91 relations: Agriculture, Alternative fuel vehicle, Anaerobic digestion, Biodiesel, Biogas, Biomass, Boiler, Boiling point, Break-even, Butterball, Calcium hydroxide, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Carthage, Missouri, Celsius, Changing World Technologies, Chapter 11, Title 11, United States Code, Chemical plant, Coal, Cogeneration, Combustion, Compressed natural gas, Conagra Brands, Depolymerization, Diesel fuel, Discover (magazine), Domestic turkey, Dry basis, Dutch auction, Energy, Energy crop, Energy Policy Act of 2005, Energy returned on energy invested, Feed-in tariff, Fertilizer, Fischer–Tropsch process, Flash evaporation, Fossil fuel, Fractional distillation, Fuel oil, Gas turbine, Geology, Heavy metals, Human, Hydrocarbon, Hydrogen, Hydrothermal liquefaction, Hydrous pyrolysis, Illinois, ..., Initial public offering, Isochoric process, Kerosene, Liquid fuel, Maize, Methane, Microbiology, Mineral, Naphtha, National Geographic Society, Offal, Oil refinery, Organic matter, Oxygen, Paper mill, Pascal (unit), Paul Baskis, Petroleum, Philadelphia, Plasma gasification, Plastic, Poison, Polymer, Pressure cooking, Pressure vessel, Prion, Pyrolysis, Scrubber, Sludge, Soybean, Staged reforming, Sugarcane, Superheated water, Ton, United States Environmental Protection Agency, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, USA Today, Waste, Wastewater, Wet oxidation, Wood gas. Expand index (41 more) » « Shrink index
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
An alternative fuel vehicle is a vehicle that runs on a fuel other than traditional petroleum fuels (petrol or Diesel fuel); and also refers to any technology of powering an engine that does not involve solely petroleum (e.g. electric car, hybrid electric vehicles, solar powered).
Anaerobic digestion is a collection of processes by which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen.
Biodiesel refers to a vegetable oil- or animal fat-based diesel fuel consisting of long-chain alkyl (methyl, ethyl, or propyl) esters.
Biogas typically refers to a mixture of different gases produced by the breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen.
Biomass is an industry term for getting energy by burning wood, and other organic matter.
A boiler is a closed vessel in which fluid (generally water) is heated.
The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor.
Break-even (or break even), often abbreviated as B/E in finance, is the point of balance making neither a profit nor a loss.
Butterball is a brand of turkey and other poultry products produced by Butterball LLC.
Calcium hydroxide (traditionally called slaked lime) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ca(OH)2.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
Carthage is a city in Jasper County, Missouri, United States.
The Celsius scale, previously known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale used by the International System of Units (SI).
Changing World Technologies (CWT), a privately held synthetic fuel company, was founded in August 1997 by Brian S. Appel, who also served as chief executive officer of CWT and its subsidiaries.
Chapter 11 is a chapter of Title 11, the United States Bankruptcy Code, which permits reorganization under the bankruptcy laws of the United States.
A chemical plant is an industrial process plant that manufactures (or otherwise processes) chemicals, usually on a large scale.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
Cogeneration or combined heat and power (CHP) is the use of a heat engine or power station to generate electricity and useful heat at the same time.
Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.
Compressed natural gas (CNG) (methane stored at high pressure) is a fuel which can be used in place of gasoline (petrol), Diesel fuel and propane/LPG.
Conagra Brands, Inc. is a North American packaged foods company headquartered in Chicago, Illinois.
Depolymerization (or depolymerisation) is the process of converting a polymer into a monomer or a mixture of monomers.
Diesel fuel in general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines, whose fuel ignition takes place, without any spark, as a result of compression of the inlet air mixture and then injection of fuel.
Discover is an American general audience science magazine launched in October 1980 by Time Inc.
The domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo domesticus) is a large fowl, one of the two species in the genus Meleagris and the same as the wild turkey.
Dry basis is an expression of the calculation in chemistry, chemical engineering and related subjects, in which the presence of water is ignored for the purposes of the calculation.
A Dutch auction is one of several similar kinds of auctions.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
An energy crop is a plant grown as a low-cost and low-maintenance harvest used to make biofuels, such as bioethanol, or combusted for its energy content to generate electricity or heat.
The Energy Policy Act of 2005 is a bill passed by the United States Congress on July 29, 2005, and signed into law by President George W. Bush on August 8, 2005, at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico.
In physics, energy economics, and ecological energetics, energy returned on energy invested (EROEI or ERoEI); or energy return on investment (EROI), is the ratio of the amount of usable energy (the exergy) delivered from a particular energy resource to the amount of exergy used to obtain that energy resource.
A feed-in tariff (FIT, FiT, standard offer contract, Couture, T., Cory, K., Kreycik, C., Williams, E., (2010). National Renewable Energy Laboratory, U.S. Dept. of Energy advanced renewable tariff, or renewable energy payments) is a policy mechanism designed to accelerate investment in renewable energy technologies.
