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# Thermal conduction

Thermal conduction is the transfer of heat (internal energy) by microscopic collisions of particles and movement of electrons within a body. [1]

85 relations: Anisotropy, Austenite, Biot number, Churchill–Bernstein equation, Convection, Convection–diffusion equation, Copper, Covalent bond, Differential equation, Diffusion, Electric current, Electrical conductor, Electrical resistance and conductance, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electromagnetic radiation, Electron, Eutectic system, False diffusion, Fick's laws of diffusion, First law of thermodynamics, Fourier number, Free electron model, Gradient, Heat capacity, Heat equation, Heat flux, Heat pipe, Heat transfer, Heat transfer coefficient, Heisler chart, Integral, Intensive and extensive properties, Interfacial thermal resistance, Internal energy, International System of Units, Ionic bonding, Isothermal transformation diagram, Joseph Fourier, Kelvin, List of thermal conductivities, Lumped element model, Martensite, Matter, Metallic bonding, Molecular diffusion, Molecule, Newton's law of cooling, Nomogram, Ohm's law, Operating temperature, ... Expand index (35 more) »

## Anisotropy

Anisotropy, is the property of being directionally dependent, which implies different properties in different directions, as opposed to isotropy.

## Austenite

Austenite, also known as gamma-phase iron (γ-Fe), is a metallic, non-magnetic allotrope of iron or a solid solution of iron, with an alloying element.

## Biot number

The Biot number (Bi) is a dimensionless quantity used in heat transfer calculations.

## Churchill–Bernstein equation

In convective heat transfer, the Churchill–Bernstein equation is used to estimate the surface averaged Nusselt number for a cylinder in cross flow at various velocities.

## Convection

Convection is the heat transfer due to bulk movement of molecules within fluids such as gases and liquids, including molten rock (rheid).

## Convection–diffusion equation

The convection–diffusion equation is a combination of the diffusion and convection (advection) equations, and describes physical phenomena where particles, energy, or other physical quantities are transferred inside a physical system due to two processes: diffusion and convection.

## Copper

Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.

## Covalent bond

A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.

## Differential equation

A differential equation is a mathematical equation that relates some function with its derivatives.

## Diffusion

Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms.

## Electric current

An electric current is a flow of electric charge.

## Electrical conductor

In physics and electrical engineering, a conductor is an object or type of material that allows the flow of an electrical current in one or more directions.

## Electrical resistance and conductance

The electrical resistance of an electrical conductor is a measure of the difficulty to pass an electric current through that conductor.

## Electrical resistivity and conductivity

Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.

In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.

## Electron

The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

## Eutectic system

A eutectic system from the Greek "ευ" (eu.

## False diffusion

False diffusion is a type of error observed when the upwind scheme is used to approximate the convection term in convection–diffusion equations.

## Fick's laws of diffusion

Fick's laws of diffusion describe diffusion and were derived by Adolf Fick in 1855.

## First law of thermodynamics

The first law of thermodynamics is a version of the law of conservation of energy, adapted for thermodynamic systems.

## Fourier number

In physics and engineering, the Fourier number (Fo) or Fourier modulus, named after Joseph Fourier, is a dimensionless number that characterizes transient heat conduction.

## Free electron model

In solid-state physics, the free electron model is a simple model for the behaviour of charge carriers in a metallic solid.

In mathematics, the gradient is a multi-variable generalization of the derivative.

## Heat capacity

Heat capacity or thermal capacity is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ratio of the heat added to (or removed from) an object to the resulting temperature change.

## Heat equation

The heat equation is a parabolic partial differential equation that describes the distribution of heat (or variation in temperature) in a given region over time.

## Heat flux

Heat flux or thermal flux, sometimes also referred to as heat flux density or heat flow rate intensity is a flow of energy per unit of area per unit of time.

## Heat pipe

A heat pipe is a heat-transfer device that combines the principles of both thermal conductivity and phase transition to effectively transfer heat between two solid interfaces.

## Heat transfer

Heat transfer is a discipline of thermal engineering that concerns the generation, use, conversion, and exchange of thermal energy (heat) between physical systems.

