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Anthony Kennedy Warder (September 8, 1924 - January 8, 2013) was a British scholar of Indology, mostly in Buddhist studies and related fields, such as the Pāḷi and Sanskrit languages.
Abhayagiri Vihāra was a major monastery site of Mahayana, Theravada and Vajrayana Buddhism that was situated in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka.
The Abhidhamma Pitaka (Pali; English: Basket of Higher Doctrine) is the last of the three pitakas (Pali for "baskets") constituting the Pali Canon, the scriptures of Theravāda Buddhism.
Abhidhammattha-sangaha (Pali) is a Buddhist text attributed to Acariya Anuruddha; it is a commentary on the Abhidharma of the Theravada tradition.
Abhidhammavatara (Pali, also Abhidhammāvatāra), according to Encyclopædia Britannica is "the earliest effort at systematizing, in the form of a manual, the doctrines dealt with in the Abhidhamma (scholastic) section of the Theravada Buddhist canon.
Abhidharma (Sanskrit) or Abhidhamma (Pali) are ancient (3rd century BCE and later) Buddhist texts which contain detailed scholastic reworkings of doctrinal material appearing in the Buddhist sutras, according to schematic classifications.
The Achang, also known as the Ngac'ang (their own name) or Maingtha (မိုင်းသာလူမျိုး) are an ethnic group.
Ajahn Amaro (born 1956) is a Theravada Buddhist monk and teacher, and abbot of the Amaravati Buddhist Monastery at the eastern end of the Chiltern Hills in south east England.
Phra Visuddhisamvarathera, known as Ajahn Brahmavamso, or simply Ajahn Brahm (born Peter Betts on 7 August 1951), is a British-Australian Theravada Buddhist monk.
Chah Subhaddo (ชา สุภัทโท, alternatively Achaan Chah, occasionally with honorific titles Luang Por and Phra) or in honorific name "Phra Bodhiñāṇathera" (พระโพธิญาณเถร, Chao Khun Bodhinyana Thera; 17 June 1918 – 16 January 1992) was a Thai Buddhist monk.
Venerable Ajahn Khemadhammo, OBE, (also known as Luang Por Khemadhammo or Chao Khun Bhavanaviteht) is a Theravada Buddhist monk.
Phra Dharma Visuddhi Mangala (Bua Ñāṇasampaṇṇo) (RTGS: Phra Thamma Wisutthi Mongkhon (Bua Yanasampanno); พระธรรมวิสุทธิมงคล (บัว ญาณสมฺปนฺโน)), commonly known as Ajahn Maha Bua or in Thai Luang Ta Maha Bua (พระอาจารย์มหาบัว, หลวงตามหาบัว; the word "Ajahn" (อาจารย์) means "teacher"), born as Bua Lohitdee (บัว โลหิตดี), (August 12, 1913 – January 30, 2011), was a Thai Buddhist monk.
Phra Ajahn Sao Kantasilo Mahathera (1861–1941) was a monk in the Thai Forest Tradition of Theravada Buddhism.
Ajahn Sucitto (Bhikkhu Sucitto, born 4 November 1949) is a British-born Theravada Buddhist monk ("ajahn" is the Thai rendition of ācārya "teacher").
Luang Por Sumedho or Ajahn Sumedho (อาจารย์สุเมโธ) (born Robert Kan Jackman, July 27, 1934, Seattle) is one of the senior Western representatives of the Thai forest tradition of Theravada Buddhism.
Phra Ajaan Thate Desaransi (1902–1994), also known as Ajaan Thate, Luangpu Thet Thetrangsi, Phra Desarangsee, or by his monastic title Phra Rajanirodharangsee, was a famous meditation master and Buddhist monk from northern Thailand.
The Amarapura Nikaya is a Sri Lankan monastic fraternity (gaṇa or nikāya) founded in 1800.
Amaravati is a Theravada Buddhist monastery at the eastern end of the Chiltern Hills in South East England.
Amoghavajra (अमोघवज्र;, 705–774) was a prolific translator who became one of the most politically powerful Buddhist monks in Chinese history and is acknowledged as one of the Eight Patriarchs of the Doctrine in Shingon Buddhism.
Anagārika Dharmapāla (Pali: Anagārika,; Sinhalese: Anagarika, lit., අනගාරික ධර්මපාල; 17 September 1864 – 29 April 1933) was a Sri Lankan (Sinhalese) Buddhist revivalist and writer.
Ānāpānasati (Pali; Sanskrit ānāpānasmṛti), meaning "mindfulness of breathing" ("sati" means mindfulness; "ānāpāna" refers to inhalation and exhalation), is a form of Buddhist meditation originally taught by Gautama Buddha in several suttas including the Ānāpānasati Sutta.
In Buddhism, the term anattā (Pali) or anātman (Sanskrit) refers to the doctrine of "non-self", that there is no unchanging, permanent self, soul or essence in living beings.
Anawrahta Minsaw (အနော်ရထာ မင်းစော,; 11 May 1014 – 11 April 1077) was the founder of the Pagan Empire.
In Buddhism, an anāgāmi (Sanskrit and Pāli for "non-returning") is a partially enlightened person who has cut off the first five chains that bind the ordinary mind.
Andhra Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India.
Anuradhapura (අනුරාධපුරය; Tamil: அனுராதபுரம்) is a major city in Sri Lanka.
The Anuradhapura Maha Viharaya was an important mahavihara or large Buddhist monastery for Theravada Buddhism in Sri Lanka.
Theravada Buddhism defines arhat (Sanskrit) or arahant (Pali) as "one who is worthy" or as a "perfected person" having attained nirvana.
Aruna Ratanagiri Buddhist Monastery (Harnham Buddhist Monastery) is a Theravada Buddhist monastery of the Thai Forest Tradition in Northumberland, England.
Asalha Puja (known as Asanha Bucha in Thailand, อาสาฬหบูชา) is a Theravada Buddhist festival which typically takes place in July, on the full moon of the sixth lunar month (the full moon of Cancer).
Asceticism (from the ἄσκησις áskesis, "exercise, training") is a lifestyle characterized by abstinence from sensual pleasures, often for the purpose of pursuing spiritual goals.
Ashoka (died 232 BCE), or Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty, who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from to 232 BCE.
The Asia Society is a non-profit organization that focuses on educating the world about Asia.
Aṭṭhakathā (Pali for explanation, commentary) refers to Pali-language Theravadin Buddhist commentaries to the canonical Theravadin Tipitaka.
Atthasālinī (Pali) is a Buddhist text composed by Buddhaghosa in the Theravada Abhidharma tradition.
Avanti (अवन्ति) was an ancient Indian Mahajanapada (Great Realm), roughly corresponded to the present day Malwa region.
Avidyā (Sanskrit; Pāli: avijjā; Tibetan phonetic: ma rigpa) in Buddhist literature is commonly translated as "ignorance".
