74 relations: Adenosine, Adenosine receptor, Albrecht Kossel, Anosmia, Anti-inflammatory, Apnea of prematurity, Asthma, Beta blocker, Bioavailability, Blood pressure, Caffeine, Camellia sinensis, Central nervous system, Chemical synthesis, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Chronotropic, Ciprofloxacin, Cocoa bean, Cola (plant), Collagen, Corticosteroid, Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, CYP1A2, Cystic fibrosis, Cytochrome, Demethylation, Diuretic, Dizziness, Dose dumping, Epileptic seizure, Erythromycin, Guarana, Half-life, Heart arrhythmia, Hermann Emil Fischer, Histone deacetylase 2, Hyperthyroidism, Inflammation, Innate immune system, Inotrope, Insomnia, Intravenous therapy, Kidney, Leukotriene, Lightheadedness, Liver, Liver disease, Methylation, Michaelis–Menten kinetics, New York Heart Association Functional Classification, ..., NF-κB, Nicotine, Obesity, Oral administration, Oxidative stress, Phosphodiesterase inhibitor, Protein kinase A, Purine, Quinolone antibiotic, Rate equation, Respiratory center, Respiratory disease, Smooth muscle tissue, Syrup, Tea, Tetrahydrocannabinol, Theobroma cacao, Theobromine, Therapeutic index, TNF inhibitor, Toxicity, Transforming growth factor beta, Wilhelm Traube, Xanthine. Expand index (24 more) » « Shrink index
Adenosine is both a chemical found in many living systems and a medication.
The adenosine receptors (or P1 receptors) are a class of purinergic G protein-coupled receptors with adenosine as endogenous ligand.
Ludwig Karl Martin Leonhard Albrecht Kossel (16 September 1853 – 5 July 1927) was a German biochemist and pioneer in the study of genetics.
Anosmia is the inability to perceive odor or a lack of functioning olfaction—the loss of the sense of smell.
Anti-inflammatory, or antiinflammatory, refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation or swelling.
Apnea of prematurity is defined as cessation of breathing by a premature infant that lasts for more than 20 seconds and/or is accompanied by hypoxia or bradycardia.
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
Beta blockers, also written β-blockers, are a class of medications that are particularly used to manage abnormal heart rhythms, and to protect the heart from a second heart attack (myocardial infarction) after a first heart attack (secondary prevention).
In pharmacology, bioavailability (BA or F) is a subcategory of absorption and is the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.
Camellia sinensis is a species of evergreen shrub or small tree whose leaves and leaf buds are used to produce tea.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by long-term breathing problems and poor airflow.
Chronotropic effects (from chrono-, meaning time, and tropos, "a turn") are those that change the heart rate.
Ciprofloxacin is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections.
The cocoa bean, also called cacao bean, cocoa, and cacao, is the dried and fully fermented seed of Theobroma cacao, from which cocoa solids and, because of the seed's fat, cocoa butter can be extracted.
Colà is a genus of trees native to the tropical forests of Africa, classified in the family Malvaceae, subfamily Sterculioideae (or treated in the separate family Sterculiaceae).
Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies.
Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones.
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP, or 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger important in many biological processes.
Cytochrome P450 1A2 (abbreviated CYP1A2), a member of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system, is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics in the body.
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder that affects mostly the lungs, but also the pancreas, liver, kidneys, and intestine.
Cytochromes are heme-containing proteins.
Demethylation is the chemical process resulting in the removal of a methyl group (CH3) from a molecule.
A diuretic is any substance that promotes diuresis, the increased production of urine.
Dizziness is an impairment in spatial perception and stability.
Dose dumping is a phenomenon of drug metabolism in which environmental factors can cause the premature and exaggerated release of a drug.
An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Erythromycin is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.
Guarana (from the Portuguese guaraná), Paullinia cupana, syns. P. crysan, P. sorbilis) is a climbing plant in the maple family, Sapindaceae, native to the Amazon basin and especially common in Brazil. Guarana has large leaves and clusters of flowers, and is best known for the seeds from its fruit, which are about the size of a coffee bean. As a dietary supplement or herb, guarana seed is an effective stimulant: it contains about twice the concentration of caffeine found in coffee seeds (about 2–4.5% caffeine in guarana seeds, compared to 1–2% for coffee seeds). The additive has gained notoriety for being used in energy drinks. As with other plants producing caffeine, the high concentration of caffeine is a defensive toxin that repels herbivores from the berry and its seeds. The colour of the fruit ranges from brown to red and they contain black seeds that are partly covered by white arils. The colour contrast when the fruit is split open has been compared with the appearance of eyeballs, and has become the basis of an origin myth among the Sateré-Mawé people.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.
Hermann Emil Louis Fischer FRS FRSE FCS (9 October 1852 – 15 July 1919) was a German chemist and 1902 recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
Histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the HDAC2 gene.
Hyperthyroidism is the condition that occurs due to excessive production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
The innate immune system, also known as the non-specific immune system or in-born immunity system, is an important subsystem of the overall immune system that comprises the cells and mechanisms involved in the defense of the host from infection by other organisms.
An inotrope is an agent that alters the force or energy of muscular contractions.
Insomnia, also known as sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder where people have trouble sleeping.
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
Leukotrienes are a family of eicosanoid inflammatory mediators produced in leukocytes by the oxidation of arachidonic acid (AA) and the essential fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) by the enzyme arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase.
Lightheadedness is a common and typically unpleasant sensation of dizziness and/or a feeling that one may faint.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Liver disease (also called hepatic disease) is a type of damage to or disease of the liver.
In the chemical sciences, methylation denotes the addition of a methyl group on a substrate, or the substitution of an atom (or group) by a methyl group.
