145 relations: Absolute zero, Adiabatic process, Aerospace engineering, Aristotle, Atmospheric thermodynamics, Axiom, Barometer, Biological thermodynamics, Biomedical engineering, Biophysics, Black hole, Black hole thermodynamics, Boyle's law, Brownian motion, Calorimeter, Carnot cycle, Carnot heat engine, Cell biology, Chemical engineering, Chemical potential, Chemical reaction, Chemical thermodynamics, Chemistry, Conjugate variables (thermodynamics), Conservation of energy, Constantin Carathéodory, Denis Papin, Dynamic equilibrium, Economics, Edward A. Guggenheim, Energy, Engine, Engineering, Enthalpy, Entropy, Entropy production, Environment (systems), Equation of state, Equilibrium thermodynamics, Equivalence relation, Event horizon, Exergy, First law of thermodynamics, Gilbert N. Lewis, Greek language, Heat, Heat capacity, Heat engine, History of thermodynamics, Ideal gas law, ..., Industrial ecology, Intensive and extensive properties, Internal energy, Irreversible process, Isenthalpic process, Isentropic process, Isobaric process, Isochoric process, Isothermal process, J. R. Partington, James Clerk Maxwell, James Prescott Joule, James Watt, Joseph Black, Josiah Willard Gibbs, Kerry Emanuel, Latent heat, Laws of thermodynamics, Legendre transformation, List of textbooks in statistical mechanics, List of thermal conductivities, List of thermodynamic properties, Ludwig Boltzmann, Macroscopic scale, Magdeburg hemispheres, Materials science, Matter, Max Planck, Maximum entropy thermodynamics, Mechanical engineering, Mechanics, Merle Randall, Motive power, Napoleonic Wars, Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot, Non-equilibrium thermodynamics, Nuclide, On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances, Otto von Guericke, Particle number, Phase transition, Philosophy of thermal and statistical physics, Physical chemistry, Physics, Pierre Duhem, Piston, Pressure, Process function, Proportionality (mathematics), Psychrometrics, Quantum mechanics, Quantum thermodynamics, Quark, Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire, Reversible process (thermodynamics), Robert Boyle, Robert Hooke, Rudolf Clausius, Science, Second law of thermodynamics, Spontaneous process, State function, Statistical mechanics, Statistics, Steady state, Steam digester, Steam engine, Table of thermodynamic equations, Temperature, Thermal efficiency, Thermodynamic equilibrium, Thermodynamic instruments, Thermodynamic potential, Thermodynamic process, Thermodynamic state, Thermodynamic system, Thermodynamic temperature, Thermodynamics, Thermoeconomics, Thermometer, Third law of thermodynamics, Thomas Newcomen, Thomas Savery, Timeline of thermodynamics, Transport phenomena, Tropical cyclone, University of Glasgow, Vacuum, Vacuum pump, Volume (thermodynamics), William John Macquorn Rankine, William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, Work (physics), Work (thermodynamics), Zeroth law of thermodynamics. Expand index (95 more) » « Shrink index
Absolute zero is the lower limit of the thermodynamic temperature scale, a state at which the enthalpy and entropy of a cooled ideal gas reach their minimum value, taken as 0.
In thermodynamics, an adiabatic process is one that occurs without transfer of heat or matter between a thermodynamic system and its surroundings.
Aerospace engineering is the primary field of engineering concerned with the development of aircraft and spacecraft.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Atmospheric thermodynamics is the study of heat-to-work transformations (and their reverse) that take place in the earth's atmosphere and manifest as weather or climate.
An axiom or postulate is a statement that is taken to be true, to serve as a premise or starting point for further reasoning and arguments.
A barometer is a scientific instrument used in meteorology to measure atmospheric pressure.
Biological thermodynamics is the quantitative study of the energy transductions that occur in or between living organisms, structures, and cells and of the nature and function of the chemical processes underlying these transductions.
Biomedical engineering (BME) is the application of engineering principles and design concepts to medicine and biology for healthcare purposes (e.g. diagnostic or therapeutic).
Biophysics is an interdisciplinary science that applies the approaches and methods of physics to study biological systems.