## Heat transfer coefficient

The heat transfer coefficient or film coefficient, or film effectiveness, in thermodynamics and in mechanics is the proportionality constant between the heat flux and the thermodynamic driving force for the flow of heat (i.e., the temperature difference, ΔT): The overall heat transfer rate for combined modes is usually expressed in terms of an overall conductance or heat transfer coefficient, U. In that case, the heat transfer rate is: where: The general definition of the heat transfer coefficient is: where: It is used in calculating the heat transfer, typically by convection or phase transition between a fluid and a solid.

## Heisler chart

Heisler charts are a graphical analysis tool for the evaluation of heat transfer in thermal engineering.

## Integral

In mathematics, an integral assigns numbers to functions in a way that can describe displacement, area, volume, and other concepts that arise by combining infinitesimal data.

## Intensive and extensive properties

Physical properties of materials and systems can often be categorized as being either intensive or extensive quantities, according to how the property changes when the size (or extent) of the system changes.

## Interfacial thermal resistance

Interfacial thermal resistance, also known as thermal boundary resistance, or Kapitza resistance, is a measure of an interface's resistance to thermal flow.

## Internal energy

In thermodynamics, the internal energy of a system is the energy contained within the system, excluding the kinetic energy of motion of the system as a whole and the potential energy of the system as a whole due to external force fields.

## International System of Units

The International System of Units (SI, abbreviated from the French Système international (d'unités)) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.

## Ionic bonding

Ionic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that involves the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions, and is the primary interaction occurring in ionic compounds.

## Isothermal transformation diagram

Isothermal transformation diagrams (also known as time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagrams) are plots of temperature versus time (usually on a logarithmic scale).

## Joseph Fourier

Jean-Baptiste Joseph Fourier (21 March 1768 – 16 May 1830) was a French mathematician and physicist born in Auxerre and best known for initiating the investigation of Fourier series and their applications to problems of heat transfer and vibrations.

## Kelvin

The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.

## List of thermal conductivities

In heat transfer, the thermal conductivity of a substance, k, is an intensive property that indicates its ability to conduct heat.

## Lumped element model

The lumped element model (also called lumped parameter model, or lumped component model) simplifies the description of the behaviour of spatially distributed physical systems into a topology consisting of discrete entities that approximate the behaviour of the distributed system under certain assumptions.

## Martensite

Martensite, named after the German metallurgist Adolf Martens (1850–1914), most commonly refers to a very hard form of steel crystalline structure, but it can also refer to any crystal structure that is formed by diffusionless transformation.

## Matter

In the classical physics observed in everyday life, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume.

## Metallic bonding

Metallic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that arises from the electrostatic attractive force between conduction electrons (in the form of an electron cloud of delocalized electrons) and positively charged metal ions.

## Molecular diffusion

Molecular diffusion, often simply called diffusion, is the thermal motion of all (liquid or gas) particles at temperatures above absolute zero.

## Molecule

A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

## Newton's law of cooling

Newton's law of cooling states that the rate of heat loss of a body is directly proportional to the difference in the temperatures between the body and its surroundings provided the temperature difference is small and the nature of radiating surface remains same. As such, it is equivalent to a statement that the heat transfer coefficient, which mediates between heat losses and temperature differences, is a constant.

## Nomogram

A nomogram (from Greek νόμος nomos, "law" and γραμμή grammē, "line"), also called a nomograph, alignment chart or abaque, is a graphical calculating device, a two-dimensional diagram designed to allow the approximate graphical computation of a mathematical function.

## Ohm's law

Ohm's law states that the current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the voltage across the two points.

## Operating temperature

An operating temperature is the temperature at which an electrical or mechanical device operates.

## Phase (matter)

In the physical sciences, a phase is a region of space (a thermodynamic system), throughout which all physical properties of a material are essentially uniform.

## Phonon

In physics, a phonon is a collective excitation in a periodic, elastic arrangement of atoms or molecules in condensed matter, like solids and some liquids.

## Photon

The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).

