombudsman for Northern Ireland

The Office of the Police Ombudsman for Northern Ireland (OPONI; Ombudsman Póilíní do Thuaisceart Éireann, Ulster-Scots: Owersman fur tha Polis o Norlin Airlann) is a non-departmental public body intended to provide an independent, impartial police complaints system for the people and police under the Police (Northern Ireland) Acts of 1998 and 2000.

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Police Service of Northern Ireland

The Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI; Seirbhís Póilíneachta Thuaisceart Éireann; Ulster Scots: Polis Servis o Norlin Airlan) is the police force that serves Northern Ireland.

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Political violence

Political violence is a broad term used to describe violence perpetrated by either persons or governments to achieve political goals.

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Portadown

Portadown is a town in County Armagh, Northern Ireland.

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Presbyterianism

Presbyterianism is a part of the reformed tradition within Protestantism which traces its origins to Britain, particularly Scotland, and Ireland.

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Presidency of Ronald Reagan

The presidency of Ronald Reagan began at noon EST on January 20, 1981, when Ronald Reagan was inaugurated as 40th President of the United States, and ended on January 20, 1989.

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Prime Minister of Northern Ireland

The Prime Minister of Northern Ireland was the head of the Government of Northern Ireland between 1921 and 1972.

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Principle of consent

Principle of consent is a term used in the context of the Northern Ireland peace process and is one of the key points of the Good Friday Agreement.

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Protestant Ascendancy

The Protestant Ascendancy, known simply as the Ascendancy, was the political, economic and social domination of Ireland between the 17th century and the early 20th century by a minority of landowners, Protestant clergy and members of the professions, all members of the Church of Ireland or the Church of England.

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Provisional IRA South Armagh Brigade

The South Armagh Brigade of the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) operated during the Troubles in south County Armagh.

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Provisional Irish Republican Army

The Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA or Provisional IRA) was an Irish republican revolutionary organisation that sought to end British rule in Northern Ireland, facilitate the reunification of Ireland and bring about an independent socialist republic encompassing all of Ireland.

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Provisional Irish Republican Army arms importation

Provisional Irish Republican Army arms importation into the Republic of Ireland for use in Northern Ireland began in the early 1970s.

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Queen's University Belfast

Queen's University Belfast (informally Queen's or QUB) is a public research university in Belfast, Northern Ireland.

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Real Irish Republican Army

The Real Irish Republican Army or Real IRA (RIRA), also called the New IRA (NIRA) since 2012, is a dissident Irish republican paramilitary organisation which aims to bring about a united Ireland.

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Reavey and O'Dowd killings

The Reavey and O'Dowd killings were two co-ordinated gun attacks on 4 January 1976 in County Armagh, Northern Ireland.

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Red Hand Commando

The Red Hand Commando (RHC) is a small secretive Ulster loyalist paramilitary group in Northern Ireland, which is closely linked to the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF).

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Religious war

A religious war or holy war (bellum sacrum) is a war primarily caused or justified by differences in religion.

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Remembrance Day bombing

The Remembrance Day bombing (also known as the Enniskillen bombing or Poppy Day massacre) took place on 8 November 1987 in Enniskillen, County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland.

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Repartition of Ireland

The repartition of Ireland has been suggested as a possible solution to the continuing political disagreement in Northern Ireland.

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Repeal Association

The Repeal Association was an Irish mass membership political movement set up by Daniel O'Connell in 1830 to campaign for a repeal of the Acts of Union of 1800 between Great Britain and Ireland.

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Republic of Ireland

Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.

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Republic of Ireland–United Kingdom border

The Republic of Ireland–United Kingdom border, also known as the Irish border, runs for Ordnance Survey of Northern Ireland, 1999MFPP Working Paper No.

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Republican Sinn Féin

Republican Sinn Féin or RSF (Sinn Féin Poblachtach) is an Irish republican political party in Ireland.

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Restoration (1660)

The Restoration was both a series of events in April–May 1660 and the period that followed it in British history.

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Richard Bourke (academic)

Richard Bourke (born 1965) is a UK-based Irish academic specialising in the history of political ideas.

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Robin Eames

Robert "Robin" Henry Alexander Eames, Baron Eames, (born 27 April 1936), is an Anglican bishop who served as Primate of All Ireland and Archbishop of Armagh from 1986 to 2006.