Āyatana (Pāli; Sanskrit: आयतन) is a Buddhist term that has been translated as "sense base", "sense-media" or "sense sphere." In Buddhism, there are six internal sense bases (Pali: ajjhattikāni āyatanāni; also known as, "organs", "gates", "doors", "powers" or "roots"Pine 2004, pg. 102) and six external sense bases (bāhirāni āyatanāni or "sense objects"; also known as vishaya or "domains"Pine 2004, pg. 103).
In Buddhism, an āgama (आगम Prakrit/Sanskrit) is used as "sacred scriptures".
Bagan (formerly Pagan) is an ancient city located in the Mandalay Region of Myanmar.
Balangoda Ananda Maitreya Thero (අග්ග මහා පණ්ඩිත බලංගොඩ ආනන්ද මෛත්රෙය මහනාහිමි;23 August 1896 – 18 July 1998) was a Sri Lankan scholar Buddhist monk and a personality of Theravada Buddhism in the twentieth century.
Bali (Balinese:, Indonesian: Pulau Bali, Provinsi Bali) is an island and province of Indonesia with the biggest Hindu population.
Bandung (Sundanese:, Bandung, formerly Dutch: Bandoeng), is the capital of West Java province in Indonesia and Greater Bandung made up of 2 municipalities and 38 districts, making it Indonesia's 2nd largest metropolitan area with over 8.5 millions inhabitants listed in the 2015 Badan Pusat Statistik data.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
In some schools of Buddhism, bardo (Tibetan བར་དོ་ Wylie: bar do) or antarabhāva (Sanskrit) is an intermediate, transitional, or liminal state between death and rebirth.
Bhavaṅga (Pali, "ground of becoming", "condition for existence"), also bhavanga-sota and bhavanga-citta is a passive mode of intentional consciousness (citta) described in the Abhidhamma of Theravada Buddhism.
A bhikkhu (from Pali, Sanskrit: bhikṣu) is an ordained male monastic ("monk") in Buddhism.
Bhikkhu Bodhi (born December 10, 1944), born Jeffrey Block, is an American Theravada Buddhist monk, ordained in Sri Lanka and currently teaching in the New York and New Jersey area.
A bhikkhunī (Pali) or bhikṣuṇī (Sanskrit) is a fully ordained female monastic in Buddhism.
The Blang (布朗族: Bùlǎng Zú) (also spelled Bulong) people are an ethnic group.
Bodhi (Sanskrit: बोधि; Pali: bodhi) in Buddhism traditionally is translated into English with the term enlightenment, although its literal meaning is closer to "awakening".
In Buddhism, Bodhisattva is the Sanskrit term for anyone who has generated Bodhicitta, a spontaneous wish and compassionate mind to attain Buddhahood for the benefit of all sentient beings. Bodhisattvas are a popular subject in Buddhist art.
Brahmin (Sanskrit: ब्राह्मण) is a varna (class) in Hinduism specialising as priests, teachers (acharya) and protectors of sacred learning across generations.
Phra Dharmakosacarya (Nguam Indapañño) (พระธรรมโกศาจารย์ (เงื่อม อินฺทปญฺโญ)), also known as Buddhadasa Bhikkhu (พุทธทาสภิกขุ;, May 27, 1906 – May 25, 1993) was a famous and influential ascetic-philosopher of the 20th century.
Buddhadatta Thera was a 5th-century Theravada Buddhist writer from the town of Uragapura in the Chola kingdom of South India.
Buddhaghoṣa (พระพุทธโฆษาจารย์) was a 5th-century Indian Theravada Buddhist commentator and scholar.
In Buddhism, buddhahood (buddhatva; buddhatta or italic) is the condition or rank of a buddha "awakened one".
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Buddhism is a religion practiced by an estimated 488 million in the world,Pew Research Center,.
It is said that Buddha once in his life came to this region East Bengal to spread Buddhism and he was successful to convert the local people of East Bengal to Buddhism.
Buddhism in Cambodia is currently a form of Theravada Buddhism.
Buddhism in Indonesia has a long history, with a considerable range of relics dated from its earlier years in Indonesia.
Buddhism is the primary religion of Laos.
Buddhism is the second largest religion in Malaysia, after Islam, with 19.2% of Malaysia's population being Buddhist although some estimates put that figure up to 21.6% when combined with Chinese religions.
Buddhism in Myanmar is practiced by 89% of the country's population, and is predominantly of the Theravada tradition.
Buddha was born in Shakya (Shakya) Kingdom of Kapilvastu which lies in present-day Rupandehi district, Lumbini zone of Nepal.
Buddhism is an Indian Religion which owes its origins primarily from Shakyamuni Buddha who appeared in India around 2500 years ago or more.
Theravada Buddhism is the religion of 70.2% of the population of Sri Lanka.
Buddhism in Thailand is largely of the Theravada school, which is followed by 94.6 percent of the population.
Buddhism in the West broadly encompasses the knowledge and practice of Buddhism outside Asia in Europe, the Americas, Australia and New Zealand.
Buddhism in Vietnam (Đạo Phật or Phật Giáo in Vietnamese), as practised by the ethnic Vietnamese, is mainly of the Mahayana tradition.
Devotion, a central practice in Buddhism, refers to commitment to religious observances or to an object or person, and may be translated with Sanskrit or Pāli terms like saddhā, gārava or pūjā.
Buddhist meditation is the practice of meditation in Buddhism and Buddhist philosophy.
Buddhist modernism (also referred to as Modern Buddhism, modernist Buddhism and Neo-Buddhism) are new movements based on modern era reinterpretations of Buddhism.
Buddhist philosophy refers to the philosophical investigations and systems of inquiry that developed among various Buddhist schools in India following the death of the Buddha and later spread throughout Asia.
The most important places of pilgrimage in Buddhism are located in the Gangetic plains of Northern India and Southern Nepal, in the area between New Delhi and Rajgir.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
In Sri Lanka a caste-based social stratification system can be seen among its two major ethnic groups (the Sinhalese and the Tamils).
Causality (also referred to as causation, or cause and effect) is what connects one process (the cause) with another process or state (the effect), where the first is partly responsible for the second, and the second is partly dependent on the first.
The Chao Phraya (แม่น้ำเจ้าพระยา, or) is the major river in Thailand, with its low alluvial plain forming the centre of the country.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chinese Buddhism or Han Buddhism has shaped Chinese culture in a wide variety of areas including art, politics, literature, philosophy, medicine, and material culture.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
Cittaviveka, popularly known as Chithurst Buddhist Monastery, is a Theravada Buddhist Monastery in the Thai Forest Tradition.
The Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT; Bengali: পার্বত্য চট্টগ্রাম, Parbotto Choŧŧogram; or the Hill Tracts for short) are an area within the Chattogram Division in southeastern Bangladesh, bordering India and Myanmar (Burma).
