153 relations: A Dictionary of Modern English Usage, Adpositional phrase, Afrikaans, Afroasiatic languages, Agreement (linguistics), Ancient Greek, Animacy, Armenian language, Article (grammar), Artificial intelligence, Asexuality, Austronesian languages, Baltimore, Biblical Hebrew, Canadians, Cantonese, Catalan language, Charles Crozat Converse, Czech language, Dagens Nyheter, Danish language, Defaka language, Dennis Baron, Diaspora (novel), Dicebox, Distress (novel), Edwards v Canada (AG), English language, Epicenity, Estonian language, Federation of Egalitarian Communities, Feminist language reform, Finnish language, French grammar, French language, Gender in English, Gender marking in job titles, Gender neutrality, Gender neutrality in genderless languages, Gender neutrality in languages with grammatical gender, Gender-blind, Gender-neutral language, Generic you, German grammar, German language, Germanic languages, Glossary, Government of Canada, Grammatical gender, Grammatical person, ..., He, Hebrew language, Hen (pronoun), Hungarian language, Icelandic language, Imperfective aspect, Indefinite pronoun, Indo-European languages, Indo-Iranian languages, Indonesian language, Inflection, Intentional community, Interlingua, It (pronoun), Italian language, Italic languages, Japanese language, Kate Bornstein, Keri Hulme, Khmu language, Korean language, L. L. Zamenhof, Language Log, Languages of East Asia, Latin script, LGBT, LGBT linguistics, Lingua Franca Nova, Literary and colloquial readings of Chinese characters, Liu Bannong, Malay language, Malayalam, Malaysian language, Markedness, May Fourth Movement, Meiji period, Mortlockese language, Nationalencyklopedin, Neologism, Niger–Congo languages, Nominative case, Norwegian language, Noun class, Null-subject language, Oblique case, Old Chinese, Old English, One (pronoun), Patricia T. O'Conner, Pejorative, Periphrasis, Perlative case, Persian language, Personal pronoun, Pinyin, Plural, Portuguese language, Possessive, Possessive determiner, Preposition and postposition, Pro-drop language, Pronoun, Pronoun game, Quechuan languages, Random House, Referent, Reflexive pronoun, Romance languages, Russian language, Senate of Canada, Sexism, She, Singular they, Spanish language, Spivak pronoun, Standard Chinese, Stress (linguistics), Style guide, Svenska Akademiens ordlista, Sveriges Radio, Swedish Academy, Swedish language, Swedish Language Council, Tag question, Tamil language, The New York Times, They, Third gender, Tocharian languages, Transgender, Turkish language, University of Freiburg, Uralic languages, Varieties of Chinese, Victor Gollancz Ltd, Welsh language, West Country English, William Safire, Written Cantonese, Written Chinese, Wu Chinese, Yazghulami language, Yo. Expand index (103 more) » « Shrink index
A Dictionary of Modern English Usage (1926), by Henry Watson Fowler (1858–1933), is a style guide to British English usage, pronunciation, and writing.
An adpositional phrase, in linguistics, is a syntactic category that includes prepositional phrases, postpositional phrases, and circumpositional phrases.
Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent, Botswana and Zimbabwe.
Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic) or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family of about 300 languages and dialects.
Agreement or concord (abbreviated) happens when a word changes form depending on the other words to which it relates.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Animacy is a grammatical and semantic principle expressed in language based on how sentient or alive the referent of a noun is.
The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken primarily by the Armenians.
An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope.
Artificial intelligence (AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals.
Asexuality is the lack of sexual attraction to others, or low or absent interest in or desire for sexual activity.
The Austronesian languages are a language family that is widely dispersed throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, with a few members in continental Asia.
Baltimore is the largest city in the U.S. state of Maryland, and the 30th-most populous city in the United States.
Biblical Hebrew (rtl Ivrit Miqra'it or rtl Leshon ha-Miqra), also called Classical Hebrew, is an archaic form of Hebrew, a Canaanite Semitic language spoken by the Israelites in the area known as Israel, roughly west of the Jordan River and east of the Mediterranean Sea.
Canadians (Canadiens / Canadiennes) are people identified with the country of Canada.
The Cantonese language is a variety of Chinese spoken in the city of Guangzhou (historically known as Canton) and its surrounding area in southeastern China.
Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
Charles Crozat Converse (October 7, 1832 – October 18, 1918) was an American attorney who also worked as a composer of church songs.
Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.
Dagens Nyheter (lit. "the day's news"), abbreviated DN, is a daily newspaper in Sweden.
Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
Defaka is an endangered and divergent Nigerian language of uncertain classification.