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Robin Jackson

Robert John "Robin" Jackson (27 September 1948 – 30 May 1998), also known as The Jackal, was a Northern Irish loyalist paramilitary who held the rank of brigadier in the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) during the period of violent ethno-nationalist conflict in Northern Ireland known as the Troubles.

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Rocket-propelled grenade

A rocket-propelled grenade (often abbreviated RPG) is a shoulder-fired anti-tank weapon system that fires rockets equipped with an explosive warhead.

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Ronald Reagan

Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.

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Roy Magee

Reverend Robert James Magee OBE (3 January 1930 – 1 February 2009) was a Northern Irish Presbyterian minister who is credited with playing a leading role in delivering the Combined Loyalist Military Command (CLMC) ceasefire of 1994.

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Royal Air Force

The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.

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Royal assent

Royal assent or sanction is the method by which a country's monarch (possibly through a delegated official) formally approves an act of that nation's parliament.

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Royal Irish Rangers

The Royal Irish Rangers (27th (Inniskilling), 83rd and 87th) was a regular infantry regiment of the British Army with a relatively short existence, formed in 1968 and later merged with the Ulster Defence Regiment in 1992 to form the Royal Irish Regiment.

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Royal Irish Regiment (1992)

The Royal Irish Regiment (27th (Inniskilling) 83rd and 87th and Ulster Defence Regiment) (R IRISH) is an infantry regiment of the British Army.

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Royal Navy

The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.

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Royal Ulster Constabulary

The Royal Ulster Constabulary was the police force in Northern Ireland from 1922 to 2001.

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Secretary of State for Northern Ireland

Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, informally known as the Northern Ireland Secretary, is the principal secretary of state in Her Majesty's Government with responsibilities for Northern Ireland.

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Sectarianism

Sectarianism is a form of bigotry, discrimination, or hatred arising from attaching relations of inferiority and superiority to differences between subdivisions within a group.

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Segregation in Northern Ireland

Segregation in Northern Ireland is a long-running issue in the political and social history of Northern Ireland.

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Settler

A settler is a person who has migrated to an area and established a permanent residence there, often to colonize the area.

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Shankill Road

The Shankill Road is one of the main roads leading through west Belfast, the capital and largest city of Northern Ireland.

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Shankill Road bombing

The Shankill Road bombing was carried out by the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) on 23 October 1993 and is one of the most notorious incidents of the Troubles in Northern Ireland.

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Shoot-to-kill policy in Northern Ireland

During the period known as "the Troubles" in Northern Ireland (the second half of the 20th century), the British Army and Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) were accused by Republicans of operating a "shoot-to-kill" policy, under which suspected terrorists were alleged to have been deliberately killed without any attempt to arrest them.

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Shorland armoured car

The Shorland is an armoured patrol car that was designed specifically for the Royal Ulster Constabulary by Frederick Butler with the first design meeting taking place in November 1961.

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Silverbridge, County Armagh

Silverbridge is a small village in the townland of Legmoylin in County Armagh, Northern Ireland.

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Sinn Féin

Sinn Féin (isbn) is a left-wing Irish republican political party active in both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland.

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Smithwick Tribunal

The Smithwick Tribunal was an Irish Tribunal of Inquiry into the events surrounding the killing of Chief Superintendent Harry Breen and Superintendent Robert Buchanan of the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC).

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Society of United Irishmen

The Society of United Irishmen was founded as a liberal political organisation in 18th-century Ireland that initially sought Parliamentary reform.

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South Armagh Republican Action Force

The South Armagh Republican Action Force was an Irish republican paramilitary group that was active from September 1975 to April 1977 during the Troubles in Northern Ireland.

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South Armagh Sniper (1990–1997)

The South Armagh Sniper is the generic name"At first, we believed it was one unit, one weapon and one trigger man (...) It developed into at least two".

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Southern Ireland (1921–22)

Southern Ireland (Deisceart Éireann) was the larger of the two parts of Ireland that were created when Ireland was partitioned under the Government of Ireland Act 1920.

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Special Air Service

The Special Air Service (SAS) is a special forces unit of the British Army.

