125 relations: Ad libitum, Adaptation, Aestivation, Amphibian, Anabolism, Annual Reviews (publisher), Antifreeze, Antifreeze protein, Araceae, Arctic wolf, Arthur Guyton, Asphyxia, Axilla, Basal body temperature, Bat, Bear, Bergmann's rule, Biofeedback, Bird, Birkhäuser, Blubber, Brain, Brown adipose tissue, Cane toad, Catabolism, Central nervous system, Circadian rhythm, Class (biology), Coccinellidae, Coma, Convulsion, Countercurrent exchange, Crocodile, Cycad, Cyclorana platycephala, Death, Delirium, Desert tortoise, Desiccation, Diurnality, Dormancy, Down feather, Ear, Ecophysiology, Ectotherm, Emperor penguin, Endotherm, Erg (landform), Evaporation, Evolution, ..., Fever, Fish, Follicular phase, Gigantothermy, Google, Goose bumps, Groin, Guinea pig, Gular skin, Heart rate, Heat, Heterothermy, Hibernation, Homeostasis, Homeothermy, Human body temperature, Human taxonomy, Hummingbird, Hyperthermia, Hypothalamus, Hypothermia, India, Insect thermoregulation, John Hunter (surgeon), Journal of Comparative Physiology B, Kleptothermy, Luteal phase, Malta, Mammal, Meditation, Menstruation, Metabolism, Mollusca, Monkey, Mousebird, Mouth, National Audubon Society, Nelumbo nucifera, Nocturnality, Orexin, Organ (anatomy), Organism, Ovulation, Paratarsotomus macropalpis, Pelagic zone, Poikilotherm, Preoptic area, Progesterone, Protoplasm, Rectum, Reptile, Respiration rate, Salamander, Shortness of breath, Standard deviation, Sweat gland, Termite, Thermal equilibrium, Thermal insulation, Thermal neutral zone, Thermogenesis, Thermometer, Thermophile, Torpor, Tummo, Urethra, Urinary bladder, Urine, Uterus, Vagina, Vital heat, Volumetric heat capacity, Warm-blooded, Wet-bulb temperature, Zoology. Expand index (75 more) » « Shrink index
Ad libitum is Latin for "at one's pleasure" or "as you desire"; it is often shortened to "ad lib" (as an adjective or adverb) or "ad-lib" (as a verb or noun).
In biology, adaptation has three related meanings.
Aestivation or æstivation (from aestas, summer, but also spelled estivation in American English) is a state of animal dormancy, similar to hibernation, characterized by inactivity and a lowered metabolic rate, that is entered in response to high temperatures and arid conditions.
Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.
Anabolism (from ἁνά, "upward" and βάλλειν, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that construct molecules from smaller units.
Annual Reviews, located in Palo Alto California, Annual Reviews is a nonprofit publisher dedicated to synthesizing and integrating knowledge for the progress of science and the benefit of society.
An antifreeze is an additive which lowers the freezing point of a water-based liquid and increases its boiling point.
Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) or ice structuring proteins (ISPs) refer to a class of polypeptides produced by certain vertebrates, plants, fungi and bacteria that permit their survival in subzero environments.
The Araceae are a family of monocotyledonous flowering plants in which flowers are borne on a type of inflorescence called a spadix.
The Arctic wolf (Canis lupus arctos), also known as the white wolf or polar wolf, is a subspecies of gray wolf native to the Queen Elizabeth Islands, from Melville Island to Ellesmere Island.
Arthur Clifton Guyton (September 8, 1919 – April 3, 2003) was an American physiologist.
Asphyxia or asphyxiation is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body that arises from abnormal breathing.
The axilla (also, armpit, underarm or oxter) is the area on the human body directly under the joint where the arm connects to the shoulder.
Basal body temperature (BBT or BTP) is the lowest body temperature attained during rest (usually during sleep).
Bats are mammals of the order Chiroptera; with their forelimbs adapted as wings, they are the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight.
Bears are carnivoran mammals of the family Ursidae.
Bergmann's rule is an ecogeographical rule that states that within a broadly distributed taxonomic clade, populations and species of larger size are found in colder environments, and species of smaller size are found in warmer regions.
Biofeedback is the process of gaining greater awareness of many physiological functions primarily using instruments that provide information on the activity of those same systems, with a goal of being able to manipulate them at will.
Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.
Birkhäuser is a former Swiss publisher founded in 1879 by Emil Birkhäuser.
Blubber is a thick layer of vascularized adipose tissue under the skin of all cetaceans, pinnipeds and sirenians.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) or brown fat makes up the adipose organ together with white adipose tissue (or white fat).
The cane toad (Rhinella marina), also known as the giant neotropical toad or marine toad, is a large, terrestrial true toad native to South and mainland Central America, but which has been introduced to various islands throughout Oceania and the Caribbean, as well as Northern Australia.
Catabolism (from Greek κάτω kato, "downward" and βάλλειν ballein, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units that are either oxidized to release energy or used in other anabolic reactions.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
A circadian rhythm is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours.