A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.
The Fischer–Tropsch process is a collection of chemical reactions that converts a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen into liquid hydrocarbons.
Flash (or partial) evaporation is the partial vapor that occurs when a saturated liquid stream undergoes a reduction in pressure by passing through a throttling valve or other throttling device.
A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.
Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions.
Fuel oil (also known as heavy oil, marine fuel or furnace oil) is a fraction obtained from petroleum distillation, either as a distillate or a residue.
A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a type of continuous combustion, internal combustion engine.
Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse") is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.
Heavy metals are generally defined as metals with relatively high densities, atomic weights, or atomic numbers.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is a thermal depolymerization process used to convert wet biomass into crude-like oil -sometimes referred to as bio-oil or biocrude- under moderate temperature and high pressure.
Hydrous pyrolysis refers to the thermal decomposition which takes place when organic compounds are heated to high temperatures in the presence of water.
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States.
Initial public offering (IPO) or stock market launch is a type of public offering in which shares of a company are sold to institutional investors and usually also retail (individual) investors; an IPO is underwritten by one or more investment banks, who also arrange for the shares to be listed on one or more stock exchanges.
An isochoric process, also called a constant-volume process, an isovolumetric process, or an isometric process, is a thermodynamic process during which the volume of the closed system undergoing such a process remains constant.
Kerosene, also known as paraffin, lamp oil, and coal oil (an obsolete term), is a combustible hydrocarbon liquid which is derived from petroleum.
Liquid fuels are combustible or energy-generating molecules that can be harnessed to create mechanical energy, usually producing kinetic energy; they also must take the shape of their container.
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
Microbiology (from Greek μῑκρος, mīkros, "small"; βίος, bios, "life"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study of microorganisms, those being unicellular (single cell), multicellular (cell colony), or acellular (lacking cells).
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
Naphtha is a flammable liquid hydrocarbon mixture.
The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions in the world.
Offal, also called variety meats, pluck or organ meats, refers to the internal organs and entrails of a butchered animal.
Oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is transformed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas, jet fuel and fuel oils.
Organic matter, organic material, or natural organic matter (NOM) refers to the large pool of carbon-based compounds found within natural and engineered, terrestrial and aquatic environments.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
A paper mill is a factory devoted to making paper from vegetable fibres such as wood pulp, old rags and other ingredients.
The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength.
Paul Baskis is an Illinois biochemist, who, in the 1980s found a way of synthetically producing oil from industrial and household wastes without expending more energy than is produced.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.
Plasma gasification is an extreme thermal process using plasma which converts organic matter into a syngas (synthesis gas) which is primarily made up of hydrogen and carbon monoxide.
Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects.
In biology, poisons are substances that cause disturbances in organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when an organism absorbs a sufficient quantity.
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
Pressure cooking is the process of cooking food, using water or other cooking liquid, in a sealed vessel known as a pressure cooker.
A pressure vessel is a container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure substantially different from the ambient pressure.
Prions are misfolded proteins that are associated with several fatal neurodegenerative diseases in animals and humans.
Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of materials at elevated temperatures in an inert atmosphere.
Scrubber systems (e.g. chemical scrubbers, gas scrubbers) are a diverse group of air pollution control devices that can be used to remove some particulates and/or gases from industrial exhaust streams.
Sludge is a semi-solid slurry and can be produced as sewage sludge from wastewater treatment processes or as a settled suspension obtained from conventional drinking water treatment and numerous other industrial processes.
The soybean (Glycine max), or soya bean, is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean, which has numerous uses.
Staged reforming is a thermochemical process to convert organic material or bio waste such as wood, dung or hay into combustible gases containing methane, carbon monoxide and hydrogen.
Sugarcane, or sugar cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South and Southeast Asia, Polynesia and Melanesia, and used for sugar production.
Superheated water is liquid water under pressure at temperatures between the usual boiling point, and the critical temperature,.
The ton is a unit of measure.
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
The University of Illinois Urbana–Champaign (also known as U of I, Illinois, or colloquially as the University of Illinois or UIUC) is a public research university in the U.S. state of Illinois and the flagship institution of the University of Illinois System.
USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company.
Waste (or wastes) are unwanted or unusable materials.
Wastewater (or waste water) is any water that has been affected by human use.
Wet oxidation is a form of hydrothermal treatment.
Wood gas is a syngas fuel which can be used as a fuel for furnaces, stoves and vehicles in place of gasoline, diesel or other fuels.
Anything into oil, Hydro Thermal Upgrading, Hydro thermal upgrading, Hydrothermal upgrading, Thermal Conversion Process, Thermal Depolymerisation, Thermal Depolymerization, Thermal conversion process, Thermal deploymerisation, Thermal depolymerisation, Thermochemical conversion.