175 relations: A. J. Ayer, Age of Enlightenment, Al-Azhar University, Alister McGrath, Anthropology of religion, Apologetics, Aristotle, Assemblies of God Theological Seminary, Atheism, Augustine of Hippo, Ātman (Hinduism), Bhagavan, Bhaktivedanta College, Biblical criticism, Biblical manuscript, Boethius, Book of Revelation, Boston University, Brahman, Brill Publishers, Buddhism, Buddhist philosophy, Canon law, Case law, Catholic Theological Union, Charles Bradlaugh, Charles University, Christian theology, Christianity, Church Fathers, Comparative religion, Council of Chalcedon, Criswell College, Critique, Dallas Theological Seminary, Daniel Migliore, Dante Alighieri, Darśana, David Aune, Deity, Discipline, Discipline (academia), Discourse, Divinity, Divinity (academic discipline), Doctrine, Early Middle Ages, Eastern Orthodox Church, Encyclopædia Britannica, English language, ..., Ethnography, Explanation, Fiqh, Friedrich Schleiermacher, Gavin D'Costa, George Eliot, Georgetown University, Germany, God, Graduate Theological Union, Greek language, Gregory of Nazianzus, Halakha, Harvard University, Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke, Hindu philosophy, History, History of religion, India, Irreligion, Jagiellonian University, Jewish philosophy, Kalam, Language, Truth, and Logic, Latin, Latin Church, Ludwig Feuerbach, Lumsden and Sachs Fellowship, Marcus Terentius Varro, Mark Twain, Mass (liturgy), Matter, Meaning of life, Meta-ethics, Metaphysics, Midrash, Monotheism, Mythology, Nalanda, Natural theology, Neuroscience of religion, Oracle, Outline of religion, Oxford Centre for Hindu Studies, Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, Pandora's box, Papal bull, Paramatman, Patristics, Paul Ricœur, Peter Abelard, Peter Lombard, Phenomenology (philosophy), Philip S. Foner, Philosophy, Philosophy of religion, Physics, Piers Plowman, Plato, Platonic Academy, Prabuddha Bharata, Prayer, Princeton University, Proselytism, Protagoras, Psychology of religion, Quadrivium, Rabbinic Judaism, Reason, Religious studies, Republic (Plato), Richard Hooker, Robert G. Ingersoll, Sacred, Sanskrit, Scholasticism, School of Nisibis, Schools of Islamic theology, Secularism, Seminary, Sentences, Sermon, Sharia, Skepticism, Social constructionism, Sociology of religion, Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, Spirituality, Stoicism, Studium generale, Summa Theologica, Supernatural, Synagogue, Taixue, Taxila, Tertullian, The Age of Reason, The City of God, The Essence of Christianity, Theologia Poetica, Theology, Theology proper, Thomas Albert Howard, Thomas Aquinas, Thomas Paine, Tradition, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, Trivium, Understanding, United Kingdom, University of Aberdeen, University of Al Quaraouiyine, University of Cambridge, University of Cologne, University of Erfurt, University of Exeter, University of Leeds, University of Naples Federico II, University of Oxford, University of Pennsylvania Press, Vaishnavism, Walter Kaufmann (philosopher), World view, Yale University. Expand index (125 more) » « Shrink index
Sir Alfred Jules "Freddie" Ayer, FBA (29 October 1910 – 27 June 1989), usually cited as A. J. Ayer, was a British philosopher known for his promotion of logical positivism, particularly in his books Language, Truth, and Logic (1936) and The Problem of Knowledge (1956).
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Al-Azhar University (1,, "the (honorable) Azhar University") is a university in Cairo, Egypt.
Alister Edgar McGrath (born 23 January 1953) is a Northern Irish theologian, priest, intellectual historian, scientist, Christian apologist and public intellectual.
Anthropology of religion is the study of religion in relation to other social institutions, and the comparison of religious beliefs and practices across cultures.
Apologetics (from Greek ἀπολογία, "speaking in defense") is the religious discipline of defending religious doctrines through systematic argumentation and discourse.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
The Assemblies of God Theological Seminary (AGTS) is a seminary located in Springfield, Missouri.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
Saint Augustine of Hippo (13 November 354 – 28 August 430) was a Roman African, early Christian theologian and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy.
Ātma is a Sanskrit word that means inner self or soul.
