96 relations: Absolute zero, Absorptance, Area, Black body, Black-body radiation, Blister, Boiler, Boltzmann constant, Burn, Charged particle, Climate change, Coherence (physics), Color temperature, Concentrated solar power, Convection, Convective heat transfer, Cosmic microwave background, Earth, Electrology, Electromagnetic radiation, Electromagnetic spectrum, Electron, Emissivity, Energy flux, Ephraim M. Sparrow, Fiberboard, Firefighting, Flashover, Frequency, Furnace, Global warming, Greenhouse effect, Heat transfer, Human skin, Incandescence, Incandescent light bulb, Infrared, Infrared photography, Intensity (physics), Interior radiation control coating, Kelvin, Kinetic theory of gases, Kirchhoff's law of thermal radiation, Laser cutting, Light, Low emissivity, Matter, Microwave oven, Multi-layer insulation, Near and far field, ..., Outdoor wood-fired boiler, Personal protective equipment, Photon, Pioneer anomaly, Planck constant, Planck's law, Plasma (physics), Polarization (waves), Proportionality (mathematics), Proton, PS10 solar power plant, Pyrolysis, Quantization (physics), Radiant cooling, Radiant energy, Radiant heating, Radiosity (radiometry), Ray tracing (graphics), Reciprocity (electromagnetism), Reflectance, Robert D. Cess, Sakuma–Hattori equation, Solar thermal energy, Solid angle, Speed of light, Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, Stefan–Boltzmann constant, Stefan–Boltzmann law, Sun, Sunburn, Sunlight, System of equations, Temperature, Thermal conduction, Thermal dose unit, Thermal energy, Thermal equilibrium, Thermodynamic equilibrium, Thermographic camera, Vacuum, View factor, Visible spectrum, Wavelength, Wien's displacement law, Wood, Yarkovsky–O'Keefe–Radzievskii–Paddack effect. Expand index (46 more) » « Shrink index
Absolute zero is the lower limit of the thermodynamic temperature scale, a state at which the enthalpy and entropy of a cooled ideal gas reach their minimum value, taken as 0.
Absorptance of the surface of a material is its effectiveness in absorbing radiant energy.
Area is the quantity that expresses the extent of a two-dimensional figure or shape, or planar lamina, in the plane.
A black body is an idealized physical body that absorbs all incident electromagnetic radiation, regardless of frequency or angle of incidence.
Black-body radiation is the thermal electromagnetic radiation within or surrounding a body in thermodynamic equilibrium with its environment, or emitted by a black body (an opaque and non-reflective body).
A blister is a small pocket of body fluid (lymph, serum, plasma, blood, or pus) within the upper layers of the skin, typically caused by forceful rubbing (friction), burning, freezing, chemical exposure or infection.
A boiler is a closed vessel in which fluid (generally water) is heated.
The Boltzmann constant, which is named after Ludwig Boltzmann, is a physical constant relating the average kinetic energy of particles in a gas with the temperature of the gas.
A burn is a type of injury to skin, or other tissues, caused by heat, cold, electricity, chemicals, friction, or radiation.
In physics, a charged particle is a particle with an electric charge.
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).
In physics, two wave sources are perfectly coherent if they have a constant phase difference and the same frequency, and the same waveform.
The color temperature of a light source is the temperature of an ideal black-body radiator that radiates light of a color comparable to that of the light source.
Concentrated solar power (also called concentrating solar power, concentrated solar thermal, and CSP) systems generate solar power by using mirrors or lenses to concentrate a large area of sunlight, or solar thermal energy, onto a small area.
Convection is the heat transfer due to bulk movement of molecules within fluids such as gases and liquids, including molten rock (rheid).
Convective heat transfer, often referred to simply as convection, is the transfer of heat from one place to another by the movement of fluids.