A black hole is a region of spacetime exhibiting such strong gravitational effects that nothing—not even particles and electromagnetic radiation such as light—can escape from inside it.
In physics, black hole thermodynamics is the area of study that seeks to reconcile the laws of thermodynamics with the existence of black-hole event horizons.
Boyle's law (sometimes referred to as the Boyle–Mariotte law, or Mariotte's law) is an experimental gas law that describes how the pressure of a gas tends to increase as the volume of the container decreases.
Brownian motion or pedesis (from πήδησις "leaping") is the random motion of particles suspended in a fluid (a liquid or a gas) resulting from their collision with the fast-moving molecules in the fluid.
A calorimeter is an object used for calorimetry, or the process of measuring the heat of chemical reactions or physical changes as well as heat capacity.
The Carnot cycle is a theoretical thermodynamic cycle proposed by French physicist Sadi Carnot in 1824 and expanded upon by others in the 1830s and 1840s.
A Carnot heat engine is a theoretical engine that operates on the reversible Carnot cycle.
Cell biology (also called cytology, from the Greek κυτος, kytos, "vessel") is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, the basic unit of life.
Chemical engineering is a branch of engineering that uses principles of chemistry, physics, mathematics and economics to efficiently use, produce, transform, and transport chemicals, materials and energy.
In thermodynamics, chemical potential of a species is a form of energy that can be absorbed or released during a chemical reaction or phase transition due to a change of the particle number of the given species.
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.
Chemical thermodynamics is the study of the interrelation of heat and work with chemical reactions or with physical changes of state within the confines of the laws of thermodynamics.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
In thermodynamics, the internal energy of a system is expressed in terms of pairs of conjugate variables such as temperature and entropy or pressure and volume.
In physics, the law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system remains constant, it is said to be ''conserved'' over time.
Constantin Carathéodory (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Καραθεοδωρή Konstantinos Karatheodori; 13 September 1873 – 2 February 1950) was a Greek mathematician who spent most of his professional career in Germany.
Denis Papin FRS (22 August 1647 – 26 August 1713) was a French physicist, mathematician and inventor, best known for his pioneering invention of the steam digester, the forerunner of the pressure cooker and of the steam engine.
In chemistry, a dynamic equilibrium exists once a reversible reaction ceases to change its ratio of reactants/products, but substances move between the chemicals at an equal rate, meaning there is no net change.
Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
Edward Armand Guggenheim FRS (11 August 1901 in Manchester – 9 August 1970) was an English physical chemist, noted for his contributions to thermodynamics.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy.
Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.
Enthalpy is a property of a thermodynamic system.
In statistical mechanics, entropy is an extensive property of a thermodynamic system.
Entropy production determines the performance of thermal machines such as power plants, heat engines, refrigerators, heat pumps, and air conditioners.
In science and engineering, a system is the part of the universe that is being studied, while the environment is the remainder of the universe that lies outside the boundaries of the system.
In physics and thermodynamics, an equation of state is a thermodynamic equation relating state variables which describe the state of matter under a given set of physical conditions, such as pressure, volume, temperature (PVT), or internal energy.
Equilibrium Thermodynamics is the systematic study of transformations of matter and energy in systems in terms of a concept called thermodynamic equilibrium.
In mathematics, an equivalence relation is a binary relation that is reflexive, symmetric and transitive.
In general relativity, an event horizon is a region in spacetime beyond which events cannot affect an outside observer.
In thermodynamics, the exergy (in older usage, available work or availability) of a system is the maximum useful work possible during a process that brings the system into equilibrium with a heat reservoir.
The first law of thermodynamics is a version of the law of conservation of energy, adapted for thermodynamic systems.
Gilbert Newton Lewis (October 25 (or 23), 1875 – March 23, 1946) was an American physical chemist known for the discovery of the covalent bond and his concept of electron pairs; his Lewis dot structures and other contributions to valence bond theory have shaped modern theories of chemical bonding.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
In thermodynamics, heat is energy transferred from one system to another as a result of thermal interactions.
Heat capacity or thermal capacity is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ratio of the heat added to (or removed from) an object to the resulting temperature change.