The Chola dynasty was one of the longest-ruling dynasties in the history of southern India.
Classical Tibetan refers to the language of any text written in Tibetic after the Old Tibetan period; though it extends from the 7th century until the modern day, it particularly refers to the language of early canonical texts translated from other languages, especially Sanskrit.
The Cūḷavaṃsa, also Chulavamsa (Pāli: "Lesser Chronicle"), is a historical record, written in the Pali language, of the monarchs of Sri Lanka.
The Dai people (Kam Mueang:; Thai: ไท; Shan: တႆး; Tai Nüa: ᥖᥭᥰ) are one of several ethnic groups living in the Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture and the Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture (both in southern Yunnan, China), but by extension can apply to groups in Laos, Vietnam, Thailand, and Myanmar when Dai is used to mean specifically Tai Yai, Lue, Chinese Shan, Tai Dam, Tai Khao or even Tai in general.
Dalai Lama (Standard Tibetan: ཏཱ་ལའི་བླ་མ་, Tā la'i bla ma) is a title given to spiritual leaders of the Tibetan people.
Dambulla (දඹුල්ල Dam̆bulla, தம்புள்ளை Tampuḷḷai) is a large town, situated in the Matale District, Central Province of Sri Lanka, situated north-east of Colombo and north of Kandy.
Damien Keown (born 1951) is a prominent bioethicist and authority on Buddhist bioethics.
Dan Lusthaus is an American writer on Buddhism.
A steady decline of Buddhism in the Indian subcontinent set in during the 1st millennium CE in the wake of the White Hun invasion followed by Turk-Mongol raids, though it continued to attract financial and institutional support during the Gupta era (4th to 6th century) and the Pala Empire (8th to 12th century).
Tissa, later Devanampiya Tissa was one of the earliest kings of Sri Lanka based at the ancient capital of Anuradhapura from 307 BC to 267 BC.
Dhammananda Bhikkhuni (ธัมมนันทา), was born Chatsumarn Kabilsingh (ฉัตรสุมาลย์ กบิลสิงห์) or Chatsumarn Kabilsingh Shatsena (ฉัตรสุมาลย์ กบิลสิงห์ ษัฏเสน;; 6 October 1944) is a Thai bhikkhuni ("Buddhist nun").
The Dhammapada (Pāli; धम्मपद Dhammapada) is a collection of sayings of the Buddha in verse form and one of the most widely read and best known Buddhist scriptures.
Dhammapāla was the name of two or more great Theravada Buddhist commentators.
Dhammayuttika Nikaya (Pali; ธรรมยุติกนิกาย;; ធម្មយុត្តិក និកាយ Thommoyouttek Nikeay), or Thammayut (ธรรมยุต) is an order of Theravada Buddhist bhikkhus (monks) in Thailand, Cambodia and Burma, with significant branches in the Western world.
Dharma (dharma,; dhamma, translit. dhamma) is a key concept with multiple meanings in the Indian religions – Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism.
The Dharmaguptaka (Sanskrit) are one of the eighteen or twenty early Buddhist schools, depending on the source.
Dhutanga (Pali dhutaṅga "renunciation", known in Thai as "Thudong"; ධුතාඞ්ග) is a group of thirteen austerities or ascetic practices most commonly observed by the practitioners of the Thai Forest Tradition of Theravada Buddhism.
In Buddhism, Dhyāna (Sanskrit) or Jhāna (Pali) is a series of cultivated states of mind, which lead to a "state of perfect equanimity and awareness (upekkhii-sati-piirisuddhl)." It is commonly translated as meditation, and is also used in Hinduism and Jainism.
A diaspora (/daɪˈæspərə/) is a scattered population whose origin lies in a separate geographic locale.
Dimbulagala Raja Maha Vihara is situated 16 kilometres south east of the ancient city of Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka.
The Dipavamsa or Deepavamsa (i.e., "Chronicle of the Island"; in Pali: Dīpavaṃsa), is the oldest historical record of Sri Lanka.
In Christianity, docetism (from the Greek δοκεῖν/δόκησις dokeĩn (to seem) dókēsis (apparition, phantom), is the doctrine that the phenomenon of Christ, his historical and bodily existence, and above all the human form of Jesus, was mere semblance without any true reality. Broadly it is taken as the belief that Jesus only seemed to be human, and that his human form was an illusion. The word Δοκηταί Dokētaí (illusionists) referring to early groups who denied Jesus' humanity, first occurred in a letter by Bishop Serapion of Antioch (197–203), who discovered the doctrine in the Gospel of Peter, during a pastoral visit to a Christian community using it in Rhosus, and later condemned it as a forgery. It appears to have arisen over theological contentions concerning the meaning, figurative or literal, of a sentence from the Gospel of John: "the Word was made Flesh". Docetism was unequivocally rejected at the First Council of Nicaea in 325. and is regarded as heretical by the Catholic Church, Orthodox Church, Coptic Church and many other Christian denominations that accept and hold to the statements of these early church councils.
Dukkha (Pāli; Sanskrit: duḥkha; Tibetan: སྡུག་བསྔལ་ sdug bsngal, pr. "duk-ngel") is an important Buddhist concept, commonly translated as "suffering", "pain", "unsatisfactoriness" or "stress".
Maha Dwara Nikaya (မဟာဒွာရနိကာယ,; also spelt Maha Dwaya Nikaya or Maha Dvara Nikaya is the name of a small monastic order of monks in Myanmar (Burma), numbering a three to four thousand monks, primarily in Lower Myanmar. This order is very conservative with respect to Vinaya regulations. It is one of 9 legally sanctioned monastic orders (nikaya) in the country, under the 1990 Law Concerning Sangha Organizations.
The early Buddhist schools are those schools into which the Buddhist monastic saṅgha initially split, due originally to differences in vinaya and later also due to doctrinal differences and geographical separation of groups of monks.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
East Asian Buddhism is a collective term for the schools of Mahayana Buddhism that developed in the East Asian region and follow the Chinese Buddhist canon.
Eternalism is a philosophical approach to the ontological nature of time, which takes the view that all existence in time is equally real, as opposed to presentism or the growing block universe theory of time, in which at least the future is not the same as any other time.
Faxian (337 – c. 422) was a Chinese Buddhist monk who travelled by foot from China to India, visiting many sacred Buddhist sites in what are now Xinjiang, Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka between 399-412 to acquire Buddhist texts.
In Buddhism, a mental fetter, chain or bond (Pāli: samyojana, saŋyojana, saññojana) shackles a sentient being to ṃsāra, the cycle of lives with dukkha.
The First Buddhist council was a gathering of senior monks of the Buddhist order convened just after Gautama Buddha's death in ca.
In the Buddhist tradition, the five hindrances (Sanskrit: पञ्च निवारण pañca nivāraṇa; Pali) are identified as mental factors that hinder progress in meditation and in our daily lives.