The cosmic microwave background (CMB, CMBR) is electromagnetic radiation as a remnant from an early stage of the universe in Big Bang cosmology.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Electrology is the practice of electrical hair removal to permanently remove human hair from the body.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies (the spectrum) of electromagnetic radiation and their respective wavelengths and photon energies.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
The emissivity of the surface of a material is its effectiveness in emitting energy as thermal radiation.
Energy flux is the rate of transfer of energy through a surface.
Ephraim M. Sparrow is a Professor of Engineering at the University of Minnesota.
Fiberboard (American spelling) or fibreboard (Commonwealth spelling) is a type of engineered wood product that is made out of wood fibers.
Firefighting is the act of attempting to prevent the spread of and extinguish significant unwanted fires in buildings, vehicles, woodlands, etc.
A flashover is the near-simultaneous ignition of most of the directly exposed combustible material in an enclosed area.
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.
A furnace is a device used for high-temperature heating.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
The greenhouse effect is the process by which radiation from a planet's atmosphere warms the planet's surface to a temperature above what it would be without its atmosphere.
Heat transfer is a discipline of thermal engineering that concerns the generation, use, conversion, and exchange of thermal energy (heat) between physical systems.
The human skin is the outer covering of the body.
Incandescence is the emission of electromagnetic radiation (including visible light) from a hot body as a result of its temperature.
An incandescent light bulb, incandescent lamp or incandescent light globe is an electric light with a wire filament heated to such a high temperature that it glows with visible light (incandescence).
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
Top: tree photographed in the near infrared range.
In physics, intensity is the power transferred per unit area, where the area is measured on the plane perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the energy.
Interior Radiation Control Coating Systems (IRCCS), sometimes referred to as radiant barrier coatings, are paints designed to provide thermal insulation to buildings.
The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.
The kinetic theory describes a gas as a large number of submicroscopic particles (atoms or molecules), all of which are in constant rapid motion that has randomness arising from their many collisions with each other and with the walls of the container.
In heat transfer, Kirchhoff's law of thermal radiation refers to wavelength-specific radiative emission and absorption by a material body in thermodynamic equilibrium, including radiative exchange equilibrium.
Laser cutting is a technology that uses a laser to cut materials, and is typically used for industrial manufacturing applications, but is also starting to be used by schools, small businesses, and hobbyists.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Low emissivity (low e or low thermal emissivity) refers to a surface condition that emits low levels of radiant thermal (heat) energy.
In the classical physics observed in everyday life, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume.
A microwave oven (also commonly referred to as a microwave) is an electric oven that heats and cooks food by exposing it to electromagnetic radiation in the microwave frequency range.
Multi-layer insulation, or MLI, is thermal insulation composed of multiple layers of thin sheets and is often used on spacecraft.
The near field and far field are regions of the electromagnetic field (EM) around an object, such as a transmitting antenna, or the result of radiation scattering off an object.
The outdoor wood boiler is a variant of the classic wood stove adapted for set-up outdoors while still transferring the heat to interior buildings.
Personal protective equipment (PPE) refers to protective clothing, helmets, goggles, or other garments or equipment designed to protect the wearer's body from injury or infection.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
The Pioneer anomaly or Pioneer effect was the observed deviation from predicted accelerations of the Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 spacecraft after they passed about on their trajectories out of the Solar System.
The Planck constant (denoted, also called Planck's constant) is a physical constant that is the quantum of action, central in quantum mechanics.
Planck's law describes the spectral density of electromagnetic radiation emitted by a black body in thermal equilibrium at a given temperature T. The law is named after Max Planck, who proposed it in 1900.
Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.
Polarization (also polarisation) is a property applying to transverse waves that specifies the geometrical orientation of the oscillations.
In mathematics, two variables are proportional if there is always a constant ratio between them.
The PS10 Solar Power Plant (Planta Solar 10), is the world's first commercial concentrating solar power tower operating near Seville, in Andalusia, Spain.
Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of materials at elevated temperatures in an inert atmosphere.