In thermodynamics, a heat engine is a system that converts heat or thermal energy—and chemical energy—to mechanical energy, which can then be used to do mechanical work.
The history of thermodynamics is a fundamental strand in the history of physics, the history of chemistry, and the history of science in general.
The ideal gas law, also called the general gas equation, is the equation of state of a hypothetical ideal gas.
Industrial ecology (IE) is the study of material and energy flows through industrial systems.
Physical properties of materials and systems can often be categorized as being either intensive or extensive quantities, according to how the property changes when the size (or extent) of the system changes.
In thermodynamics, the internal energy of a system is the energy contained within the system, excluding the kinetic energy of motion of the system as a whole and the potential energy of the system as a whole due to external force fields.
In science, a process that is not reversible is called irreversible.
An isenthalpic process or isoenthalpic process is a process that proceeds without any change in enthalpy, H; or specific enthalpy, h.
In thermodynamics, an isentropic process is an idealized thermodynamic process that is both adiabatic and reversible.
An isobaric process is a thermodynamic process in which the pressure stays constant: ΔP.
An isochoric process, also called a constant-volume process, an isovolumetric process, or an isometric process, is a thermodynamic process during which the volume of the closed system undergoing such a process remains constant.
An isothermal process is a change of a system, in which the temperature remains constant: ΔT.
James Riddick Partington (30 June 1886 – 9 October 1965) was a British chemist and historian of chemistry who published multiple books and articles in scientific magazines.
James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish scientist in the field of mathematical physics.
James Prescott Joule (24 December 1818 11 October 1889) was an English physicist, mathematician and brewer, born in Salford, Lancashire.
James Watt (30 January 1736 (19 January 1736 OS) – 25 August 1819) was a Scottish inventor, mechanical engineer, and chemist who improved on Thomas Newcomen's 1712 Newcomen steam engine with his Watt steam engine in 1781, which was fundamental to the changes brought by the Industrial Revolution in both his native Great Britain and the rest of the world.
Joseph Black FRSE FRCPE FPSG (16 April 1728 – 6 December 1799) was a Scottish physician and chemist, known for his discoveries of magnesium, latent heat, specific heat, and carbon dioxide.
Josiah Willard Gibbs (February 11, 1839 – April 28, 1903) was an American scientist who made important theoretical contributions to physics, chemistry, and mathematics.
Kerry Andrew Emanuel (born April 21, 1955) is an American professor of meteorology currently working at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge.
Latent heat is thermal energy released or absorbed, by a body or a thermodynamic system, during a constant-temperature process — usually a first-order phase transition.
The four laws of thermodynamics define fundamental physical quantities (temperature, energy, and entropy) that characterize thermodynamic systems at thermal equilibrium.
In mathematics and physics, the Legendre transformation, named after Adrien-Marie Legendre, is an involutive transformation on the real-valued convex functions of one real variable.
A list of notable textbooks in statistical mechanics, arranged by date.
In heat transfer, the thermal conductivity of a substance, k, is an intensive property that indicates its ability to conduct heat.
Within thermodynamics, a physical property is any property that is measurable, and whose value describes a state of a physical system.
Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann (February 20, 1844 – September 5, 1906) was an Austrian physicist and philosopher whose greatest achievement was in the development of statistical mechanics, which explains and predicts how the properties of atoms (such as mass, charge, and structure) determine the physical properties of matter (such as viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion).
The macroscopic scale is the length scale on which objects or phenomena are large enough to be visible almost practically with the naked eye, without magnifying optical instruments.
The Magdeburg hemispheres are a pair of large copper hemispheres, with mating rims.
The interdisciplinary field of materials science, also commonly termed materials science and engineering is the design and discovery of new materials, particularly solids.
In the classical physics observed in everyday life, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume.
Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, FRS (23 April 1858 – 4 October 1947) was a German theoretical physicist whose discovery of energy quanta won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.
In physics, maximum entropy thermodynamics (colloquially, MaxEnt thermodynamics) views equilibrium thermodynamics and statistical mechanics as inference processes.