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Squatting

Squatting is the action of occupying an abandoned or unoccupied area of land or a building, usually residential, that the squatter does not own, rent or otherwise have lawful permission to use.

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St Andrews Agreement

The St Andrews Agreement (Comhaontú Chill Rímhinn; Ulster Scots: St Andra's 'Greement, St Andrew's Greeance or St Andrae's Greeance) was an agreement between the British and Irish governments and Northern Ireland's political parties in relation to the devolution of power in the region.

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Stakeknife

Stakeknife is the code name of a spy who infiltrated the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) at a high level, while working for the top secret Force Research Unit (FRU) of the British Army.

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Stevens Inquiries

The Stevens Inquiries were three official British government inquiries led by Sir John Stevens concerning collusion in Northern Ireland between loyalist paramilitaries and the state security forces.

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Stormontgate

Stormontgate is the name given to the controversy surrounding an alleged Provisional Irish Republican Army spy ring and intelligence-gathering operation based in Stormont, the parliament building of Northern Ireland.

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Sunningdale Agreement

The Sunningdale Agreement was an attempt to establish a power-sharing Northern Ireland Executive and a cross-border Council of Ireland.

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Taoiseach

The Taoiseach (pl. Taoisigh) is the prime minister, chief executive and head of government of Ireland.

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Tarring and feathering

Tarring and feathering is a form of public torture and humiliation used to enforce unofficial justice or revenge.

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Terence O'Neill

Terence Marne O'Neill, Baron O'Neill of the Maine, PC (10 September 1914 – 12 June 1990) was the fourth Prime Minister of Northern Ireland and leader (1963–1969) of the Ulster Unionist Party (UUP).

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The Blitz

The Blitz was a German bombing offensive against Britain in 1940 and 1941, during the Second World War.

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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.

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The Stationery Office

The Stationery Office (TSO) is a British publishing company created in 1996 when the publishing arm of Her Majesty's Stationery Office was privatised.

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The Troubles in popular culture

The Northern Ireland Troubles have been referenced numerous times in popular culture, particularly through films, novels, songs and poems.

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Timeline of Continuity IRA actions

This is a chronology of activities by the Continuity Irish Republican Army (CIRA), an Irish republican paramilitary group.

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Timeline of Irish National Liberation Army actions

This is a timeline of actions by the Irish National Liberation Army (INLA), an Irish republican socialist paramilitary group.

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Timeline of Real Irish Republican Army actions

This is a timeline of actions by the Real Irish Republican Army, also called the Real IRA, an Irish republican paramilitary group.

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Timeline of the Northern Ireland Troubles and peace process

This article lists the major violent and political incidents during the Troubles, peace process, and a dissident campaign in Northern Ireland, from the late 1960s until the present day.

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Timeline of Ulster Defence Association actions

This is a timeline of actions by the Ulster Defence Association (UDA), a loyalist paramilitary group formed in 1971.

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Timeline of Ulster Defence Regiment operations

This article deals with the chronology of Ulster Defence Regiment operations.

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Timeline of Ulster Volunteer Force actions

This is a timeline of actions by the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF), an Ulster loyalist paramilitary group since 1966.

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Timothy Garton Ash

Timothy Garton Ash CMG FRSA (born 12 July 1955) is a British historian, author and commentator.

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Torture

Torture (from the Latin tortus, "twisted") is the act of deliberately inflicting physical or psychological pain in order to fulfill some desire of the torturer or compel some action from the victim.

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Trinity College Dublin

Trinity College (Coláiste na Tríonóide), officially the College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth near Dublin, is the sole constituent college of the University of Dublin, a research university located in Dublin, Ireland.

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Tullyhommon

Tullyhommon or Tullyhomman is a small village in County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland.

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Ulster

Ulster (Ulaidh or Cúige Uladh, Ulster Scots: Ulstèr or Ulster) is a province in the north of the island of Ireland.

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Ulster Constitution Defence Committee

The Ulster Constitution Defence Committee (UCDC) was established in Northern Ireland in April 1966.

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Ulster Covenant

Ulster's Solemn League and Covenant, commonly known as the Ulster Covenant, was signed by nearly 500,000 people on and before 28 September 1912, in protest against the Third Home Rule Bill introduced by the British Government in the same year.