Michaelis–Menten saturation curve for an enzyme reaction showing the relation between the substrate concentration and reaction rate. In biochemistry, Michaelis–Menten kinetics is one of the best-known models of enzyme kinetics.
The New York Heart Association (NYHA) Functional Classification provides a simple way of classifying the extent of heart failure.
NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) is a protein complex that controls transcription of DNA, cytokine production and cell survival.
Nicotine is a potent parasympathomimetic stimulant and an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between the systemic manifestation of reactive oxygen species and a biological system's ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or to repair the resulting damage.
A phosphodiesterase inhibitor is a drug that blocks one or more of the five subtypes of the enzyme phosphodiesterase (PDE), thereby preventing the inactivation of the intracellular second messengers cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) by the respective PDE subtype(s).
In cell biology, protein kinase A (PKANot to be confused with pKa, the symbol for the acid dissociation constant.) is a family of enzymes whose activity is dependent on cellular levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP).
A purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound that consists of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring.
A quinolone antibiotic is any member of a large group of broad-spectrum bactericides that share a bicyclic core structure related to the compound 4-quinolone.
The rate law or rate equation for a chemical reaction is an equation that links the reaction rate with the concentrations or pressures of the reactants and constant parameters (normally rate coefficients and partial reaction orders).
The respiratory center is located in the medulla oblongata and pons, in the brainstem.
Respiratory disease is a medical term that encompasses pathological conditions affecting the organs and tissues that make gas exchange possible in higher organisms, and includes conditions of the upper respiratory tract, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, pleura and pleural cavity, and the nerves and muscles of breathing.
Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle.
In cooking, a syrup or sirup (from شراب; sharāb, beverage, wine and sirupus) is a condiment that is a thick, viscous liquid consisting primarily of a solution of sugar in water, containing a large amount of dissolved sugars but showing little tendency to deposit crystals.
Tea is an aromatic beverage commonly prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis, an evergreen shrub (bush) native to Asia.
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is one of at least 113 cannabinoids identified in cannabis.
Theobroma cacao, also called the cacao tree and the cocoa tree, is a small (tall) evergreen tree in the family Malvaceae, native to the deep tropical regions of the Americas.
Theobromine, formerly known as xantheose, is a bitter alkaloid of the cacao plant, with the chemical formula C7H8N4O2.
The therapeutic index (TI; also referred to as therapeutic ratio) is a comparison of the amount of a therapeutic agent that causes the therapeutic effect to the amount that causes toxicity.
A TNF inhibitor is a pharmaceutical drug that suppresses the physiologic response to tumor necrosis factor (TNF), which is part of the inflammatory response.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a multifunctional cytokine belonging to the transforming growth factor superfamily that includes four different isoforms (TGF-β 1 to 4, HGNC symbols TGFB1, TGFB2, TGFB3, TGFB4) and many other signaling proteins produced by all white blood cell lineages.
Wilhelm Traube (10 January 1866 – 28 September 1942) was a German chemist.
Xanthine (or; archaically xanthic acid) (3,7-dihydropurine-2,6-dione), is a purine base found in most human body tissues and fluids and in other organisms.
ATC code R03DA04, ATCvet code QR03DA04, Accurbron, Acet-Theocin, Aerobin, Aerolate, Aerolate III, Aerolate SR, Aerolate iii, Aerolate jr, Aerolate sr, Afonilm, Afonilum, Aquaphyllin, Armophylline, Asbron, Asmalix, Asmax, Austyn, Bilordyl, Bronchoretard, Bronkodyl, Bronkodyl SR, Cetraphylline, Chronophyllin, Constant T, Diffumal, Dimethylxanthine, Diphyllin, Doraphyllin, Duraphyl, Duraphyllin, Dyspne-Inhal, Egifilin, Elixex, Elixicon, Elixomin, Elixophyllin, Elixophyllin SR, Elixophyllin sr, Elixophylline, Etheophyl, Euphyllin, Euphylline, Euphylong, Lanophyllin, Liquophylline, Maphylline, Medaphyllin, Nuelin, Optiphyllin, Parkophyllin, Physpan, Pro-Vent, Pulmidur, Pulmo-Timelets, Quibron, Quibron T, Quibron T/SR, Quibron-T, Quibron-T/SR, Respbid, Respicur, Respid, Slo-Bid, Slo-Phyllin, Slo-bid, Slo-phyllin, Solosin, Somophyllin CRT, Somophyllin T, Somophyllin-CRT, Somophyllin-DF, Somophyllin-T, Somophyllin-crt, Spophyllin Retard, Sustaire, Synophylate, Synophylate-L.A. Cenules, T-Phyl, T-phyl, Talotren, Tefamin, Telb-DS, Telbans Dry Syrup, Teocen 200, Teofilina, Teofyllamin, Teolair, Teonova, Teophylline, Teosona, Tesona, Theacitin, Theal Tablets, Theo 24, Theo-11, Theo-24, Theo-DS, Theo-Dur, Theo-Nite, Theo-Sav, Theo-dur, Theobid, Theobid Duracap, Theobid Jr., Theochron, Theocin, Theoclair-SR, Theoclear, Theoclear 80, Theoclear L.A.-130, Theoclear LA, Theoclear-200, Theoclear-80, Theocontin, Theodel, Theodrip, Theodur Dry Syrup, Theofol, Theofylline, Theograd, Theolair, Theolair-SR, Theolair-sr, Theolix, Theolixir, Theona P, Theopek, Theophyl, Theophyl-225, Theophyl-SR, Theophyl-sr, Theophyllamine, Theophylline sodium glycinate, Theophylline-SR, Theophylline-sr, Theoplus, Theospan, Theostat, Theostat 80, Theotard, Theovent, Uni-Dur, Uni-dur, Unidur, Unifyl, Unilong, Uniphyl, Uniphyllin, Xantivent.