In biological classification, class (classis) is a taxonomic rank, as well as a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank.
Coccinellidae is a widespread family of small beetles ranging in size from 0.8 to 18 mm (0.03 to 0.71 inches).
Coma is a state of unconsciousness in which a person cannot be awaken; fails to respond normally to painful stimuli, light, or sound; lacks a normal wake-sleep cycle; and does not initiate voluntary actions.
A convulsion is a medical condition where body muscles contract and relax rapidly and repeatedly, resulting in an uncontrolled shaking of the body.
Countercurrent exchange is a mechanism occurring in nature and mimicked in industry and engineering, in which there is a crossover of some property, usually heat or some component, between two flowing bodies flowing in opposite directions to each other.
Crocodiles (subfamily Crocodylinae) or true crocodiles are large aquatic reptiles that live throughout the tropics in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia.
Cycads are seed plants with a long fossil history that were formerly more abundant and more diverse than they are today.
Cyclorana platycephala (formerly Litoria platycephala) is a frog common to most Australian states.
Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.
Delirium, also known as acute confusional state, is an organically caused decline from a previously baseline level of mental function.
The desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii and Gopherus morafkai) are two species of tortoise native to the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts of the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico and the Sinaloan thornscrub of northwestern Mexico.
Desiccation is the state of extreme dryness, or the process of extreme drying.
Diurnality is a form of plant or animal behavior characterized by activity during the day, with a period of sleeping, or other inactivity, at night.
Dormancy is a period in an organism's life cycle when growth, development, and (in animals) physical activity are temporarily stopped.
The down of birds is a layer of fine feathers found under the tougher exterior feathers.
The ear is the organ of hearing and, in mammals, balance.
Ecophysiology (from Greek οἶκος, oikos, "house(hold)"; φύσις, physis, "nature, origin"; and -λογία, -logia), environmental physiology or physiological ecology is a biological discipline that studies the adaptation of an organism's physiology to environmental conditions.
An ectotherm (from the Greek ἐκτός (ektós) "outside" and θερμός (thermós) "hot"), is an organism in which internal physiological sources of heat are of relatively small or quite negligible importance in controlling body temperature.
The emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) is the tallest and heaviest of all living penguin species and is endemic to Antarctica.
An endotherm (from Greek ἔνδον endon "within" and θέρμη thermē "heat") is an organism that maintains its body at a metabolically favorable temperature, largely by the use of heat set free by its internal bodily functions instead of relying almost purely on ambient heat.
An erg (also sand sea or dune sea, or sand sheet if it lacks dunes) is a broad, flat area of desert covered with wind-swept sand with little or no vegetative cover.
Evaporation is a type of vaporization that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gaseous phase before reaching its boiling point.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
The follicular phase is the phase of the estrous cycle, (or, in humans and great apes, the menstrual cycle) during which follicles in the ovary mature.
Gigantothermy (sometimes called ectothermic homeothermy or inertial homeothermy) is a phenomenon with significance in biology and paleontology, whereby large, bulky ectothermic animals are more easily able to maintain a constant, relatively high body temperature than smaller animals by virtue of their smaller surface area to volume ratio.
Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing, software, and hardware.
Goose bumps are the bumps on a person's skin at the base of body hairs which may involuntarily develop when a person is cold or experiences strong emotions such as fear, euphoria or sexual arousal.
In human anatomy, the groin (the adjective is inguinal, as in inguinal canal) is the junctional area (also known as the inguinal region) between the abdomen and the thigh on either side of the pubic bone.
The guinea pig or domestic guinea pig (Cavia porcellus), also known as cavy or domestic cavy, is a species of rodent belonging to the family Caviidae and the genus Cavia.
Gular skin (throat skin), in ornithology, is an area of featherless skin on birds that joins the lower mandible of the beak (or bill) to the bird's neck.
Heart rate is the speed of the heartbeat measured by the number of contractions of the heart per minute (bpm).
In thermodynamics, heat is energy transferred from one system to another as a result of thermal interactions.
Heterothermy or heterothermia (from Greek ἕτερος heteros "other" and θέρμη thermē "heat") is a physiological term for animals that exhibit characteristics of both poikilothermy and homeothermy.
Hibernation is a state of inactivity and metabolic depression in endotherms.
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
Homeothermy or homothermy is thermoregulation that maintains a stable internal body temperature regardless of external influence.
Normal human body temperature, also known as normothermia or euthermia, is the typical temperature range found in humans.
Human taxonomy is the classification of the human species (systematic name Homo sapiens) within zoological taxonomy.
Hummingbirds are birds from the Americas that constitute the family Trochilidae.
Hyperthermia is elevated body temperature due to failed thermoregulation that occurs when a body produces or absorbs more heat than it dissipates.
The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.
Hypothermia is reduced body temperature that happens when a body dissipates more heat than it absorbs.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Insect thermoregulation is the process whereby insects maintain body temperatures within certain boundaries.