## Physical property

A physical property is any property that is measurable, whose value describes a state of a physical system.

## Proportionality (mathematics)

In mathematics, two variables are proportional if there is always a constant ratio between them.

## Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.

## Quenching

In materials science, quenching is the rapid cooling of a workpiece in water, oil or air to obtain certain material properties.

## R-value (insulation)

In building and construction, the R-value is a measure of how well an object, per unit of its exposed area, resists conductive flow of heat: the greater the R-value, the greater the resistance, and so the better the thermal insulating properties of the object.

## Relativistic heat conduction

Relativistic heat conduction refers to the modelling of heat conduction (and similar diffusion processes) in a way not compatible with special relativity.

## Second sound

Second sound is a quantum mechanical phenomenon in which heat transfer occurs by wave-like motion, rather than by the more usual mechanism of diffusion.

## Splat quenching

Splat quenching is a metallurgical, metal morphing, technique used for forming metals with a particular crystal structure by means of extremely rapid quenching, or cooling.

## Stephen Wolfram

Stephen Wolfram (born August 29, 1959) is a British-American computer scientist, physicist, and businessman.

## Surface area

The surface area of a solid object is a measure of the total area that the surface of the object occupies.

## Symmetry (physics)

In physics, a symmetry of a physical system is a physical or mathematical feature of the system (observed or intrinsic) that is preserved or remains unchanged under some transformation.

## Temperature

Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.

A temperature gradient is a physical quantity that describes in which direction and at what rate the temperature changes the most rapidly around a particular location.

## Tensor

In mathematics, tensors are geometric objects that describe linear relations between geometric vectors, scalars, and other tensors.

## Thermal conduction

Thermal conduction is the transfer of heat (internal energy) by microscopic collisions of particles and movement of electrons within a body.

## Thermal conductivity

Thermal conductivity (often denoted k, λ, or κ) is the property of a material to conduct heat.

## Thermal contact

In heat transfer and thermodynamics, a thermodynamic system is said to be in thermal contact with another system if it can exchange energy through the process of heat.

## Thermal contact conductance

In physics, thermal contact conductance is the study of heat conduction between solid bodies in thermal contact.

## Thermal diffusivity

In heat transfer analysis, thermal diffusivity is the thermal conductivity divided by density and specific heat capacity at constant pressure.

## Thermal effusivity

In Thermodynamics, the thermal effusivity of a material is defined as the square root of the product of the material's thermal conductivity and its volumetric heat capacity.

## Thermal equilibrium

Two physical systems are in thermal equilibrium if there are no net flow of thermal energy between them when they are connected by a path permeable to heat.

## Thermal insulation

Thermal insulation is the reduction of heat transfer (i.e. the transfer of thermal energy between objects of differing temperature) between objects in thermal contact or in range of radiative influence.

Thermal radiation is electromagnetic radiation generated by the thermal motion of charged particles in matter.

## Thermal spraying

Thermal spraying techniques are coating processes in which melted (or heated) materials are sprayed onto a surface.

## Thermoelectric effect

The thermoelectric effect is the direct conversion of temperature differences to electric voltage and vice versa via a thermocouple.

## Thin film

A thin film is a layer of material ranging from fractions of a nanometer (monolayer) to several micrometers in thickness.

## Turbulence

In fluid dynamics, turbulence or turbulent flow is any pattern of fluid motion characterized by chaotic changes in pressure and flow velocity.

## Viscosity

The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.

## Watt

The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.

## Wave equation

The wave equation is an important second-order linear partial differential equation for the description of waves—as they occur in classical physics—such as mechanical waves (e.g. water waves, sound waves and seismic waves) or light waves.

## Wolfram Demonstrations Project

The Wolfram Demonstrations Project is an organized, open-source collection of small (or medium-size) interactive programs called Demonstrations, which are meant to visually and interactively represent ideas from a range of fields.

## Zeroth law of thermodynamics

The zeroth law of thermodynamics states that if two thermodynamic systems are each in thermal equilibrium with a third, then they are in thermal equilibrium with each other.

## References

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