Bhagavān (Sanskrit: भगवान्) is an epithet for deity, particularly for Krishna and other avatars of Vishnu in Vaishnavism, as well as for Shiva in the Shaivism tradition of Hinduism,James Lochtefeld (2000), "Bhagavan", The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol.
Bhaktivedanta College, located in Durbuy in the rural Ardennes region of Belgium, is a Vaishnava college administered by ISKCON.
Biblical criticism is a philosophical and methodological approach to studying the Bible, using neutral non-sectarian judgment, that grew out of the scientific thinking of the Age of Reason (1700–1789).
A biblical manuscript is any handwritten copy of a portion of the text of the Bible.
Anicius Manlius Severinus Boëthius, commonly called Boethius (also Boetius; 477–524 AD), was a Roman senator, consul, magister officiorum, and philosopher of the early 6th century.
The Book of Revelation, often called the Revelation to John, the Apocalypse of John, The Revelation, or simply Revelation or Apocalypse (and often misquoted as Revelations), is a book of the New Testament that occupies a central place in Christian eschatology.
Boston University (commonly referred to as BU) is a private, non-profit, research university in Boston, Massachusetts.
In Hinduism, Brahman connotes the highest Universal Principle, the Ultimate Reality in the universe.P. T. Raju (2006), Idealistic Thought of India, Routledge,, page 426 and Conclusion chapter part XII In major schools of Hindu philosophy, it is the material, efficient, formal and final cause of all that exists.For dualism school of Hinduism, see: Francis X. Clooney (2010), Hindu God, Christian God: How Reason Helps Break Down the Boundaries between Religions, Oxford University Press,, pages 51–58, 111–115;For monist school of Hinduism, see: B. Martinez-Bedard (2006), Types of Causes in Aristotle and Sankara, Thesis – Department of Religious Studies (Advisors: Kathryn McClymond and Sandra Dwyer), Georgia State University, pages 18–35 It is the pervasive, genderless, infinite, eternal truth and bliss which does not change, yet is the cause of all changes. Brahman as a metaphysical concept is the single binding unity behind diversity in all that exists in the universe. Brahman is a Vedic Sanskrit word, and it is conceptualized in Hinduism, states Paul Deussen, as the "creative principle which lies realized in the whole world". Brahman is a key concept found in the Vedas, and it is extensively discussed in the early Upanishads.Stephen Philips (1998), Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Brahman to Derrida (Editor; Edward Craig), Routledge,, pages 1–4 The Vedas conceptualize Brahman as the Cosmic Principle. In the Upanishads, it has been variously described as Sat-cit-ānanda (truth-consciousness-bliss) and as the unchanging, permanent, highest reality. Brahman is discussed in Hindu texts with the concept of Atman (Soul, Self), personal, impersonal or Para Brahman, or in various combinations of these qualities depending on the philosophical school. In dualistic schools of Hinduism such as the theistic Dvaita Vedanta, Brahman is different from Atman (soul) in each being.Michael Myers (2000), Brahman: A Comparative Theology, Routledge,, pages 124–127 In non-dual schools such as the Advaita Vedanta, Brahman is identical to the Atman, is everywhere and inside each living being, and there is connected spiritual oneness in all existence.Arvind Sharma (2007), Advaita Vedānta: An Introduction, Motilal Banarsidass,, pages 19–40, 53–58, 79–86.
Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Buddhist philosophy refers to the philosophical investigations and systems of inquiry that developed among various Buddhist schools in India following the death of the Buddha and later spread throughout Asia.
Canon law (from Greek kanon, a 'straight measuring rod, ruler') is a set of ordinances and regulations made by ecclesiastical authority (Church leadership), for the government of a Christian organization or church and its members.
Case law is a set of past rulings by tribunals that meet their respective jurisdictions' rules to be cited as precedent.
Catholic Theological Union (CTU) is a Roman Catholic graduate school of theology in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago.
Charles Bradlaugh (26 September 1833 – 30 January 1891) was an English political activist and atheist.
Charles University, known also as Charles University in Prague (Univerzita Karlova; Universitas Carolina; Karls-Universität) or historically as the University of Prague (Universitas Pragensis), is the oldest and largest university in the Czech Republic. Founded in 1348, it was the first university in Central Europe. It is one of the oldest universities in Europe in continuous operation and ranks in the upper 1.5 percent of the world’s best universities. Its seal shows its protector Emperor Charles IV, with his coats of arms as King of the Romans and King of Bohemia, kneeling in front of St. Wenceslas, the patron saint of Bohemia. It is surrounded by the inscription, Sigillum Universitatis Scolarium Studii Pragensis (Seal of the Prague academia).