The five precepts (pañcasīlāni; pañcaśīlāni)) constitute the basic code of ethics undertaken by upāsaka and upāsikā (lay followers) of Buddhism. The precepts in all the traditions are essentially identical and are commitments to abstain from harming living beings, stealing, sexual misconduct, lying and intoxication. Undertaking the five precepts is part of both lay Buddhist initiation and regular lay Buddhist devotional practices. They are not formulated as imperatives, but as training rules that lay people undertake voluntarily to facilitate practice. Additionally, in the Theravāda school of Buddhism, the bhikkhuni lineage died out, and women renunciates practicing Theravadin Buddhism have developed unofficial options for their own practice, dedicating their life to religion, vowing celibacy, living an ascetic life and holding eight or ten precepts.
The Four Noble Truths refer to and express the basic orientation of Buddhism in a short expression: we crave and cling to impermanent states and things, which are dukkha, "incapable of satisfying" and painful.
The four stages of enlightenment in Theravada Buddhism are the four progressive stages culminating in full enlightenment as an Arahant.
François Bizot (born February 8, 1940 in Nancy, France), is a French anthropologist, the only Westerner to have survived imprisonment by the Khmer Rouge.
Gautama Buddha (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.
Gil Fronsdal is a Norwegian-born, American Buddhist teacher, writer and scholar based in Redwood City, California.
Yuanyang County, Yunnan Province. The Hani or Ho people (Hani: Haqniq;; Người Hà Nhì) are an ethnic group.
Helena Petrovna Blavatsky (Еле́на Петро́вна Блава́тская, Yelena Petrovna Blavatskaya; 8 May 1891) was a Russian occultist, philosopher, and author who co-founded the Theosophical Society in 1875.
Bhante Henepola Gunaratana is a Sri Lankan Theravada Buddhist monk.
Colonel Henry Steel Olcott (2 August 1832 – 17 February 1907) was an American military officer, journalist, lawyer and the co-founder and first President of the Theosophical Society.
"Hīnayāna" is a Sanskrit term literally meaning the "inferior vehicle".
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
Buddhism is a world religion, which arose in and around the ancient Kingdom of Magadha (now in Bihar, India), and is based on the teachings of Siddhārtha Gautama who was deemed a "Buddha" ("Awakened One").
Hngettwin Nikaya (ငှက်တွင်နိကာယ,; officially Catubhummika Mahasatipatthana Hngettwin) is the name of a monastic order of monks in Burma, numbering approximately 1,000 monks, primarily in Mandalay.
In English translations of Buddhist texts, householder denotes a variety of terms.
Huston Cummings Smith (May 31, 1919 – December 30, 2016) was a religious studies scholar in the United States.
Impermanence, also called Anicca or Anitya, is one of the essential doctrines and a part of three marks of existence in Buddhism.
This page charts a list of countries by importance of religion.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages are the dominant language family of the Indian subcontinent.
The Irrawaddy River or Ayeyarwady River (also spelt Ayeyarwaddy) is a river that flows from north to south through Myanmar.
Island Hermitage on (Polgasduwa) Dodanduwa Island, Galle District, Sri Lanka is a famous Buddhist forest monastery founded by Ven.
Jack Kornfield is a bestselling American author and teacher in the vipassana movement in American Theravada Buddhism.
Jayavarman VII, post-humous name of Mahaparamasaugata, (ជ័យវរ្ម័នទី៧, 1125–1218) was a king (reigned c.1181–1218) of the Khmer Empire in present-day Siem Reap, Cambodia.
Jetavana was one of the most famous of the Buddhist monasteries or viharas in India.
Joseph Goldstein (born 1944) is one of the first American vipassana teachers, co-founder of the Insight Meditation Society (IMS) with Jack Kornfield and Sharon Salzberg, contemporary author of numerous popular books on Buddhism (see publications below), resident guiding teacher at IMS, and leader of retreats worldwide on insight (vipassana) and lovingkindness (metta) meditation.
(Pali; Skt.) is a Buddhist concept of "spiritual friendship" within Buddhist community life, applicable to both monastic and householder relationships.
In Buddhism, is a Pali word (Sanskrit: karmasthana) which literally means the place of work.
Kanchipuram also known as Kānchi is a city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu in Tondaimandalam region, from Chennaithe capital of Tamil Nadu.
Karma (Sanskrit, also karman, Pāli: kamma) is a Sanskrit term that literally means "action" or "doing".
In Buddhism, kasiṇa (Pali; Sanskrit: kṛtsna) refers to a class of basic visual objects of meditation.
Kathāvatthu (Pāli) (abbrev. Kv, Kvu), translated as "Points of Controversy", is a Buddhist scripture, one of the seven books in the Theravada Abhidhamma Pitaka.
Kāśyapīya (Sanskrit: काश्यपीय; Pali: Kassapiyā or Kassapikā) was one of the early Buddhist schools in India.
The Khmer Empire (Khmer: ចក្រភពខ្មែរ: Chakrphup Khmer or អាណាចក្រខ្មែរ: Anachak Khmer), officially the Angkor Empire (Khmer: អាណាចក្រអង្គរ: Anachak Angkor), the predecessor state to modern Cambodia ("Kampuchea" or "Srok Khmer" to the Khmer people), was a powerful Hindu-Buddhist empire in Southeast Asia.
The Khmer Krom (ខ្មែរក្រោម, Khơ Me Crộm) are ethnically Khmer people living in the south western part of Vietnam, where they are recognized as one of Vietnam's fifty-three ethnic minorities.
Kleshas (kleśa; किलेस kilesa; ཉོན་མོངས། nyon mongs), in Buddhism, are mental states that cloud the mind and manifest in unwholesome actions.
Laos (ລາວ,, Lāo; Laos), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao: ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ, Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao; République démocratique populaire lao), commonly referred to by its colloquial name of Muang Lao (Lao: ເມືອງລາວ, Muang Lao), is a landlocked country in the heart of the Indochinese peninsula of Mainland Southeast Asia, bordered by Myanmar (Burma) and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the southwest and Thailand to the west and southwest.
Ledi Sayadaw U Ñanadhaja (လယ်တီဆရာတော် ဦးဉာဏဓဇ,; 1 December 1846 – 27 June 1923) was an influential Theravada Buddhist monk.
Legcuffs are physical restraints used on the ankles of a person to allow walking only with a restricted stride and to prevent running and effective physical resistance.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
This list of sovereign states provides an overview of sovereign states around the world, with information on their status and recognition of their sovereignty.
The Lokottaravāda (Sanskrit, लोकोत्तरवाद) was one of the early Buddhist schools according to Mahayana doxological sources compiled by Bhāviveka, Vinitadeva and others, and was a subgroup which emerged from the Mahāsāṃghika.