Mechanical engineering is the discipline that applies engineering, physics, engineering mathematics, and materials science principles to design, analyze, manufacture, and maintain mechanical systems.
Mechanics (Greek μηχανική) is that area of science concerned with the behaviour of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effects of the bodies on their environment.
Merle Randall (January 29, 1888 – March 17, 1950) was an American physical chemist famous for his work with Gilbert N. Lewis, over a period of 25 years, in measuring reaction heat of chemical compounds and determining their corresponding free energy.
In thermodynamics, motive power is a natural agent, such as water or steam, wind or electricity, used to impart motion to machinery such as an engine.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot (1 June 1796 – 24 August 1832) was a French military engineer and physicist, often described as the "father of thermodynamics".
Non-equilibrium thermodynamics is a branch of thermodynamics that deals with physical systems that are not in thermodynamic equilibrium but can be described in terms of variables (non-equilibrium state variables) that represent an extrapolation of the variables used to specify the system in thermodynamic equilibrium.
A nuclide (from nucleus, also known as nuclear species) is an atomic species characterized by the specific constitution of its nucleus, i.e., by its number of protons Z, its number of neutrons N, and its nuclear energy state.
In the history of thermodynamics, On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances is a 300-page paper written by American engineer Willard Gibbs.
Otto von Guericke (originally spelled Gericke,; November 20, 1602 – May 11, 1686 (Julian calendar); November 30, 1602 – May 21, 1686 (Gregorian calendar)) was a German scientist, inventor, and politician.
The particle number (or number of particles) of a thermodynamic system, conventionally indicated with the letter N, is the number of constituent particles in that system.
The term phase transition (or phase change) is most commonly used to describe transitions between solid, liquid and gaseous states of matter, and, in rare cases, plasma.
The philosophy of thermal and statistical physics is that part of the philosophy of physics whose subject matter is classical thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, and related theories.
Physical Chemistry is the study of macroscopic, atomic, subatomic, and particulate phenomena in chemical systems in terms of the principles, practices, and concepts of physics such as motion, energy, force, time, thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics, analytical dynamics and chemical equilibrium.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
Pierre Maurice Marie Duhem (9 June 1861 – 14 September 1916) was a French physicist, mathematician, historian and philosopher of science.
A piston is a component of reciprocating engines, reciprocating pumps, gas compressors and pneumatic cylinders, among other similar mechanisms.
Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.
In thermodynamics, a quantity that is well defined so as to describe the path of a process through the equilibrium state space of a thermodynamic system is termed a process function, or, alternatively, a process quantity, or a path function.
In mathematics, two variables are proportional if there is always a constant ratio between them.
Psychrometrics, psychrometry, and hygrometry are names for the field of engineering concerned with the physical and thermodynamic properties of gas-vapor mixtures.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
Quantum thermodynamics is the study of the relations between two independent physical theories: thermodynamics and quantum mechanics.
A quark is a type of elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter.
Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire and on Machines Fitted to Develop that Power is a book published in 1824 by French physicist Sadi Carnot.
In thermodynamics, a reversible process is a process whose direction can be "reversed" by inducing infinitesimal changes to some property of the system via its surroundings, with no increase in entropy.
Robert Boyle (25 January 1627 – 31 December 1691) was an Anglo-Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, and inventor.
Robert Hooke FRS (– 3 March 1703) was an English natural philosopher, architect and polymath.
Rudolf Julius Emanuel Clausius (2 January 1822 – 24 August 1888) was a German physicist and mathematician and is considered one of the central founders of the science of thermodynamics.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
The second law of thermodynamics states that the total entropy of an isolated system can never decrease over time.
A spontaneous process is the time-evolution of a system in which it releases free energy and it moves to a lower, more thermodynamically stable energy state.
In thermodynamics, a state function or function of state is a function defined for a system relating several state variables or state quantities that depends only on the current equilibrium state of the system, for example a gas, a liquid, a solid, crystal, or emulsion.
Statistical mechanics is one of the pillars of modern physics.
Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.
In systems theory, a system or a process is in a steady state if the variables (called state variables) which define the behavior of the system or the process are unchanging in time.