Christian theology is the theology of Christian belief and practice.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers, Christian Fathers, or Fathers of the Church are ancient and influential Christian theologians and writers.
Comparative religion is the branch of the study of religions concerned with the systematic comparison of the doctrines and practices of the world's religions.
The Council of Chalcedon was a church council held from October 8 to November 1, AD 451, at Chalcedon.
Criswell College is a Christian liberal arts college and divinity school in Old East Dallas, Texas.
Critique is a method of disciplined, systematic study of a written or oral discourse.
Dallas Theological Seminary (DTS) is an evangelical theological seminary located in Dallas, Texas.
Daniel L. Migliore is a Christian theologian and author.
Durante degli Alighieri, commonly known as Dante Alighieri or simply Dante (c. 1265 – 1321), was a major Italian poet of the Late Middle Ages.
Darśana (Sanskrit: दर्शन, lit. view, sight) is the auspicious sight of a deity or a holy person.
David Edward Aune (born 1939) is an American New Testament scholar.
A deity is a supernatural being considered divine or sacred.
Discipline is action or inaction that is regulated to be in accordance (or to achieve accord) with a system of governance.
An academic discipline or academic field is a branch of knowledge.
Discourse (from Latin discursus, "running to and from") denotes written and spoken communications.
In religion, divinity or godhead is the state of things that are believed to come from a supernatural power or deity, such as a god, supreme being, creator deity, or spirits, and are therefore regarded as sacred and holy.
Divinity is the study of Christian and other theology and ministry at a school, divinity school, university, or seminary.
Doctrine (from doctrina, meaning "teaching", "instruction" or "doctrine") is a codification of beliefs or a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the essence of teachings in a given branch of knowledge or in a belief system.
The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Ethnography (from Greek ἔθνος ethnos "folk, people, nation" and γράφω grapho "I write") is the systematic study of people and cultures.
An explanation is a set of statements usually constructed to describe a set of facts which clarifies the causes, context, and consequences of those facts.
Fiqh (فقه) is Islamic jurisprudence.
Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher (November 21, 1768 – February 12, 1834) was a German theologian, philosopher, and biblical scholar known for his attempt to reconcile the criticisms of the Enlightenment with traditional Protestant Christianity.
Gavin D'Costa (born 1958) is the Professor of Catholic Theology at the University of Bristol, Great Britain.
Mary Anne Evans (22 November 1819 – 22 December 1880; alternatively "Mary Ann" or "Marian"), known by her pen name George Eliot, was an English novelist, poet, journalist, translator, and one of the leading writers of the Victorian era.
Georgetown University is a private research university in the Georgetown neighborhood of Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and the principal object of faith.
The Graduate Theological Union (GTU) is a consortium of eight private independent American theological schools and eleven centers and affiliates.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Gregory of Nazianzus (Γρηγόριος ὁ Ναζιανζηνός Grēgorios ho Nazianzēnos; c. 329Liturgy of the Hours Volume I, Proper of Saints, 2 January. – 25 January 390), also known as Gregory the Theologian or Gregory Nazianzen, was a 4th-century Archbishop of Constantinople, and theologian.
Halakha (הֲלָכָה,; also transliterated as halacha, halakhah, halachah or halocho) is the collective body of Jewish religious laws derived from the Written and Oral Torah.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke (16 September 1678 – 12 December 1751) was an English politician, government official and political philosopher.
Hindu philosophy refers to a group of darśanas (philosophies, world views, teachings) that emerged in ancient India.
History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.
The history of religion refers to the written record of human religious experiences and ideas.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
The Jagiellonian University (Polish: Uniwersytet Jagielloński; Latin: Universitas Iagellonica Cracoviensis, also known as the University of Kraków) is a research university in Kraków, Poland.
Jewish philosophy includes all philosophy carried out by Jews, or in relation to the religion of Judaism.
ʿIlm al-Kalām (عِلْم الكَلام, literally "science of discourse"),Winter, Tim J. "Introduction." Introduction.
Language, Truth, and Logic is a 1936 work of philosophy by Alfred Jules Ayer.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Latin Church, sometimes called the Western Church, is the largest particular church sui iuris in full communion with the Pope and the rest of the Catholic Church, tracing its history to the earliest days of Christianity.