Lower Burma (အောက်မြန်မာပြည်, also called Outer Myanmar) is a geographic region of Burma (Myanmar) and includes the low-lying Irrawaddy delta (Ayeyarwady, Bago and Yangon Regions), as well as coastal regions of the country (Rakhine and Mon States and Tanintharyi Region).
Luang por means "venerable father" and is used as a title for respected senior Buddhist monastics.
Luang Pu Sodh Candasaro (10 October 1884 – 3 February 1959), also known as Phramongkolthepmuni (พระมงคลเทพมุนี), was the abbot of Wat Paknam Bhasicharoen from 1916 until his death in 1959.
Māgha Pūjā is the second most important Buddhist festival, celebrated on the full moon day of the third lunar month in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Sri Lanka and on the full moon day of Tabodwe in Myanmar.
The Maha Nikaya (literal translation: "Great Collection") is one of the two principal fraternities of modern Thai Buddhism.
Maharashtra (abbr. MH) is a state in the western region of India and is India's second-most populous state and third-largest state by area.
Mahasi Sayadaw U Sobhana (မဟာစည်ဆရာတော် ဦးသောဘန,; 29 July 1904 – 14 August 1982) was a Burmese Theravada Buddhist monk and meditation master who had a significant impact on the teaching of Vipassana (Insight) meditation in the West and throughout Asia.
The Mahasthabir Nikaya is a Bengali order of Buddhist monks.
The Mahavamsa ("Great Chronicle", Pali Mahāvaṃsa) (5th century CE) is an epic poem written in the Pali language.
Mahavihara is the Sanskrit and Pali term for a great vihara (Buddhist monastery) and is used to describe a monastic complex of viharas.
Mahāyāna (Sanskrit for "Great Vehicle") is one of two (or three, if Vajrayana is counted separately) main existing branches of Buddhism and a term for classification of Buddhist philosophies and practice.
Mahābhūta is Sanskrit and Pāli for "great element.".
Mahākassapa Thera was a 12th-century Sri Lankan forest monk and an abbot of Dimbulagala Raja Maha Vihara, a forest monastery outside of Polonnaruwa.
The Mahāsāṃghika (Sanskrit "of the Great Sangha") was one of the early Buddhist schools.
Mahīśāsaka is one of the early Buddhist schools according to some records.
Mahinda (Sanskrit Mahendra; born third century BCE in Ujjain, modern Madhya Pradesh, India) was a Buddhist monk depicted in Buddhist sources as bringing Buddhism to Sri Lanka.
Maitreya (Sanskrit), Metteyya (Pali), is regarded as a future Buddha of this world in Buddhist eschatology.
The Malay Peninsula (Tanah Melayu, تانه ملايو; คาบสมุทรมลายู,, မလေး ကျွန်းဆွယ်, 马来半岛 / 馬來半島) is a peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The Malaysian Siamese, Siamese Malaysians or Thai Malaysians are people of full or partial Thai descent who were born in or immigrated to Malaysia.
A "mantra" ((Sanskrit: मन्त्र)) is a sacred utterance, a numinous sound, a syllable, word or phonemes, or group of words in Sanskrit believed by practitioners to have psychological and spiritual powers.
Meditation can be defined as a practice where an individual uses a technique, such as focusing their mind on a particular object, thought or activity, to achieve a mentally clear and emotionally calm state.
Melford Elliot "Mel" Spiro (April 26, 1920 – October 18, 2014) was an American cultural anthropologist specializing in religion and psychological anthropology.
Merit (puṇya, puñña) is a concept considered fundamental to Buddhist ethics.
Moggaliputta-Tissa (ca. 327 BC – 247 BC), (born in Pataliputra, Magadha (now Patna, India) was a Buddhist monk and scholar who lived in the 3rd century BC. David Kalupahana sees him as a predecessor of Nagarjuna in being a champion of the Middle Way and a reviver of the original philosophical ideals of the Buddha. He was the spiritual teacher of the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka, and his son Mahinda, who brought Buddhism to Sri Lanka. Moggaliputta-Tissa also presided over the Third Buddhist Council. According to the Mahavamsa, he had consented himself to be reincarnated as a human in order to chair the council, on the request of the arahants who has presided over the second. He was the son of Mogalli of Pataliputra, as Tissa. According to the Mahavamsa, Tissa, who was thoroughly proficient, at a young age was sought after by the Buddhist monks Siggava and Candavajji for conversion, as they went on their daily alms round. At the age of seven, Tissa was angered when Siggava, a Buddhist monk, occupied his seat in his house and berated him. Siggava responded by asking Tissa a question about the Cittayamaka which Tissa was not able to answer, and he expressed a desire to learn the dharma, converting to Buddhism. After obtaining the consent of his parents, he joined the Sangha as Siggava's disciple, who taught him the Vinaya and Candavajji the Abhidhamma Pitakas. He later attained arahantship and became an acknowledged leader of the monks at Pataliputra. He became known as Moggaliputta-Tissa. At a festival for the dedication of the Aśokārāma and the other viharas built by Ashoka, Moggaliputta-Tissa, in answer to a question, informed Ashoka that one becomes a kinsman of the Buddha's religion only by letting one's son or daughter enter the Sangha. Upon this suggestion, Ashoka had both his son Mahinda and daughter Sanghamitta ordained. Moggaliputta acted as Mahinda's teacher until Mahinda was sent to propagate Buddhism in Sri Lanka. Later, due to the great gains which accrued to the Sangha through Ashoka's patronage of Buddhism, he perceived that the Order had become corrupt. He committed the monks to the leadership of Mahinda, and lived in self-imposed solitary retreat for seven years on the Ahoganga pabbata. Ashoka recalled him to Pataliputra after some monks had been murdered by royal officials. After some initial reluctance, he traveled by boat to Pataliputra, and was met at the landing place by Ashoka. Ashoka had a dream on the previous night which royal soothsayers interpreted to mean that an eminent ascetic would touch him on the right hand. As the Moggaliputta touched Ashoka's hand the royal guards were about to carry out an instantaneous death penalty. Ashoka restrained his guards and Moggaliputta took his hand as a sign that he accepted him as a disciple. On the advice of Moggaliputta, Ashoka convened the Third Buddhist Council in Pataliputra, in the Aśokārāma, which was attended by some 1,000 monks in 253 BC. In his presence, Ashoka questioned the assembled monks on their views of various doctrines, and those who held views which were deemed to be contrary to Buddhism were disrobed. He compiled the Kathavatthu, in refutation of those views, and it was in this council that this text was approved and added to the Abhidhamma. Moggaliputta later made arrangements arising from the council to send monks outside of the Mauryan Empire to propagate Buddhism, and arranged for a bodhi tree sapling to be sent to Sri Lanka. He died at the age of eighty in the twenty-sixth year of Ashoka's reign and his relics were enshrined in a stupa in Sanchi along with nine other arahants.
