32 relations: Alexandrine Tinné, Arabic, Austria, Bahr el Ghazal River, Ditzingen, Eduard Vogel, Egypt, Engineer, Ethiopia, Germany, Gondokoro, Hermann Steudner, Khartoum, Kordofan, List of explorers, Massawa, Mining, Novaya Zemlya, Ornithology, Pastor, Protestantism, Red Sea, Sinai Peninsula, Socotra, Somalia, Stuttgart, Svalbard, Wadai Empire, Württemberg, Werner Munzinger, White Nile, Zoology.
Alexandrine Petronella Francina Tinne (alternative spellings: Pieternella, Françoise, Tinné) (17 October 1835 – 1 August 1869) was a Dutch explorer in Africa and the first European woman to attempt to cross the Sahara.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
The Bahr el Ghazal (بحر الغزال) (also spelled Bahr al Ghazal and Baḩr al Ghazāl) is a river in South Sudan.
Ditzingen is a town in the district of Ludwigsburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
Eduard Vogel (7 March 1829 – February 1856) was a German explorer in Central Africa.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Engineers, as practitioners of engineering, are people who invent, design, analyze, build, and test machines, systems, structures and materials to fulfill objectives and requirements while considering the limitations imposed by practicality, regulation, safety, and cost.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Gondokoro island is located in Jubek State and was located in the erstwhile state of Central Equatoria before 2015.
Carl Theodor Hermann Steudner (1 September 1832 – 10 April 1863) was a botanist and an explorer of Africa.
Khartoum is the capital and largest city of Sudan.
Kordofan (كردفان) is a former province of central Sudan.
The following is a list of explorers.
Massawa (Maṣṣawa‘, Mitsiwa), also known as Miṣṣiwa‘ (مِـصِّـوَع) and Bāḍiʿ (بَـاضِـع),Matt Phillips, Jean-Bernard Carillet, Lonely Planet Ethiopia and Eritrea, (Lonely Planet: 2006), p.340.
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.
Novaya Zemlya (p, lit. the new land), also known as Nova Zembla (especially in Dutch), is an archipelago in the Arctic Ocean in northern Russia and the extreme northeast of Europe, the easternmost point of Europe lying at Cape Flissingsky on the Northern island.
Ornithology is a branch of zoology that concerns the study of birds.
A pastor is an ordained leader of a Christian congregation.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
The Sinai Peninsula or simply Sinai (now usually) is a peninsula in Egypt, and the only part of the country located in Asia.
Socotra سُقُطْرَى Suqadara, also called Soqotra, located between the Guardafui Channel and the Arabian Sea, is the largest of four islands of the Socotra archipelago.
Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.
Stuttgart (Swabian: italics,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of the German state of Baden-Württemberg.
Svalbard (prior to 1925 known by its Dutch name Spitsbergen, still the name of its largest island) is a Norwegian archipelago in the Arctic Ocean.
The Wadai Empire or Sultanate (سلطنة وداي, royaume du Ouaddaï; 1635–1912) was a kingdom located to the east of Lake Chad in present-day Chad and in the Central African Republic.
Württemberg is a historical German territory.
Werner Munzinger (4 April 1832 in Olten, Switzerland – 14 November 1875 in Awsa, Ethiopia) was a Swiss administrator and explorer of the Horn of Africa.
The White Nile (النيل الأبيض) is a river in Africa, one of the two main tributaries of the Nile; the other is the Blue Nile.
Zoology or animal biology is the branch of biology that studies the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct, and how they interact with their ecosystems.