Dennis Baron (born May 9, 1944) is a professor of English and linguistics at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
Diaspora is a hard science fiction novel by the Australian writer Greg Egan which first appeared in print in 1997.
Dicebox, by American cartoonist Jenn Manley Lee, is a science fiction webcomic which has been hosted at the subscription-based comics anthology site Girlamatic.
Distress is a 1995 science fiction novel by Australian writer Greg Egan.
Edwards v Canada (AG)also known as the Persons Caseis a famous Canadian constitutional case that decided that women were eligible to sit in the Senate of Canada.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Epicenity is the lack of gender distinction, often specifically the loss of masculinity.
Estonian (eesti keel) is the official language of Estonia, spoken natively by about 1.1 million people: 922,000 people in Estonia and 160,000 outside Estonia.
The Federation of Egalitarian Communities (FEC) is a group of egalitarian communities which have joined together with the common purpose of creating a lifestyle based on equality, cooperation, and harmony with the Earth.
Feminist language reform or feminist language planning refers to the effort, often of political and grassroots movements, to change how language is used to gender people, activities and ideas on an individual and societal level.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
French grammar is the set of rules by which the French language creates statements, questions and commands.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
A system of grammatical gender, whereby every noun was treated as either masculine, feminine or neuter, existed in Old English, but fell out of use during the Middle English period.
One of the chief issues with which the movement for gender-neutral language has been concerned is that of gender (sex) specificity in job titles.
Gender neutrality (adjective form: gender-neutral), also known as gender-neutralism or the gender neutrality movement, describes the idea that policies, language, and other social institutions should avoid distinguishing roles according to people's sex or gender, in order to avoid discrimination arising from the impression that there are social roles for which one gender is more suited than another.
Gender neutrality in genderless language is the use of wording in those languages that avoids referring specifically to the male or female gender.
Gender neutrality in languages with grammatical gender is the usage of language that is balanced in its treatment of the genders in a non-grammatical sense.
A gender-blind (or unisex) person is someone who adheres to not distinguishing people by gender.
Gender-neutral language or gender-inclusive language is language that avoids bias toward a particular sex or social gender.
In English grammar and in particular in casual English, generic you, impersonal you, or indefinite you is the use of the pronoun you to refer to an unspecified person, as opposed to its use as the second person pronoun.
German grammar is the set of structural rules of the German language, which in many respects is quite similar to that of the other Germanic languages.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
A glossary, also known as a vocabulary or clavis, is an alphabetical list of terms in a particular domain of knowledge with the definitions for those terms.
The Government of Canada (Gouvernement du Canada), formally Her Majesty's Government (Gouvernement de Sa Majesté), is the federal administration of Canada.
In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.
Grammatical person, in linguistics, is the grammatical distinction between deictic references to participant(s) in an event; typically the distinction is between the speaker (first person), the addressee (second person), and others (third person).
He is a masculine third-person, singular personal pronoun (subjective case) in Modern English.
Hen is a gender-neutral personal pronoun in Swedish intended as an alternative to the gender-specific hon ("she") and han ("he").
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
Icelandic (íslenska) is a North Germanic language, and the language of Iceland.
The imperfective (abbreviated or more ambiguously) is a grammatical aspect used to describe a situation viewed with interior composition.
An indefinite pronoun is a pronoun that refers to non-specific beings, objects, or places.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
The Indo-Iranian languages or Indo-Iranic languages, or Aryan languages, constitute the largest and easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European language family.
Indonesian (bahasa Indonesia) is the official language of Indonesia.
In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.
An intentional community is a planned residential community designed from the start to have a high degree of social cohesion and teamwork.
Interlingua (ISO 639 language codes ia, ina) is an Italic international auxiliary language (IAL), developed between 1937 and 1951 by the International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA).
It is a third-person, singular neuter pronoun (nominative (subjective) case and oblique (objective) case) in Modern English.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
The Italic languages are a subfamily of the Indo-European language family, originally spoken by Italic peoples.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
Katherine Vandam "Kate" Bornstein (born March 15, 1948) is an American author, playwright, performance artist, and gender theorist.
Keri Hulme (born 9 March 1947) is a New Zealand novelist, poet, and short-story writer.
Khmu is the language of the Khmu people of the northern Laos region.
The Korean language (Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: 조선말/한국어; Hanja: 朝鮮말/韓國語) is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people.
Ludwik Lejzer Zamenhof (Ludwik Łazarz Zamenhof; –), credited as L. L. Zamenhof and sometimes as the pseudonymous Dr.
Language Log is a collaborative language blog maintained by Mark Liberman, a phonetician at the University of Pennsylvania.