Ludwig Andreas von Feuerbach (28 July 1804 – 13 September 1872) was a German philosopher and anthropologist best known for his book The Essence of Christianity, which provided a critique of Christianity which strongly influenced generations of later thinkers, including Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Richard Wagner, and Friedrich Nietzsche.
The Lumsden and Sachs Fellowship is a prize awarded by Christ's College, Aberdeen to the overall, most distinguished graduate of the year having studied in the Department of Divinity and Religious Studies of the University of Aberdeen.
Marcus Terentius Varro (116 BC – 27 BC) was an ancient Roman scholar and writer.
Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910), better known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American writer, humorist, entrepreneur, publisher, and lecturer.
Mass is a term used to describe the main eucharistic liturgical service in many forms of Western Christianity.
In the classical physics observed in everyday life, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume.
The meaning of life, or the answer to the question "What is the meaning of life?", pertains to the significance of living or existence in general.
Meta-ethics is the branch of ethics that seeks to understand the nature of ethical properties, statements, attitudes, and judgments.
Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.
In Judaism, the midrash (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. מִדְרָשׁ; pl. מִדְרָשִׁים midrashim) is the genre of rabbinic literature which contains early interpretations and commentaries on the Written Torah and Oral Torah (spoken law and sermons), as well as non-legalistic rabbinic literature (aggadah) and occasionally the Jewish religious laws (halakha), which usually form a running commentary on specific passages in the Hebrew Scripture (Tanakh).
Monotheism has been defined as the belief in the existence of only one god that created the world, is all-powerful and intervenes in the world.
Mythology refers variously to the collected myths of a group of people or to the study of such myths.
Nalanda was a Mahavihara, a large Buddhist monastery, in the ancient kingdom of Magadha (modern-day Bihar) in India.
Natural theology, once also termed physico-theology, is a type of theology that provides arguments for the existence of God based on reason and ordinary experience of nature.
The neuroscience of religion, also known as neurotheology and as spiritual neuroscience, attempts to explain religious experience and behaviour in neuroscientific terms.
In classical antiquity, an oracle was a person or agency considered to provide wise and insightful counsel or prophetic predictions or precognition of the future, inspired by the god.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to religion: Religion – organized collection of beliefs, cultural systems, and world views that relate humanity to an order of existence.
The Oxford Centre for Hindu Studies, founded in 1997, is a Recognised Independent Centre of the University of Oxford, England.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Pandora's box is an artifact in Greek mythology connected with the myth of Pandora in Hesiod's Works and Days.
A papal bull is a type of public decree, letters patent, or charter issued by a pope of the Roman Catholic Church.
Paramatman (Sanskrit: परमात्मन्, IAST: Paramātmāṇ) or Paramātmā is the Absolute Atman or Supreme self) in Vedanta and Yoga philosophies in the Hindu theology. The Paramatman is the “Primordial Self” or the “Self Beyond” who is spiritually practically identical with the Absolute, identical with the Brahman. Selflessness is the attribute of Paramatman, where all personality/individuality vanishes.
Patristics or patrology is the study of the early Christian writers who are designated Church Fathers.
Jean Paul Gustave Ricœur (27 February 1913 – 20 May 2005) was a French philosopher best known for combining phenomenological description with hermeneutics.
Peter Abelard (Petrus Abaelardus or Abailardus; Pierre Abélard,; 1079 – 21 April 1142) was a medieval French scholastic philosopher, theologian, and preeminent logician.
Peter Lombard (also Peter the Lombard, Pierre Lombard or Petrus Lombardus; 1096, Novara – 21/22 July 1160, Paris), was a scholastic theologian, Bishop of Paris, and author of Four Books of Sentences, which became the standard textbook of theology, for which he earned the accolade Magister Sententiarum.
Phenomenology (from Greek phainómenon "that which appears" and lógos "study") is the philosophical study of the structures of experience and consciousness.
Philip Sheldon Foner (December 14, 1910 – December 13, 1994) was an American labor historian and teacher.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Philosophy of religion is "the philosophical examination of the central themes and concepts involved in religious traditions." These sorts of philosophical discussion are ancient, and can be found in the earliest known manuscripts concerning philosophy.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
Piers Plowman (written 1370–90) or Visio Willelmi de Petro Ploughman (William's Vision of Piers Plowman) is a Middle English allegorical narrative poem by William Langland.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
The Academy (Ancient Greek: Ἀκαδημία) was founded by Plato (428/427 BC – 348/347 BC) in ca.
