78 relations: Ağrı, Abdul Kerim Pasha, Ahmet Fevzi Big, Anatolia, Armenian Army, Armenian National Congress (1917), Armenian national liberation movement, Armenian resistance during the Armenian Genocide, Armenian volunteer units, Aydın, Başkale, Balkans, Battle of Abaran, Battle of Karakilisa, Battle of Koprukoy, Battle of Sardarabad, Battle of Sarikamish, Bayburt, Berat, Bitola, Bulanık, Caucasus Campaign, Cizre, Debar, Diyadin, Doğubayazıt, Elâzığ, Enver Pasha, Erciş, Erzincan, Erzurum, Erzurum Offensive, Field army, First Balkan War, First Republic of Armenia, Gevgelija, Hafiz Hakki Pasha, Hasan Izzet Pasha, Hınıs, I Caucasian Corps (Ottoman Empire), II Caucasian Corps (Ottoman Empire), IX Corps (Ottoman Empire), Kiğı, Korçë, Kurds, Mahmud Kâmil Pasha, Mardin, Mehmet Esat Bülkat, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Otto von Feldmann, ..., Ottoman Empire, Pasinler, Erzurum, Pristina, Prizren, Rumelia, Russian Caucasus Army (World War I), Russian Revolution, Saray (District), Van, Second Constitutional Era, Serres, Sivas, Siverek, Skopje, Thessaloniki, Treaty of Batum, Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, Turkey, Tutak, Turkey, Typhus, Van, Turkey, Varto, Veles, Macedonia, Viranşehir, Wehib Pasha, World War I, X Corps (Ottoman Empire), XI Corps (Ottoman Empire), Young Turk Revolution. Expand index (28 more) » « Shrink index
Ağrı, formerly known as Karaköse (Qerekose) from the early Turkish republican period until 1946, and before that as Karakilise (Karakilisa), is the capital of Ağrı Province at the eastern end of Turkey, near the border with Iran.
Abdul Kerim Pasha (Turkish: Abdülkerim Paşa; born 1872 and died January 16, 1923), also known as Abdülkerim Öpelimi, was an Ottoman commander on the Caucasus front of World War I.
Ahmet Fevzi Big or Ahmet Fevzi Paşa (1871-1947) was an Ottoman commander of the Ninth Army Corps of the Ottoman Third Army.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
The Armenian Army (Հայկական բանակ, Haykakan Banak) is the largest branch of the Armed Forces of Armenia and consists of the ground forces responsible for the country's land-based operations.
The Armenian National Congress (or Congress of Eastern ArmeniansTer-Minassian p.30) was a political congress established to provide representation for Armenians of the Russian Empire.
The Armenian national liberation movement (Հայ ազգային-ազատագրական շարժում Hay azgayin-azatagrakan sharzhum) aimed at the establishment of an Armenian state. It included social, cultural, but primarily political and military movements that reached their height during World War I and the following years. Influenced by the Age of Enlightenment and the rise of nationalism under the Ottoman Empire, the Armenian national movement developed in the early 1860s. Its emergence was similar to that of movements in the Balkan nations, especially the Greek revolutionaries who fought the Greek War of Independence. The Armenian élite and various militant groups sought to defend the mostly rural Armenian population of the eastern Ottoman Empire from the Muslims, being Christian, but the ultimate goal was to push for reforms in the Six vilayets at first and after this failed, the creation of an Armenian state in the Armenian-populated areas controlled at the time by the Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire. Since the late 1880s, the movement engaged in guerrilla warfare with the Ottoman government and the Kurdish irregulars in the eastern regions of the empire, led by the three Armenian political parties named the Social Democrat Hunchakian Party, the Armenakan Party and the Armenian Revolutionary Federation. Armenians generally saw Russia as their natural ally in the fight against Turks although Russia maintained an oppressive policy in the Caucasus. Only after losing its presence in Europe after the Balkan Wars, the Ottoman government was forced to sign the Armenian reform package in early 1914, however it was disrupted by World War I. During World War I, the Armenians living in the Ottoman Empire were systematically exterminated by the government in the Armenian Genocide. According to some estimates, from 1894 to 1923, about 1,500,000—2,000,000 Armenians were killed by the Ottoman Empire. After the decision to exterminate the Armenians was taken by the Ottoman Ministry of Interior and first implemented with the