The languages of East Asia belong to several distinct language families, with many common features attributed to interaction.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
LGBT, or GLBT, is an initialism that stands for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender.
LGBT linguistics refers to language and sub-fields within linguistics revolving around people identifying as gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ).
Lingua Franca Nova (abbreviated as LFN or Elefen) is an auxiliary constructed language originally created by C. George Boeree of Shippensburg University, Pennsylvania.
Differing literary and colloquial readings for certain Chinese characters are a common feature of many Chinese varieties, and the reading distinctions for these linguistic doublets often typify a dialect group.
Liu Bannong (1891–1934) or Liu Fu (劉復/刘复) was a Chinese linguist and poet.
Malay (Bahasa Melayu بهاس ملايو) is a major language of the Austronesian family spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore.
Malayalam is a Dravidian language spoken across the Indian state of Kerala by the Malayali people and it is one of 22 scheduled languages of India.
The Malaysian language (bahasa Malaysia), or Malaysian Malay (bahasa Melayu Malaysia) is the name regularly applied to the Malay language used in Malaysia.
In linguistics and social sciences, markedness is the state of standing out as unusual or divergent in comparison to a more common or regular form.
The May Fourth Movement was an anti-imperialist, cultural, and political movement growing out of student participants in Beijing on 4 May 1919, protesting against the Chinese government's weak response to the Treaty of Versailles, especially allowing Japan to receive territories in Shandong which had been surrendered by Germany after the Siege of Tsingtao.
The, also known as the Meiji era, is a Japanese era which extended from October 23, 1868, to July 30, 1912.
Mortlockese (Kapsen Mwoshulók), also known as Mortlock or Nomoi, is a language that belongs to the Chuukic group of Micronesian languages in the Federated States of Micronesia spoken primarily in the Mortlock Islands (Nomoi (Lower Mortlock) Islands and the Upper Mortlock Islands).
Nationalencyklopedin, abbreviated NE, is a comprehensive contemporary Swedish-language encyclopedia, initiated by a favourable loan from the Government of Sweden of 17 million Swedish kronor in 1980, which was repaid by December 1990.
A neologism (from Greek νέο- néo-, "new" and λόγος lógos, "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted into mainstream language.
The Niger–Congo languages constitute one of the world's major language families and Africa's largest in terms of geographical area, number of speakers and number of distinct languages.
The nominative case (abbreviated), subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.
Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.
In linguistics, a noun class is a particular category of nouns.
In linguistic typology, a null-subject language is a language whose grammar permits an independent clause to lack an explicit subject; such a clause is then said to have a null subject.
In grammar, an oblique (abbreviated; from casus obliquus) or objective case (abbr.) is a nominal case that is used when a noun phrase is the object of either a verb or a preposition.
Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese, and the ancestor of all modern varieties of Chinese.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
One is a pronoun in the English language.
Patricia T. O’Conner (born February 19, 1949) is the author of five books about the English language.
A pejorative (also called a derogatory term, a slur, a term of abuse, or a term of disparagement) is a word or grammatical form expressing a negative connotation or a low opinion of someone or something, showing a lack of respect for someone or something.
In linguistics, periphrasis is the usage of multiple separate words to carry the meaning of prefixes, suffixes or verbs, among other things, where either would be possible.
The perlative case (abbreviated) "expresses that something moved 'through', 'across', or 'along' the referent of the noun that is marked." The case is found in a number of Australian Aboriginal languages such as Kuku-Yalanji as well as in Aymara, Inuktitut, and the extinct Tocharian languages.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Personal pronouns are pronouns that are associated primarily with a particular grammatical person – first person (as I), second person (as you), or third person (as he, she, it, they).
Hanyu Pinyin Romanization, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan.
The plural (sometimes abbreviated), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical category of number.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
A possessive form (abbreviated) is a word or grammatical construction used to indicate a relationship of possession in a broad sense.
Possessive determiners constitute a sub-class of determiners which modify a noun by attributing possession (or other sense of belonging) to someone or something.
Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or mark various semantic roles (of, for).
A pro-drop language (from "pronoun-dropping") is a language in which certain classes of pronouns may be omitted when they are pragmatically or grammatically inferable (the precise conditions vary from language to language, and can be quite intricate).
In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun (abbreviated) is a word that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase.
"Playing the pronoun game" is the act of concealing sexual orientation in conversation by not using a gender-specific pronoun for a partner or a lover, which would reveal the sexual orientation of the person speaking.
Quechua, usually called Runasimi ("people's language") in Quechuan languages, is an indigenous language family spoken by the Quechua peoples, primarily living in the Andes and highlands of South America.
Random House is an American book publisher and the largest general-interest paperback publisher in the world.