Prabuddha Bharata or Awakened India is an English-language monthly journal of the Ramakrishna Order, in publication since July 1896.
Prayer is an invocation or act that seeks to activate a rapport with an object of worship, typically a deity, through deliberate communication.
Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey.
Proselytism is the act of attempting to convert people to another religion or opinion.
Protagoras (Πρωταγόρας; c. 490 – c. 420 BC)Guthrie, p. 262–263.
Strictly speaking, psychology of religion consists of the application of psychological methods and interpretive frameworks to the diverse contents of the religious traditions as well as to both religious and irreligious individuals.
The quadrivium (plural: quadrivia) is the four subjects, or arts, taught after teaching the trivium.
Rabbinic Judaism or Rabbinism (יהדות רבנית Yahadut Rabanit) has been the mainstream form of Judaism since the 6th century CE, after the codification of the Babylonian Talmud.
Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, establishing and verifying facts, applying logic, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.
Religious studies, alternately known as the study of religion, is an academic field devoted to research into religious beliefs, behaviors, and institutions.
The Republic (Πολιτεία, Politeia; Latin: Res Publica) is a Socratic dialogue, written by Plato around 380 BC, concerning justice (δικαιοσύνη), the order and character of the just, city-state, and the just man.
Richard Hooker (March 25, 1554 – 3 November 1600) was an English priest in the Church of England and an influential theologian.
Robert Green "Bob" Ingersoll (August 11, 1833 – July 21, 1899) was an American lawyer, father of the feminist Eva Ingersoll Brown, a Civil War veteran, politician, and orator of the United States during the Golden Age of Free Thought, noted for his broad range of culture and his defense of agnosticism.
Sacred means revered due to sanctity and is generally the state of being perceived by religious individuals as associated with divinity and considered worthy of spiritual respect or devotion; or inspiring awe or reverence among believers.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Scholasticism is a method of critical thought which dominated teaching by the academics ("scholastics", or "schoolmen") of medieval universities in Europe from about 1100 to 1700, and a program of employing that method in articulating and defending dogma in an increasingly pluralistic context.
The School of Nisibis (ܐܣܟܘܠܐ ܕܢܨܝܒܝܢ), for a time absorbed into the School of Edessa, was an educational establishment in Nisibis (now Nusaybin, Turkey).
Schools of Islamic theology are various Islamic schools and branches in different schools of thought regarding aqidah (creed).
Secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institution and religious dignitaries (the attainment of such is termed secularity).
Seminary, school of theology, theological seminary, Early-Morning Seminary, and divinity school are educational institutions for educating students (sometimes called seminarians) in scripture, theology, generally to prepare them for ordination as clergy, academia, or ministry.
The Four Books of Sentences (Libri Quattuor Sententiarum) is a book of theology written by Peter Lombard in the 12th century.
A sermon is an oration, lecture, or talk by a member of a religious institution or clergy.
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
Skepticism (American English) or scepticism (British English, Australian English) is generally any questioning attitude or doubt towards one or more items of putative knowledge or belief.
Social constructionism or the social construction of reality (also social concept) is a theory of knowledge in sociology and communication theory that examines the development of jointly constructed understandings of the world that form the basis for shared assumptions about reality.
Sociology of religion is the study of the beliefs, practices and organizational forms of religion using the tools and methods of the discipline of sociology.
The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary (SBTS), in Louisville, Kentucky, is the oldest of the six seminaries affiliated with the Southern Baptist Convention (SBC).
Traditionally, spirituality refers to a religious process of re-formation which "aims to recover the original shape of man," oriented at "the image of God" as exemplified by the founders and sacred texts of the religions of the world.
Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded by Zeno of Citium in Athens in the early 3rd century BC.
Studium generale is the old customary name for a medieval university.
The Summa Theologiae (written 1265–1274 and also known as the Summa Theologica or simply the Summa) is the best-known work of Thomas Aquinas (c. 1225–1274).
The supernatural (Medieval Latin: supernātūrālis: supra "above" + naturalis "natural", first used: 1520–1530 AD) is that which exists (or is claimed to exist), yet cannot be explained by laws of nature.