Directive 8682 on February 25, 1915, tens of thousands of Russian Armenians joined the Russian army as Armenian volunteer units with a Russian promise for autonomy. By 1917, Russia controlled many Armenian-populated areas of the Ottoman Empire. After the October Revolution, however, the Russian troops retreated and left the Armenians irregulars one on one with the Turks. The Armenian National Council proclaimed the Republic of Armenia on May 28, 1918, thus establishing an Armenian state in the Armenian-populated parts of the Southern Caucasus. By 1920, the Bolshevik Government in Russia and Ankara Government had successfully came to power in their respective countries. The Turkish revolutionaries successfully occupied western half of Armenia, while the Red Army invaded and annexed the Republic of Armenia in December 1920. A friendship treaty was signed between Bolshevik Russia and Kemalist Turkey in 1921. The formerly Russian-controlled parts of Armenia were mostly annexed by the Soviet Union, in parts of which the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic was established. Hundreds of thousands of genocide refugees found themselves in the Middle East, Greece, France and the US giving start to a new era of the Armenian diaspora. Soviet Armenia existed until 1991, when the Soviet Union disintegrated and the current (Third) Republic of Armenia was established.
The Armenian resistance is a name given to the military and political activities of the Armenians under the Armenian political parties of Henchak, Armenakan, Dashnaktsutiun against the Ottoman Empire during World War I, considered a struggle for freedom and resistance to the Armenian Genocide by the Armenian combatants, but high treason by the Ottoman Empire.
The Armenian volunteer units (Հայ կամավորական ջոկատներ Hay kamavorakan jokatner) were units composed of Armenians within the Imperial Russian Army during World War I. Composed of several groups at battalion strength, its ranks were primarily made up of Armenians from the Russian Empire, though there were also a number of Armenians from the Ottoman Empire.
Aydın (EYE-din;; formerly named Güzelhisar), ancient Greek Tralles, is a city in and the seat of Aydın Province in Turkey's Aegean Region.
Başkale (Ադամակերտ Adamakert; Elbak) is a town and district located in south-eastern Turkey in Van Province.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
The Battle of Bash Abaran (Բաշ Աբարանի ճակատամարտ Bash Abarani chakatamart, Baş-Abaran Muharebesi) was a battle of Caucasus Campaign of World War I that took place in the vicinity of Bash Abaran, in 1918.
The Battle of Karakilisa (Ղարաքիլիսայի ճակատամարտ Gharakilisayi chakatamart, Karakilise Muharebesi or Karakilise Muharebeleri) was a battle of Caucasus Campaign of World War I that took place in the vicinity of Karakilisa (now Vanadzor), on May 25-28, 1918.
The Battle of Koprukoy was part of the Caucasus Campaign during World War I between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire, and occurred as the Russians were advancing to Erzurum.
The Battle of Sardarabad (Սարդարապատի ճակատամարտ, Sardarapati č̣akatamart; Serdarabad Muharebesi) was a battle of the Caucasus Campaign of World War I that took place near Sardarabad, Armenia from 22 to 29 May 1918, between the regular Armenian military units and militia on one side and the Ottoman army that had invaded Eastern Armenia on the other. Sardarabad was only 40 kilometers west of the city of Yerevan. The battle is currently seen as not only stopping the Ottoman advance into the rest of Armenia, but also preventing complete destruction of the Armenian nation. In the words of Christopher J. Walker, had the Armenians lost this battle, "t is perfectly possible that the word Armenia would have henceforth denoted only an antique geographical term.".
The Battle of Sarikamish (Սարիղամիշի ճակատամարտ (Sarighamishi chakatamart), Сражение при Сарыкамыше; Sarıkamış Harekatı) was an engagement between the Russian and Ottoman empires during World War I. It took place from December 22, 1914, to January 17, 1915, as part of the Caucasus Campaign.
Bayburt (Armenian: Baydbert) is a city in northeast Turkey lying on the Çoruh River and is the provincial capital of Bayburt Province.
Berat (Berati), historically known as Poulcheriopólis and Antipatreia, is the ninth most populous city of the Republic of Albania.