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Ulster Defence Association

The Ulster Defence Association (abbreviated UDA) is the largest Ulster loyalist paramilitary and vigilante group in Northern Ireland.

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Ulster Defence Regiment

The Ulster Defence Regiment (UDR) was an infantry regiment of the British Army established in 1970, with a comparatively short existence ending in 1992.

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Ulster loyalism

Ulster loyalism is a political ideology found primarily among working class Ulster Protestants in Northern Ireland, whose status as a part of the United Kingdom has remained controversial.

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Ulster Protestant Volunteers

The Ulster Protestant Volunteers was a loyalist and fundamentalist Christian paramilitary group in Northern Ireland.

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Ulster Protestants

Ulster Protestants (Protastúnaigh Uladh) are an ethnoreligious group in the Irish province of Ulster, where they make up about 43% of the population.

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Ulster Resistance

Ulster Resistance (UR), or the Ulster Resistance Movement (URM), was an Ulster loyalist paramilitary movement established by Ulster loyalists in Northern Ireland on 10 November 1986 in opposition to the Anglo-Irish Agreement.

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Ulster Unionist Party

The Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) is a unionist political party in Northern Ireland.

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Ulster Volunteer Force

The Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) is an Ulster loyalist paramilitary group in Northern Ireland.

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Ulster Volunteers

The Ulster Volunteers was a unionist militia founded in 1912 to block domestic self-government (or Home Rule) for Ireland, which was then part of the United Kingdom.

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Ulster Workers' Council

The Ulster Workers Council was a loyalist workers' organisation set up in Northern Ireland in 1974 as a more formalised successor to the Loyalist Association of Workers (LAW).

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Ulster Workers' Council strike

The Ulster Workers' Council (UWC) strike was a general strike that took place in Northern Ireland between 15 May and 28 May 1974, during "the Troubles".

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Unionism in Ireland

Unionism in Ireland is a political ideology that favours the continuation of some form of political union between the islands of Ireland and Great Britain.

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United Ireland

United Ireland (also referred to as Irish reunification) is the proposition that the whole of Ireland should be a single sovereign state.

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United Kingdom general election, February 1974

The February 1974 United Kingdom general election was held on the 28th day of that month.

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United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.

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United Nations peacekeeping

Peacekeeping by the United Nations is a role held by the Department of Peacekeeping Operations as "a unique and dynamic instrument developed by the organization as a way to help countries torn by conflict to create the conditions for lasting peace." It is distinguished from peacebuilding, peacemaking, and peace enforcement although the United Nations does acknowledge that all activities are "mutually reinforcing" and that overlap between them is frequent in practice.

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United States House Committee on Foreign Affairs

The United States House Committee on Foreign Affairs of the United States House of Representatives, also known as the House Foreign Affairs Committee, is a standing committee of the United States House of Representatives, which has jurisdiction over bills and investigations related to the foreign affairs of the United States.

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United States House of Representatives

The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber.

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United States Special Envoy for Northern Ireland

The United States Special Envoy for Northern Ireland or more formally, the Special Envoy of the President and the Secretary of State for Northern Ireland is the top U.S. diplomat supporting the Northern Ireland peace process.

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UVF Mid-Ulster Brigade

UVF Mid-Ulster Brigade formed part of the loyalist paramilitary Ulster Volunteer Force in Northern Ireland.

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W. T. Cosgrave

William Thomas Cosgrave (6 June 1880 – 16 November 1965) was an Irish Fine Gael politician who served as President of the Executive Council from 1922 to 1932, Leader of the Opposition from 1932 to 1944, Leader of Fine Gael from 1934 to 1944, Leader of Cumann na nGaedheal from 1923 to 1933, Chairman of the Provisional Government from August 1922 to December 1922, President of Dáil Éireann from September 1922 to December 1922, Minister for Finance from 1922 to 1923 and Minister for Local Government from 1919 to 1922.

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War-weariness

Political war-weariness is the public or political disapproval for the continuation of a prolonged conflict or war.

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Warrenpoint

Warrenpoint is a small town and civil parish in County Down, Northern Ireland.

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Warrenpoint ambush

The Warrenpoint ambush or Narrow Water ambush, also called the Warrenpoint massacre.