A synagogue, also spelled synagog (pronounced; from Greek συναγωγή,, 'assembly', בית כנסת, 'house of assembly' or, "house of prayer", Yiddish: שול shul, Ladino: אסנוגה or קהל), is a Jewish house of prayer.
Taixue (Tai-hsueh), or sometimes called the "Imperial Academy", "Imperial School", "Imperial University" or "Imperial Central University", was the highest rank of educational establishment in Ancient China between the Han Dynasty and Sui Dynasty.
Taxila (from Pāli: Takkasilā, Sanskrit: तक्षशिला,, meaning "City of Cut Stone" or " Rock") is a town and an important archaeological site in the Rawalpindi District of the Punjab, Pakistan, situated about north-west of Islamabad and Rawalpindi, just off the famous Grand Trunk Road.
Tertullian, full name Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, c. 155 – c. 240 AD, was a prolific early Christian author from Carthage in the Roman province of Africa.
The Age of Reason; Being an Investigation of True and Fabulous Theology is a work by English and American political activist Thomas Paine, arguing for the philosophical position of Deism.
The City of God Against the Pagans (De civitate Dei contra paganos), often called The City of God, is a book of Christian philosophy written in Latin by Augustine of Hippo in the early 5th century AD.
The Essence of Christianity (Das Wesen des Christentums; historical orthography: Das Weſen des Chriſtenthums) is a book by Ludwig Feuerbach first published in 1841.
Theologia Poetica ("poetic theology") was a designation adopted throughout the Renaissance for political philosophy independent of Biblical revelation.
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.
Theology proper is the sub-discipline of systematic theology which deals specifically with the being, attributes and works of God.
Thomas Albert (Tal) Howard is a Professor of History and the Humanities at Valparaiso University, Indiana.
Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican friar, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church.
Thomas Paine (born Thomas Pain; – In the contemporary record as noted by Conway, Paine's birth date is given as January 29, 1736–37. Common practice was to use a dash or a slash to separate the old-style year from the new-style year. In the old calendar, the new year began on March 25, not January 1. Paine's birth date, therefore, would have been before New Year, 1737. In the new style, his birth date advances by eleven days and his year increases by one to February 9, 1737. The O.S. link gives more detail if needed. – June 8, 1809) was an English-born American political activist, philosopher, political theorist and revolutionary.
A tradition is a belief or behavior passed down within a group or society with symbolic meaning or special significance with origins in the past.
Trinity Evangelical Divinity School (TEDS) is an academic divinity school founded in 1897 and located north of Chicago, Illinois.
The trivium is the lower division of the seven liberal arts and comprises grammar, logic, and rhetoric (input, process, and output).
Understanding is a psychological process related to an abstract or physical object, such as a person, situation, or message whereby one is able to think about it and use concepts to deal adequately with that object.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The University of Aberdeen is a public research university in Aberdeen, Scotland.
The University of al-Qarawiyyin, also written Al Quaraouiyine or Al-Karaouine (Université Al Quaraouiyine), is a university located in Fez, Morocco.
The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.
The University of Cologne (Universität zu Köln) is a university in Cologne, Germany.
The University of Erfurt (Universität Erfurt) is a public university located in Erfurt, the capital city of the German state of Thuringia.
The University of Exeter is a public research university in Exeter, Devon, South West England, United Kingdom.
The University of Leeds is a Russell Group university in Leeds, West Yorkshire, England.
The University of Naples Federico II (Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II) is a university located in Naples, Italy.
The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.
The University of Pennsylvania Press (or Penn Press) is a university press affiliated with the University of Pennsylvania located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Vaishnavism (Vaishnava dharma) is one of the major traditions within Hinduism along with Shaivism, Shaktism, and Smartism.
Walter Arnold Kaufmann (July 1, 1921 – September 4, 1980) was a German-American philosopher, translator, and poet.
A world view or worldview is the fundamental cognitive orientation of an individual or society encompassing the whole of the individual's or society's knowledge and point of view.
Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.
Academic theology, Criticism of theology, Diploma in Theology, Divine philosophy, God Talk, Philosophy of God, Philosophy of god, Protestant theologian, Queen of the Sciences, Queen of the sciences, Religious scholar, Revealed theology, Sacred Theology, Sacred theology, Teology, Theologans, Theologian, Theologians, Theological, Theological system, Theologically, Theologist, Theology of God.