A referent is a person or thing to which a name – a linguistic expression or other symbol – refers.
In language, a reflexive pronoun, sometimes simply called a reflexive, is a pronoun that is preceded or followed by the noun, adjective, adverb or pronoun to which it refers (its antecedent) within the same clause.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The Senate of Canada (Sénat du Canada) is the upper house of the Parliament of Canada, along with the House of Commons and the Monarch (represented by the Governor General).
Sexism is prejudice or discrimination based on a person's sex or gender.
She is a feminine third-person, singular personal pronoun (subjective case) in Modern English.
Singular they is the use in English of the pronoun they or its inflected or derivative forms, them, their, theirs, and themselves (or themself), as an epicene (gender-neutral) singular pronoun.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
The Spivak pronouns are a set of gender-neutral pronouns in English promulgated on LambdaMOO based on pronouns used by Michael Spivak.
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.
In linguistics, and particularly phonology, stress or accent is relative emphasis or prominence given to a certain syllable in a word, or to a certain word in a phrase or sentence.
A style guide (or manual of style) is a set of standards for the writing and design of documents, either for general use or for a specific publication, organization, or field.
Svenska Akademiens ordlista, abbreviated SAOL, is a glossary published every few years by the Swedish Academy.
Sveriges Radio AB ("Swedish Radio") is Sweden's national publicly funded radio broadcaster.
The Swedish Academy (Svenska Akademien), founded in 1786 by King Gustav III, is one of the Royal Academies of Sweden.
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
The Swedish Language Council (Språkrådet) is the primary regulatory body for the advancement and cultivation of the Swedish language.
A tag question (also known as tail question) is a grammatical structure in which a declarative or an imperative statement is turned into interrogative fragment (the "tag").
Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
They is the third-person plural personal pronoun (subjective case) in Modern English.
Third gender or third sex is a concept in which individuals are categorized, either by themselves or by society, as neither man nor woman.
Tocharian, also spelled Tokharian, is an extinct branch of the Indo-European language family.
Transgender people have a gender identity or gender expression that differs from their assigned sex.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
The University of Freiburg (colloquially Uni Freiburg), officially the Albert Ludwig University of Freiburg (Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg), is a public research university located in Freiburg im Breisgau, Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
The Uralic languages (sometimes called Uralian languages) form a language family of 38 languages spoken by approximately 25million people, predominantly in Northern Eurasia.
Chinese, also known as Sinitic, is a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family consisting of hundreds of local language varieties, many of which are not mutually intelligible.
Victor Gollancz Ltd was a major British book publishing house of the twentieth century.
Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.
West Country English is one of the English language varieties and accents used by much of the native population of South West England, the area sometimes popularly known as the West Country.
William Lewis Safir (December 17, 1929 – September 27, 2009), better known as William SafireSafire, William (1986).
Written Cantonese is the written form of Cantonese, the most complete written form of Chinese after that for Mandarin Chinese and Classical Chinese.
Written Chinese comprises Chinese characters (汉字/漢字; pinyin: Hànzì, literally "Han characters") used to represent the Chinese language.
Wu (Shanghainese:; Suzhou dialect:; Wuxi dialect) is a group of linguistically similar and historically related varieties of Chinese primarily spoken in the whole Zhejiang province, city of Shanghai, and the southern half of Jiangsu province, as well as bordering areas.
The Yazgulyam language (also Yazgulyami, Iazgulem, Yazgulam; yazgulomi) is a member of the Southeastern subgroup of the Iranian languages, spoken by around 9,000 people along the Yazgulyam River in Gorno-Badakhshan, Tajikistan.
Yo is an English slang interjection, commonly associated with American English.
Androgynous pronoun, AndrogynousPronoun, Epicene pronoun, Epicene pronouns, Epicine pronoun, Gender neutral pronoun, Gender neutral pronouns, Gender pronouns, Gender specific pronoun, Gender specific pronouns, Gender-neutral pronoun, Gender-specific and gender-neutral pronouns, Gender-specific and gender-neutral third-person pronouns, Gender-specific pronoun, Gender-specific pronouns, Genderless he, Genderless pronoun, Generic he, Generic she, Hae (pronoun), He/she, Hetself, Hir, Hir and sie, Hirs, Hirself, Neuter pronoun, Neuter pronouns, Pronominal gender, S/he, She/he, Sie (pronoun), Sie and hir, Sie/hir, Tey (pronoun), Thon (pronoun), Thonself, Universal he, Ve (pronoun), Verself, Xe (pronoun), Xem, Xemself, Xyr, Ze (pronoun), Ze zer mer, Ze, Zer, and Mer, Zirself.