John Hunter (13 February 1728 – 16 October 1793) was a Scottish surgeon, one of the most distinguished scientists and surgeons of his day.
The Journal of Comparative Physiology B: Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal of comparative physiology.
Kleptothermy is any form of thermoregulation by which an animal shares in the metabolic thermogenesis of another animal.
The luteal phase is the latter phase of the menstrual cycle (in humans and a few other animals) or the earlier phase of the estrous cycle (in other placental mammals).
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
Meditation can be defined as a practice where an individual uses a technique, such as focusing their mind on a particular object, thought or activity, to achieve a mentally clear and emotionally calm state.
Menstruation, also known as a period or monthly, is the regular discharge of blood and mucosal tissue (known as menses) from the inner lining of the uterus through the vagina.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.
Monkeys are non-hominoid simians, generally possessing tails and consisting of about 260 known living species.
The mousebirds (family Coliidae, order Coliiformes) are a family of birds.
In animal anatomy, the mouth, also known as the oral cavity, buccal cavity, or in Latin cavum oris, is the opening through which many animals take in food and issue vocal sounds.
The National Audubon Society (Audubon) is a non-profit environmental organization dedicated to conservation.
Nelumbo nucifera, also known as Indian lotus, sacred lotus, bean of India, Egyptian bean or simply lotus, is one of two extant species of aquatic plant in the family Nelumbonaceae.
Nocturnality is an animal behavior characterized by being active during the night and sleeping during the day.
Orexin, also known as hypocretin, is a neuropeptide that regulates arousal, wakefulness, and appetite.
Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
Ovulation is the release of eggs from the ovaries.
Paratarsotomus macropalpis is a species of mite belonging to the family Anystidae.
The pelagic zone consists of the water column of the open ocean, and can be further divided into regions by depth.
A poikilotherm is an animal whose internal temperature varies considerably.
The preoptic area is a region of the hypothalamus.
Progesterone (P4) is an endogenous steroid and progestogen sex hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis of humans and other species.
Protoplasm is the living content of a cell that is surrounded by a plasma membrane.
The rectum is the final straight portion of the large intestine in humans and some other mammals, and the gut in others.
Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.
The respiration rate is a parameter which is used in ecological and agronomical modeling.
Salamanders are a group of amphibians typically characterized by a lizard-like appearance, with slender bodies, blunt snouts, short limbs projecting at right angles to the body, and the presence of a tail in both larvae and adults.
Shortness of breath, also known as dyspnea, is the feeling that one cannot breathe well enough.
In statistics, the standard deviation (SD, also represented by the Greek letter sigma σ or the Latin letter s) is a measure that is used to quantify the amount of variation or dispersion of a set of data values.
Sweat glands, also known as sudoriferous or sudoriparous glands,, are small tubular structures of the skin that produce sweat.
Termites are eusocial insects that are classified at the taxonomic rank of infraorder Isoptera, or as epifamily Termitoidae within the cockroach order Blattodea.
Two physical systems are in thermal equilibrium if there are no net flow of thermal energy between them when they are connected by a path permeable to heat.
Thermal insulation is the reduction of heat transfer (i.e. the transfer of thermal energy between objects of differing temperature) between objects in thermal contact or in range of radiative influence.
A class of endothermic organisms known as homeotherms maintain internal temperatures, with minimal metabolic regulation, within a range of ambient temperatures called The thermal neutral zone (TNZ).
Thermogenesis is the process of heat production in organisms.
A thermometer is a device that measures temperature or a temperature gradient.
A thermophile is an organism—a type of extremophile—that thrives at relatively high temperatures, between.
Torpor is a state of decreased physiological activity in an animal, usually by a reduced body temperature and metabolic rate.
Tummo (Tibetan: gtum-mo; Sanskrit: caṇḍālī) means the fierce goddess of heat and passion in Tibetan Buddhist tradition.
In anatomy, the urethra (from Greek οὐρήθρα – ourḗthrā) is a tube that connects the urinary bladder to the urinary meatus for the removal of urine from the body.
The urinary bladder is a hollow muscular organ in humans and some other animals that collects and stores urine from the kidneys before disposal by urination.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
The uterus (from Latin "uterus", plural uteri) or womb is a major female hormone-responsive secondary sex organ of the reproductive system in humans and most other mammals.
In mammals, the vagina is the elastic, muscular part of the female genital tract.
Vital heat, also called innate or natural heat, or calidum innatum, is a term in Ancient Greek medicine and philosophy that has generally referred to the heat produced within the body, usually the heat produced by the heart and the circulatory system.
Volumetric heat capacity (VHC), also termed volume-specific heat capacity, describes the ability of a given volume of a substance to store internal energy while undergoing a given temperature change, but without undergoing a phase transition.
Warm-blooded animal species can maintain a body temperature higher than their environment.
The wet-bulb temperature is the temperature read by a thermometer covered in water-soaked cloth (wet-bulb thermometer) over which air is passed.
Zoology or animal biology is the branch of biology that studies the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct, and how they interact with their ecosystems.
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