The Mon (မောန် or မည်; မွန်လူမျိုး,; មន, มอญ) are an ethnic group from Myanmar living mostly in Mon State, Bago Region, the Irrawaddy Delta and along the southern border of Thailand and Myanmar.
Phra Bat Somdet Phra Poramenthra Maha Mongkut Phra Chom Klao Chao Yu Hua (พระบาทสมเด็จพระปรเมนทรมหามงกุฎ พระจอมเกล้าเจ้าอยู่หัว), or Rama IV, known in English-speaking countries as King Mongkut (18 October 18041 October 1868), was the fourth monarch of Siam (Thailand) under the House of Chakri, ruling from 1851 to 1868.
Ajahn Mun Bhuridatta Thera (มั่น ภูริทตฺโต,; ຫຼວງປູ່ມັ່ນ ພູຣິທັຕໂຕ), 1870–1949, was a Thai bhikkhu of Lao descent who is credited, along with his mentor, Ajahn Sao Kantasīlo, with establishing the Thai Forest Tradition or "Kammaṭṭhāna tradition" that subsequently spread throughout Thailand and to several countries abroad.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
Nikāya is a Pāḷi word meaning "volume".
(निर्वाण nirvāṇa; निब्बान nibbāna; णिव्वाण ṇivvāṇa) literally means "blown out", as in an oil lamp.
The Noble Eightfold Path (ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo, āryāṣṭāṅgamārga) is an early summary of the path of Buddhist practices leading to liberation from samsara, the painful cycle of rebirth.
Northeast India (officially North Eastern Region, NER) is the easternmost region of India representing both a geographic and political administrative division of the country.
Nyanaponika Thera or Nyanaponika Mahathera (July 21, 1901 – 19 October 1994) was a German-born Sri-Lanka-ordained Theravada monk, co-founder of the Buddhist Publication Society, contemporary author of numerous seminal Theravada books, and teacher of contemporary Western Buddhist leaders such as Bhikkhu Bodhi.
Nyanatiloka Mahathera (19 February 1878, Wiesbaden, Germany – 28 May 1957, Colombo, Ceylon), born as Anton Walther Florus Gueth, was one of the earliest westerners in modern times to become a Bhikkhu, a fully ordained Buddhist monk.
The Kingdom of Pagan (ပုဂံခေတ်,, lit. "Pagan Period"; also commonly known as the Pagan Dynasty and the Pagan Empire) was the first kingdom to unify the regions that would later constitute modern-day Burma (Myanmar).
Pali, or Magadhan, is a Middle Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian subcontinent.
Pali literature is concerned mainly with Theravada Buddhism, of which Pali is the traditional language.
The Pali Text Society is a text publication society founded in 1881 by Thomas William Rhys Davids "to foster and promote the study of Pāli texts".
The Pāli Canon is the standard collection of scriptures in the Theravada Buddhist tradition, as preserved in the Pāli language.
Philip Novak is a Sarlo Distinguished Professor of Philosophy and Religion at Dominican University in San Rafael, California.
Philosophical presentism is the view that neither the future nor the past exist.
Philosophy of space and time is the branch of philosophy concerned with the issues surrounding the ontology, epistemology, and character of space and time.
Poḷonnaruwa (Sinhalese: පොළොන්නරුව, Poḷonnaruwa or Puḷattipura, Tamil: பொலன்னறுவை, Polaṉṉaṟuvai or Puḷatti nakaram) is the main town of Polonnaruwa District in North Central Province, Sri Lanka.
The Prakrits (प्राकृत; pāuda; pāua) are any of several Middle Indo-Aryan languages formerly spoken in India.
Pratītyasamutpāda (प्रतीत्यसमुत्पाद pratītyasamutpāda; पटिच्चसमुप्पाद paṭiccasamuppāda), commonly translated as dependent origination, or dependent arising, is the principle that all dharmas ("phenomena") arise in dependence upon other dharmas: "if this exists, that exists; if this ceases to exist, that also ceases to exist".
The Prātimokṣa (Sanskrit prātimokṣa) is a list of rules (contained within the vinaya) governing the behaviour of Buddhist monastics (monks or bhikṣus and nuns or bhikṣuṇīs).
Maha Ghosananda (full title Samdech Preah Maha Ghosananda - សម្ដចព្រះមហាឃោសានន្ទ) (May 23, 1913 – March 12, 2007) was a highly revered Cambodian Buddhist monk at CNN.com in the Theravada tradition, who served as the Patriarch (Sangharaja) of Cambodian Buddhism during the Khmer Rouge period and post-communist transition period of Cambodian history.
Pyu, also spelled Phyu or Phyuu, is a town in Taungoo District, Bago Region in Myanmar.
The Pyu city states (ပျူ မြို့ပြ နိုင်ငံများ) were a group of city-states that existed from c. 2nd century BCE to c. mid-11th century in present-day Upper Burma (Myanmar).
King Ram Khamhaeng (พ่อขุนรามคำแหง;; c. 1237/1247 – 1298) was the third king of the Phra Ruang dynasty, ruling the Sukhothai Kingdom (a forerunner of the modern kingdom of Thailand) from 1279–1298, during its most prosperous era.
Ramanna Nikaya (spelled Rāmañña in Pali, also known as Ramanya Nikaya or රාමඤ්ඤ නිකාය) is one of the three major Buddhist orders in Sri Lanka.
Rebirth in Buddhism refers to its teaching that the actions of a person lead to a new existence after death, in endless cycles called saṃsāra.
Richard Francis Gombrich (born 17 July 1937) is an Indologist and scholar of Sanskrit, Pāli, and Buddhist Studies.
Rupert Mark Lovell Gethin (born 1957, Edinburgh) is Professor of Buddhist Studies in the Department of Theology and Religious Studies and codirector of the Centre for Buddhist Studies at the University of Bristol, and (since 2003) president of the Pali Text Society.
Satya Narayan Goenka (30 January 1924 – 29 September 2013), commonly known as S.N. Goenka, was a Burmese-Indian teacher of Vipassanā meditation.
Saṃsāra is a Sanskrit word that means "wandering" or "world", with the connotation of cyclic, circuitous change.
(Pali; Sanskrit) is a term figuring prominently in Buddhism.
A sacred language, "holy language" (in religious context) or liturgical language is any language that is cultivated and used primarily in religious service or for other religious reasons by people who speak another, primary language in their daily life.
In Buddhism, the Sakadāgāmin (Pali; Sanskrit: Sakṛdāgāmin), "returning once" or "once-returner," is a partially enlightened person, who has cut off the first three chains with which the ordinary mind is bound, and significantly weakened the fourth and fifth.
Samadhi (Sanskrit: समाधि), also called samāpatti, in Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism and yogic schools refers to a state of meditative consciousness.
