24 relations: Academic journal, Academic publishing, Allies of World War II, Alternative medicine, Anatomy, Audiology, Beijing, Book, Chemistry, Delhi, Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift, Endocrinology, Georg Thieme, Germany, Leipzig, Neurosurgery, New York City, Ophthalmology, Orthopedic surgery, Otorhinolaryngology, Radiology, Stuttgart, Wilhelm Röntgen, World War II.
An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication in which scholarship relating to a particular academic discipline is published.
Academic publishing is the subfield of publishing which distributes academic research and scholarship.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Alternative medicine, fringe medicine, pseudomedicine or simply questionable medicine is the use and promotion of practices which are unproven, disproven, impossible to prove, or excessively harmful in relation to their effect — in the attempt to achieve the healing effects of medicine.--> --> --> They differ from experimental medicine in that the latter employs responsible investigation, and accepts results that show it to be ineffective. The scientific consensus is that alternative therapies either do not, or cannot, work. In some cases laws of nature are violated by their basic claims; in some the treatment is so much worse that its use is unethical. Alternative practices, products, and therapies range from only ineffective to having known harmful and toxic effects.--> Alternative therapies may be credited for perceived improvement through placebo effects, decreased use or effect of medical treatment (and therefore either decreased side effects; or nocebo effects towards standard treatment),--> or the natural course of the condition or disease. Alternative treatment is not the same as experimental treatment or traditional medicine, although both can be misused in ways that are alternative. Alternative or complementary medicine is dangerous because it may discourage people from getting the best possible treatment, and may lead to a false understanding of the body and of science.-->---> Alternative medicine is used by a significant number of people, though its popularity is often overstated.--> Large amounts of funding go to testing alternative medicine, with more than US$2.5 billion spent by the United States government alone.--> Almost none show any effect beyond that of false treatment,--> and most studies showing any effect have been statistical flukes. Alternative medicine is a highly profitable industry, with a strong lobby. This fact is often overlooked by media or intentionally kept hidden, with alternative practice being portrayed positively when compared to "big pharma". --> The lobby has successfully pushed for alternative therapies to be subject to far less regulation than conventional medicine.--> Alternative therapies may even be allowed to promote use when there is demonstrably no effect, only a tradition of use. Regulation and licensing of alternative medicine and health care providers varies between and within countries. Despite laws making it illegal to market or promote alternative therapies for use in cancer treatment, many practitioners promote them.--> Alternative medicine is criticized for taking advantage of the weakest members of society.--! Terminology has shifted over time, reflecting the preferred branding of practitioners.. Science Based Medicine--> For example, the United States National Institutes of Health department studying alternative medicine, currently named National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, was established as the Office of Alternative Medicine and was renamed the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine before obtaining its current name. Therapies are often framed as "natural" or "holistic", in apparent opposition to conventional medicine which is "artificial" and "narrow in scope", statements which are intentionally misleading. --> When used together with functional medical treatment, alternative therapies do not "complement" (improve the effect of, or mitigate the side effects of) treatment.--> Significant drug interactions caused by alternative therapies may instead negatively impact functional treatment, making it less effective, notably in cancer.--> Alternative diagnoses and treatments are not part of medicine, or of science-based curricula in medical schools, nor are they used in any practice based on scientific knowledge or experience.--> Alternative therapies are often based on religious belief, tradition, superstition, belief in supernatural energies, pseudoscience, errors in reasoning, propaganda, fraud, or lies.--> Alternative medicine is based on misleading statements, quackery, pseudoscience, antiscience, fraud, and poor scientific methodology. Promoting alternative medicine has been called dangerous and unethical.--> Testing alternative medicine that has no scientific basis has been called a waste of scarce research resources.--> Critics state that "there is really no such thing as alternative medicine, just medicine that works and medicine that doesn't",--> that the very idea of "alternative" treatments is paradoxical, as any treatment proven to work is by definition "medicine".-->.
Anatomy (Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.
Audiology (from Latin audīre, "to hear"; and from Greek -λογία, -logia) is a branch of science that studies hearing, balance, and related disorders.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
A book is a series of pages assembled for easy portability and reading, as well as the composition contained in it.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
Delhi (Dilli), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), is a city and a union territory of India.
The Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift (German Medical Weekly) (DMW) is a German medical journal established in 1875 by Paul Börner.
Endocrinology (from endocrine + -ology) is a branch of biology and medicine dealing with the endocrine system, its diseases, and its specific secretions known as hormones.
Georg Thieme (2 July 1860, Leipzig – 26 December 1925, Leipzig) was a German publisher, notable for founding the Georg Thieme Verlags in 1886 - it still operates as Thieme Medical Publishers.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Leipzig is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany.
Neurosurgery, or neurological surgery, is the medical specialty concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, surgical treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders which affect any portion of the nervous system including the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Ophthalmology is a branch of medicine and surgery (both methods are used) that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eyeball and orbit.
Orthopedic surgery or orthopedics, also spelled orthopaedic, is the branch of surgery concerned with conditions involving the musculoskeletal system.
Otorhinolaryngology (also called otolaryngology and otolaryngology–head and neck surgery) is a surgical subspecialty within medicine that deals with conditions of the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) and related structures of the head and neck.
Radiology is the science that uses medical imaging to diagnose and sometimes also treat diseases within the body.
Stuttgart (Swabian: italics,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of the German state of Baden-Württemberg.
Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (27 March 1845 – 10 February 1923) was a German mechanical engineer and physicist, who, on 8 November 1895, produced and detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range known as X-rays or Röntgen rays, an achievement that earned him the first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.