Bitola (Битола known also by several alternative names) is a city in the southwestern part of the Republic of Macedonia.
Bulanık, formerly Gop or Kop (Կոփ), is a town and district of Muş Province in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey.
The Caucasus Campaign comprised armed conflicts between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire, later including Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, the German Empire, the Central Caspian Dictatorship and the British Empire as part of the Middle Eastern theatre during World War I. The Caucasus Campaign extended from the South Caucasus to the Armenian Highlands region, reaching as far as Trabzon, Bitlis, Mush and Van.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Cizre (Cizîr or Cizîra Botan, جزيرة ابن عمر, ܓܙܝܪܐ Gzirā or Gziro) is a town and district of Şırnak Province in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey, on the border with Syria, just to the northwest of the Turkish-Syrian-Iraqi tripoint.
Debar (Дебaр; in Albanian; Dibër/Dibra or Dibra e Madhe) is a city in the western part of the Republic of Macedonia, near the border with Albania, off the road from Struga to Gostivar.
Diyadin (Armenian: Տատէոն (Latin transliteration: Tatēon); Giyadîn) is a district of Ağrı Province of Turkey, at the foot of Mount Tendürek, a high peak in the Aladağlar range that stands between Ağrı and the north shore of Lake Van.
Doğubayazıt is a district of Ağrı Province of Turkey, and it is the easternmost district of Turkey, bordering Iran.
Elazığ) is a city in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey, and the administrative center of Elazığ Province. It is located in the uppermost Euphrates valley. The plain on which the city extends has an altitude of 1067 metres. Elazığ resembles an inland peninsula surrounded by the natural Lake Hazar and reservoirs of Keban Dam, Karakaya Dam, Kıralkızı and Özlüce.http://www.kultur.gov.tr/genel/medya/iltanitimbrosuru-eng/elazig_eng.pdf Elazığ initially developed in 1834 as an extension of the historic city of Harput, which was situated on a hill and difficult to access in winter.
Ismail Enver Pasha (اسماعیل انور پاشا; İsmail Enver Paşa; 22 November 1881 – 4 August 1922) was an Ottoman military officer and a leader of the 1908 Young Turk Revolution.
Erciş (Ականց, Agants; historically Արճեշ, Arjesh, Erdîş) is a town and district located in the Van Province, Turkey on Lake Van.
Erzincan (Երզնկա, Yerznka) is the capital of Erzincan Province in northeastern Turkey.
Erzurum (Կարին) is a city in eastern Anatolia (Asian Turkey).
The Erzurum Offensive (Эрзурумское сражение Erzurumskoe srazhenie;Turkish: Erzurum Taarruzu) or Battle of Erzurum (Turkish: Erzurum Muharebesi) was a major winter offensive by the Imperial Russian Army on the Caucasus Campaign, during the First World War, that led to the capture of the strategic city of Erzurum.
A field army (or numbered army or simply army) is a military formation in many armed forces, composed of two or more corps and may be subordinate to an army group.
The First Balkan War (Балканска война; Αʹ Βαλκανικός πόλεμος; Први балкански рат, Prvi Balkanski rat; Birinci Balkan Savaşı), lasted from October 1912 to May 1913 and comprised actions of the Balkan League (the kingdoms of Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece and Montenegro) against the Ottoman Empire.
The First Republic of Armenia, officially known at the time of its existence as the Republic of Armenia (classical Հայաստանի Հանրապետութիւն), was the first modern Armenian state since the loss of Armenian statehood in the Middle Ages.
Gevgelija (Гевгелија) is a town with a population of 15,685 located in the very southeast of the Republic of Macedonia along the banks of the Vardar River, situated at the country's main border with Greece (Bogorodica-Evzoni), the point which links the motorway from Skopje and three other former Yugoslav capitals (Belgrade, Zagreb and Ljubljana) with Thessaloniki.
Hafiz Hakki Pasha (Hafız Hakkı Paşa, April 24, 1878, Edirne, Ottoman Empire - February 15, 1915; Erzurum), was a general of the Ottoman Army.