A sāmaṇera (Pali); Sanskrit śrāmaṇera, is a novice male monastic in a Buddhist context.
Samatha (Pāli) or śamatha (शमथ; zhǐ) is the Buddhist practice (bhāvanā भावना) of calming the mind (citta चित्त) and its 'formations' (saṅkhāra संस्कार).
Sangha (saṅgha; saṃgha; සංඝයා; พระสงฆ์; Tamil: சங்கம்) is a word in Pali and Sanskrit meaning "association", "assembly", "company" or "community" and most commonly refers in Buddhism to the monastic community of bhikkhus (monks) and bhikkhunis (nuns).
Saṅghamittā (Saṅghamitrā in Sanskrit) was the eldest daughter of Emperor Ashoka (304 BC – 232 BC) and his first wife, Devi.
The Sangharaja Nikaya is a tradition of Theravada Buddhism, located in Bangladesh.
Sangharaja (Pāli: sangha religious community + raja ruler, king, or prince) is the title given in many Theravada Buddhist countries to a senior monk who is the titular head either of a monastic fraternity (nikaya), or of the Sangha throughout the country.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
The Sarvāstivāda (Sanskrit) were an early school of Buddhism that held to the existence of all dharmas in the past, present and future, the "three times".
Sāriputta Thera was a 12th century Sri Lankan scholar monk of Theravada Buddhism.
The Schools of Buddhism are the various institutional and doctrinal divisions of Buddhism that have existed from ancient times up to the present.
The Second Buddhist council took place approximately in 383 BCE, seventy years after the Buddha's parinirvāṇa.
The Shan (တႆး;, ရှမ်းလူမျိုး;; ไทใหญ่ or ฉาน) are a Tai ethnic group of Southeast Asia.
Sharon Salzberg (born August 5, 1952) is a New York Times Best selling author and teacher of Buddhist meditation practices in the West.
Shinbyu (also spelt shinpyu) is the Burmese term for a novitiation ceremony (pabbajja) in the tradition of Theravada Buddhism, referring to the celebrations marking the sāmaṇera (novitiate) monastic ordination of a boy under the age of 20.
Shwegyin Nikaya (ရွှေကျင်နိကာယ,, also spelt Shwekyin Nikaya) is the name of the second largest monastic order of monks in Burma.
The Siam (also Siyamopali and Siyam) Nikaya is a monastic order within Sri Lanka, founded by Upali Thera and located predominantly around the city of Kandy.
Sinhalese, known natively as Sinhala (සිංහල; siṁhala), is the native language of the Sinhalese people, who make up the largest ethnic group in Sri Lanka, numbering about 16 million.
Skandhas (Sanskrit) or khandhas (Pāḷi) means "heaps, aggregates, collections, groupings".
In Buddhism, a sotāpanna (Pali), srotāpanna (Sanskrit;, Tibetan: རྒྱུན་ཞུགས་, Wylie: rgyun zhugs), "stream-winner", or "stream-entrant" is a person who has seen the Dharma and consequently, has dropped the first three fetters (saŋyojana) that bind a being to rebirth, namely self-view (sakkāya-ditthi), clinging to rites and rituals (sīlabbata-parāmāsa), and skeptical indecision (Vicikitsa).
Soteriology (σωτηρία "salvation" from σωτήρ "savior, preserver" and λόγος "study" or "word") is the study of religious doctrines of salvation.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
Śrī Kalyāṇī Yogāśrama Saṃsthā (Pali: Siri Kalyāṇī Yogassama Santhā, Sinhala: ශ්රී කල්යාණී යෝගාශ්රම සංස්ථාව), also known as the Galduwa Forest Tradition is an independent part of the Sri Lankan Ramañña Nikāya Buddhist ordination line, with their headquarters in Galduva, Kahawa - Ambalangoda.
Sri Ksetra (Śrī Kṣetra, သရေခေတ္တရာ ပြည်, IPA:; lit. "Field of Fortune"Htin Aung, Maung (1970). Burmese History before 1287: A Defence of the Chronicles. Oxford: The Asoka Society, 8 - 10. or "Field of Glory"), located along the Irrawaddy River at present-day Hmawza, was once a prominent Pyu settlement.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
Sri Lankan Forest Monks' Tradition claims a long history.
The Sri Lankan Malaysians are an ethnic group that consists of people of full or partial Sri Lankan descent who were born in or immigrated to Malaysia.
The Sthavira nikāya (Sanskrit "Sect of the Elders") was one of the early Buddhist schools.
A stupa (Sanskrit: "heap") is a mound-like or hemispherical structure containing relics (śarīra - typically the remains of Buddhist monks or nuns) that is used as a place of meditation.
The subcommentaries (Pali: tika, ṭīkā) are primarily commentaries on the commentaries (Pali: atthakatha) on the Pali Canon of Theravada Buddhism, written in Sri Lanka.
The term subitism points to sudden enlightenment, the idea that insight is attained all at once.
Suffering, or pain in a broad sense, may be an experience of unpleasantness and aversion associated with the perception of harm or threat of harm in an individual.
Sukha (Sanskrit, Pali; Devanagari: सुख) means happiness, pleasure, ease, or bliss, in Sanskrit and Pali.
The Kingdom of Sukhothai (สุโขทัย, Soo-Ker Ty) was an early kingdom in the area around the city Sukhothai, in north central Thailand.
Sumatra is an Indonesian island in Southeast Asia that is part of the Sunda Islands.
The Supreme Patriarch or Sangharaja (สังฆราช) is the head of the order of Buddhist monks in Thailand.
A sutra (Sanskrit: IAST: sūtra; Pali: sutta) is a religious discourse (teaching) in text form originating from the spiritual traditions of India, particularly Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism.
The Sutta Pitaka (or Suttanta Pitaka; Basket of Discourse; cf Sanskrit सूत्र पिटक) is the second of the three divisions of the Tripitaka or Pali Canon, the Pali collection of Buddhist writings of Theravada Buddhism.
(सुवर्णभूमि; Pali) is the name of a land mentioned in many ancient Buddhist sources such as the Mahavamsa, some stories of the Jataka tales, and Milinda Panha.
Svabhava (svabhāva; sabhāva) literally means "own-being" or "own-becoming".
Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.
is a Pāli word, related to the Vedic Sanskrit word and, which means "thirst, desire, wish".
The Tai Dam (ไทดำ) are an ethnic minority predominantly from China, northwest Vietnam, Laos, Thailand.
Tai peoples refers to the population of descendants of speakers of a common Tai language, including sub-populations that no longer speak a Tai language.
Tantra (Sanskrit: तन्त्र, literally "loom, weave, system") denotes the esoteric traditions of Hinduism and Buddhism that co-developed most likely about the middle of 1st millennium CE.