In physics, quantization is the process of transition from a classical understanding of physical phenomena to a newer understanding known as quantum mechanics.
Radiant cooling is the use of cooled surfaces to remove sensible heat by radiation and convection.
In physics, and in particular as measured by radiometry, radiant energy is the energy of electromagnetic and gravitational radiation.
Radiant heating is a technology for heating indoor and outdoor areas.
In radiometry, radiosity is the radiant flux leaving (emitted, reflected and transmitted by) a surface per unit area, and spectral radiosity is the radiosity of a surface per unit frequency or wavelength, depending on whether the spectrum is taken as a function of frequency or of wavelength.
In computer graphics, ray tracing is a rendering technique for generating an image by tracing the path of light as pixels in an image plane and simulating the effects of its encounters with virtual objects.
In classical electromagnetism, reciprocity refers to a variety of related theorems involving the interchange of time-harmonic electric current densities (sources) and the resulting electromagnetic fields in Maxwell's equations for time-invariant linear media under certain constraints.
Reflectance of the surface of a material is its effectiveness in reflecting radiant energy.
Robert D. Cess is professor emeritus of atmospheric sciences at Stony Brook University.
The Sakuma–Hattori equation is a mathematical model for predicting the amount of thermal radiation, radiometric flux or radiometric power emitted from a perfect blackbody or received by a thermal radiation detector.
Solar thermal energy (STE) is a form of energy and a technology for harnessing solar energy to generate thermal energy or electrical energy for use in industry, and in the residential and commercial sectors.
In geometry, a solid angle (symbol) is a measure of the amount of the field of view from some particular point that a given object covers.
The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.
Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data.
The Stefan–Boltzmann constant (also Stefan's constant), a physical constant denoted by the Greek letter ''σ'' (sigma), is the constant of proportionality in the Stefan–Boltzmann law: "the total intensity radiated over all wavelengths increases as the temperature increases", of a black body which is proportional to the fourth power of the thermodynamic temperature.
The Stefan–Boltzmann law describes the power radiated from a black body in terms of its temperature.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
Sunburn is a form of radiation burn that affects living tissue, such as skin, that results from an overexposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, commonly from the sun.
Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light.
In mathematics, a set of simultaneous equations, also known as a system of equations or an equation system, is a finite set of equations for which common solutions are sought.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
Thermal conduction is the transfer of heat (internal energy) by microscopic collisions of particles and movement of electrons within a body.
A Thermal Dose Unit (TDU) is a unit of measurement used in the oil and gas industry to measure exposure to thermal radiation.
Thermal energy is a term used loosely as a synonym for more rigorously-defined thermodynamic quantities such as the internal energy of a system; heat or sensible heat, which are defined as types of transfer of energy (as is work); or for the characteristic energy of a degree of freedom in a thermal system kT, where T is temperature and k is the Boltzmann constant.
Two physical systems are in thermal equilibrium if there are no net flow of thermal energy between them when they are connected by a path permeable to heat.
Thermodynamic equilibrium is an axiomatic concept of thermodynamics.
A thermographic camera (also called an infrared camera or thermal imaging camera) is a device that forms an image using infrared radiation, similar to a common camera that forms an image using visible light.
Vacuum is space devoid of matter.
In radiative heat transfer, a view factor, F_, is the proportion of the radiation which leaves surface A that strikes surface B. In a complex 'scene' there can be any number of different objects, which can be divided in turn into even more surfaces and surface segments.
The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
Wien's displacement law states that the black body radiation curve for different temperatures peaks at a wavelength inversely proportional to the temperature.
Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants.
The Yarkovsky–O'Keefe–Radzievskii–Paddack effect, or YORP effect for short, changes the rotation state of a small astronomical body – that is, the body's spin rate and the obliquity of its pole(s) – due to the scattering of solar radiation off its surface and the emission of its own thermal radiation.