The steam digester (or bone digester, and also known as Papin’s digester) is a high-pressure cooker invented by French physicist Denis Papin in 1679.
A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid.
This article is a summary of common equations and quantities in thermodynamics (see thermodynamic equations for more elaboration).
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
In thermodynamics, the thermal efficiency (\eta_ \) is a dimensionless performance measure of a device that uses thermal energy, such as an internal combustion engine, a steam turbine or a steam engine, a boiler, furnace, or a refrigerator for example.
Thermodynamic equilibrium is an axiomatic concept of thermodynamics.
A thermodynamic instrument is any device which facilitates the quantitative measurement of thermodynamic systems.
A thermodynamic potential (in fact, rather energyISO/IEC 80000-5, Quantities an units, Part 5 - Thermodynamics, item 5-20.4 Helmholtz energy, Helmholtz function, ISO/IEC 80000-5, Quantities an units, Part 5 - Thermodynamics, item 5-20.5, Gibbs energy, Gibbs function than potential) is a scalar quantity used to represent the thermodynamic state of a system.
Classical thermodynamics considers three main kinds of thermodynamic process: change in a system, cycles in a system, and flow processes.
For thermodynamics, a thermodynamic state of a system is its condition at a specific time, that is fully identified by values of a suitable set of parameters known as state variables, state parameters or thermodynamic variables.
A thermodynamic system is the material and radiative content of a macroscopic volume in space, that can be adequately described by thermodynamic state variables such as temperature, entropy, internal energy, and pressure.
Thermodynamic temperature is the absolute measure of temperature and is one of the principal parameters of thermodynamics.
Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.
Thermoeconomics, also referred to as biophysical economics, is a school of heterodox economics that applies the laws of statistical mechanics to economic theory.
A thermometer is a device that measures temperature or a temperature gradient.
The third law of thermodynamics is sometimes stated as follows, regarding the properties of systems in thermodynamic equilibrium: At absolute zero (zero kelvin) the system must be in a state with the minimum possible energy.
Thomas Newcomen (February 1664 – 5 August 1729) was an English inventor who created the first practical steam engine in 1712, the Newcomen atmospheric engine.
Thomas Savery (c. 1650 – 1715) was an English inventor and engineer, born at Shilstone, a manor house near Modbury, Devon, England.
A timeline of events related to thermodynamics.
In engineering, physics and chemistry, the study of transport phenomena concerns the exchange of mass, energy, charge, momentum and angular momentum between observed and studied systems.
A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain.
The University of Glasgow (Oilthigh Ghlaschu; Universitas Glasguensis; abbreviated as Glas. in post-nominals) is the fourth-oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's four ancient universities.
Vacuum is space devoid of matter.
A vacuum pump is a device that removes gas molecules from a sealed volume in order to leave behind a partial vacuum.
In thermodynamics, the volume of a system is an important extensive parameter for describing its thermodynamic state.
Prof William John Macquorn Rankine LLD (5 July 1820 – 24 December 1872) was a Scottish mechanical engineer who also contributed to civil engineering, physics and mathematics.
William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, (26 June 1824 – 17 December 1907) was a Scots-Irish mathematical physicist and engineer who was born in Belfast in 1824.
In physics, a force is said to do work if, when acting, there is a displacement of the point of application in the direction of the force.
In thermodynamics, work performed by a system is the energy transferred by the system to its surroundings, that is fully accounted for solely by macroscopic forces exerted on the system by factors external to it, that is to say, factors in its surroundings.
The zeroth law of thermodynamics states that if two thermodynamic systems are each in thermal equilibrium with a third, then they are in thermal equilibrium with each other.
Applied thermodynamics, Axiomatics of thermodynamics, Classical thermodynamics, List of thermodynamics topics, Macroscopic thermodynamics, Phenomenological thermodynamics, Termodynamics, Thermal behavior, Thermics, Thermo-Dynamics, Thermo-dynamics, Thermodymanics, Thermodynamic, Thermodynamic Functions, Thermodynamic Laws, Thermodynamic function, Thermodynamic functions, Thermodynamic law, ⧧.