Tantric Theravada, Esoteric Southern Buddhism and Borān kammaṭṭhāna ('ancient practices') are terms used to refer to certain Tantric and esoteric practices, views and texts within Theravada Buddhism.
Tara Brach (born May 17, 1953) is an American psychologist and proponent of Buddhist meditation.
The Kammaṭṭhāna Forest Tradition of Thailand (Pali: kammaṭṭhāna meaning "place of work"), commonly known in the West as the Thai Forest Tradition, is a lineage of Theravada Buddhist monasticism, as well as the lineage's associated heritage of Buddhist praxis.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
hānissaro Bhikkhu, also known as Ajaan Geoff (born 1949), is an American Buddhist monk.
The Theosophical Society was an organization formed in 1875 by Helena Blavatsky to advance Theosophy.
Thero (Pali; also appearing in stem-form as thera, feminine therī) is an honorific term for bhikkhus and bhikkhunis (Buddhist monks and nuns) in the Buddhist monastic order.
The Third Buddhist council was convened in about 250 BCE at Asokarama in Pataliputra, supposedly under the patronage of Emperor Ashoka.
In Buddhism, the three marks of existence are three characteristics (Pali: tilakkhaa; Sanskrit: trilakaa) of all existence and beings, namely impermanence (anicca), unsatisfactoriness or suffering (dukkha), and non-self (anattā).
Thudhamma Nikaya (သုဓမ္မာနိကာယ,; also spelt Sudhamma Nikaya) is the largest monastic order of monks in Burma, with 85-90% of Burmese monks (250,000) belonging to this order.
The (Sanskrit; Pali) heaven is an important world of the devas in Hindu and Buddhist cosmology.
The Tripiṭaka (Sanskrit) or Tipiṭaka (Pali), is the traditional term for the Buddhist scriptures.
U Nārada (နာရဒ; 1868–1955),Robert H. Sharf, Buddhist Modernism and the Rhetoric of Meditative Experience, Numen 42 (1995) pg 242 also Mingun Jetawun Sayādaw or Mingun Jetavana Sayādaw, was a Burmese monk in the Theravada tradition credited with being one of the key figures in the revival of Vipassana meditation.
Sayadaw U Pandita (ဆရာတော် ဦးပဏ္ဍိတ,; also; 28 July 1921 – 16 April 2016) was one of the foremost masters of Vipassanā.
Upāsaka (masculine) or Upāsikā (feminine) are from the Sanskrit and Pāli words for "attendant".
The Uposatha (Upavasatha) is a Buddhist day of observance, in existence from the Buddha's time (500 BCE), and still being kept today in Buddhist countries.
Vajrabodhi (Ch.金剛智) (671–741) was an Indian Buddhist monk and esoteric Buddhist teacher in Tang China.
Vajrayāna, Mantrayāna, Tantrayāna, Tantric Buddhism and Esoteric Buddhism are the various Buddhist traditions of Tantra and "Secret Mantra", which developed in medieval India and spread to Tibet and East Asia.
Vassa (script, script, both "rain") is the three-month annual retreat observed by Theravada practitioners.
Vesak (Pali: Vesākha, Vaiśākha), also known as Buddha Purnima and Buddha Day, is a holiday traditionally observed by Buddhists and some Hindus on different days in India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Tibet, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Mongolia and the Philippines and in China, Japan, South Korea, North Korea, Taiwan and Vietnam as "Buddha's Birthday" as well as in other parts of the world.
Vibhajyavāda (Sanskrit; Pāli: Vibhajjavāda) was a group of Sthavira Buddhist schools of early Buddhism, who rejected the Sarvastivada teachings at the Third Buddhist council (ca. 250 BCE).
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
View or position (Pali, Sanskrit) is a central idea in Buddhism.
Vihara (विहार, IAST: vihāra) generally refers to a Buddhist bhikkhu monastery.
The Vinaya (Pali and Sanskrit, literally meaning "leading out", "education", "discipline") is the regulatory framework for the sangha or monastic community of Buddhism based on the canonical texts called the Vinaya Pitaka.
The (Pali; English: Basket of Discipline) is a Buddhist scripture, one of the three parts that make up the Tripitaka (literally. "Three Baskets").
The Vipassanā movement, also called the Insight Meditation Movement, refers to a number of branches of modern Theravāda Buddhism which stress insight into the three marks of existence as the main means to attain awakening and become a stream-enterer.
Vipassanā (Pāli) or vipaśyanā (विपश्यन) in the Buddhist tradition means insight into the true nature of reality.
The Vipassanā-ñāṇas (Pali, Sanskrit: Vipaśyanā-jñāna) or insight knowledges are various stages that a practitioner of Buddhist Vipassanā ("insight", "clear-seeing") meditation is said to pass through on the way to nibbana.
The Visuddhimagga (Pali; English: The Path of Purification), is the 'great treatise' on Theravada Buddhist doctrine written by Buddhaghosa approximately in the 5th Century in Sri Lanka.
The Wa people (Wa language: Vāx; ဝလူမျိုး;; ว้า) are an ethnic group that lives mainly in northern Myanmar, in the northern part of Shan State and the eastern part of Kachin State, near and along Burma's border with China, as well as in Yunnan, China.
Walpola Rahula (1907–1997) was a Sri Lankan Buddhist monk, scholar and writer.
West Java (Jawa Barat, abbreviated as Jabar; Sundanese: Jawa Kulon) is a province of Indonesia.
Western esotericism (also called esotericism and esoterism), also known as the Western mystery tradition, is a term under which scholars have categorised a wide range of loosely related ideas and movements which have developed within Western society.
Wilhelm Ludwig Geiger (21 July 1856 – 2 September 1943) was a German Orientalist in the fields of Indo-Iranian languages and the history of Iran and Sri Lanka.
Xuanzang (fl. c. 602 – 664) was a Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveller, and translator who travelled to India in the seventh century and described the interaction between Chinese Buddhism and Indian Buddhism during the early Tang dynasty.
Yantra (यन्त्र) (Sanskrit) (literally "machine, contraption") is a mystical diagram, mainly from the Tantric traditions of the Indian religions.
Yijing (635–713 CE) was a Tang dynasty Chinese Buddhist monk originally named Zhang Wenming.
The Yogāvacara's manual Theravada Buddhist meditation manual with unique and unorthodox features such as the use of mental images of the elements, the mantra "A-RA-HAN", and the use of a candle for meditation.
Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country.
Tamraparniya, Teravada, Theravaada, Theravaada Buddhism, Theravada Buddhism, Theravada Buddhist, Theravada Buddhists, Theravadan, Theravadan Buddhism, Theravadin, Theravadins, Theraveda, Theravāda, Theravāda Buddhism, Theravādin, Therevada, Therevada Buddhism, Therevada Buddhists, Therevadin, Tāmraparnīya, Wat None-Sa-Ad Temple, Way of the elders, Теравада, Тхеравада.