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Wars of the Three Kingdoms

The Wars of the Three Kingdoms, sometimes known as the British Civil Wars, formed an intertwined series of conflicts that took place in the kingdoms of England, Ireland and Scotland between 1639 and 1651.

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White paper

A white paper is an authoritative report or guide that informs readers concisely about a complex issue and presents the issuing body's philosophy on the matter.

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William III of England

William III (Willem; 4 November 1650 – 8 March 1702), also widely known as William of Orange, was sovereign Prince of Orange from birth, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland and Overijssel in the Dutch Republic from 1672 and King of England, Ireland and Scotland from 1689 until his death in 1702.

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Williamite War in Ireland

The Williamite War in Ireland (1688–1691) (Cogadh an Dá Rí, meaning "war of the two kings"), was a conflict between Jacobites (supporters of the Catholic King James II of England and Ireland, VII of Scotland) and Williamites (supporters of the Dutch Protestant Prince William of Orange) over who would be monarch of the Kingdom of England, the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of Ireland.

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Workers' Party of Ireland

The Workers' Party (Páirtí na nOibrithe), originally known as Official Sinn Féin, is a Marxist–Leninist political party active throughout Ireland.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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1969 Northern Ireland riots

During 12–17 August 1969, intense political and sectarian rioting took place in Northern Ireland.

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1978 British Army Gazelle downing

On 17 February 1978, a British Army Gazelle helicopter, serial number XX404, went down near Jonesborough, County Armagh, Northern Ireland, after being fired at by a Provisional IRA unit from the South Armagh Brigade.

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1981 Irish hunger strike

The 1981 Irish hunger strike was the culmination of a five-year protest during The Troubles by Irish republican prisoners in Northern Ireland.

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1986 United States bombing of Libya

The 1986 United States bombing of Libya, code-named Operation El Dorado Canyon, comprised air strikes by the United States against Libya on Tuesday, 15 April 1986.

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1989 Jonesborough ambush

The Jonesborough ambush took place on 20 March 1989 near the Irish border outside the village of Jonesborough, County Armagh, Northern Ireland.

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1990 British Army Gazelle shootdown

On 11 February 1990, an active service unit of the Provisional IRA East Tyrone Brigade shot down a British Army Gazelle helicopter (serial number ZB687) along the border between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland.

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1994 British Army Lynx shootdown

On 20 March 1994, a British Army Lynx helicopter was shot down by the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) in Northern Ireland.

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1996 Docklands bombing

The London Docklands bombing (also known as the South Quay bombing or erroneously referred to as the Canary Wharf bombing) occurred on 9 February 1996, when the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) detonated a powerful truck bomb in South Quay (which is outside of Canary Wharf).

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1996 Manchester bombing

The 1996 Manchester bombing was an attack carried out by the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) on Saturday 15 June 1996.

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19th Light Brigade (United Kingdom)

The 19th Light Brigade was a Regular Army infantry brigade of the British Army.

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1st Battalion, Parachute Regiment

The 1st Battalion, Parachute Regiment (1 PARA), forms the United Kingdom's Special Forces Support Group (SFSG). An airborne light infantry unit, the battalion has since 2006 been the main contributor of manpower to the Special Forces Support Group (SFSG) and is capable of a wide range of operations. Personnel regularly deploy outside the United Kingdom on operations and training. All personnel complete the Pre Parachute Selection (P Company) course at the Infantry Training Centre Catterick Garrison, North Yorkshire (previously at Aldershot, Hampshire). 1 PARA is permanently attached to the SFSG. Once selected, they receive further training on additional weapons, communications equipment and specialist assault skills. Under Army 2020, it is expected that 1 PARA will remain as part of the SFSG.

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Redirects here:

Conflict in Northern Ireland, Consultative Group on the Past, Irish Troubles, Murder triangle, Northen Ireland Conflict, Northern Ireland Ethnic Conflict, Northern Ireland Troubles, Northern Ireland conflict, Northern Ireland troubles, Northern Irish Troubles, Northern Irish civil war, The Irish Problem, The Troubles (Ireland), The Troubles (Northern Ireland), The Troubles in Northern Ireland, The troubles, Troubles, Ulster Conflict, Ulster Ethnic Conflict, Ulster Troubles, Ulster conflict.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Troubles

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