Hasan Izzet Pasha (Turkish: Hasan İzzet Paşa, Hasan İzzet Arolat, 1871; Constantinople (Istanbul) – 3 March 1931, ailemiz. net, information from the Archive of the Personnel Department of Turkish Army) was a general of the Ottoman Empire.
Hınıs (Խնուս, Khnus) is a town and district of Erzurum Province in the Eastern Anatolia Region of Turkey.
The I Caucasian Corps of the Ottoman Empire (Turkish: 1 nci Kafkas Kolordusu or Birinci Kafkas Kolordusu) was one of the corps of the Ottoman Army.
The II Caucasian Corps of the Ottoman Empire (Turkish: 2 nci Kafkas Kolordusu or İkinci Kafkas Kolordusu) was one of the corps of the Ottoman Army.
The IX Corps of the Ottoman Empire (Turkish: 9 ncu Kolordu or Dokuzuncu Kolordu) was one of the corps of the Ottoman Army.
Kiğı (Gêxî, Քղի Kʿġi) is a town and district of Bingöl Province in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey.
Korçë ((Korça), other names see below) is a city and municipality in southeastern Albania, and the seat of Korçë County.
The Kurds (rtl, Kurd) or the Kurdish people (rtl, Gelî kurd), are an ethnic group in the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a contiguous area spanning adjacent parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern Kurdistan), northwestern Iran (Eastern Kurdistan), northern Iraq (Southern Kurdistan), and northern Syria (Western Kurdistan).
Mahmud Kâmil Pasha (1880; Aleppo -June 1922; Constantinople (Istanbul)) was a general of the Ottoman Army.
Mardin (Mêrdîn, ܡܶܪܕܺܝܢ, Arabic/Ottoman Turkish: rtl Mārdīn) is a city and multiple (former/titular) bishopric in southeastern Turkey.
Mehmed Esad Pasha (18 October 1862 – 2 November 1952), known as Mehmet Esat Bülkat after the 1934 Surname Law, was an Ottoman general active during the First Balkan War, where he led the Yanya Corps, and in World War I, where he was the senior Ottoman commander in the Dardanelles Campaign.
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (19 May 1881 (conventional) – 10 November 1938) was a Turkish army officer, revolutionary, and founder of the Republic of Turkey, serving as its first President from 1923 until his death in 1938.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Otto von Feldmann (6 August 1873, Berlin – 20 May 1945) was a German officer and politician.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Pasinler or Basiani (Pasinler; Φασιανοί Phasianoi; Phasiani; ბასიანი, Basiani; Բասեն, Pasen; formerly Hasankale and Hesenqele, meaning "the fortress of Hasan"), is a town in Erzurum Province, Turkey on the Aras River.
Pristina (Prishtina or Prishtinë) or Priština (Приштина), is the capital and largest city of Kosovo.
Prizren (Prizreni; Призрен) is a city and municipality located in the Prizren District of Kosovo.
Rumelia (روم ايلى, Rūm-ėli; Rumeli), also known as Turkey in Europe, was a historical term describing the area in southeastern Europe that was administered by the Ottoman Empire, mainly the Balkan Peninsula.
The Russian Caucasus Army (Кавказскaя армия) of World War I was the Russian field army that fought in the Caucasus Campaign and Persian Campaign of World War I. It was renowned for inflicting heavy casualties on the opposing forces of the Ottoman Empire, particularly at the Battle of Sarikamish.
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
Saray (Mehmûdî) is a district of Van Province of Turkey.
The Second Constitutional Era (ايکنجى مشروطيت دورى; İkinci Meşrûtiyyet Devri) of the Ottoman Empire established shortly after the 1908 Young Turk Revolution which forced Sultan Abdul Hamid II to restore the constitutional monarchy by the revival of the Ottoman Parliament, the General Assembly of the Ottoman Empire and the restoration of the constitution of 1876.
Sérres (Σέρρες) is a city in Macedonia, Greece, capital of the Serres regional unit and second largest city in the region of Central Macedonia, after Thessaloniki.
Sivas (Latin and Greek: Sebastia, Sebastea, Sebasteia, Sebaste, Σεβάστεια, Σεβαστή) is a city in central Turkey and the seat of Sivas Province.
Siverek (Zaza Language | Sêwreg) is a city and district in the south-east of Turkey, in Şanlıurfa Province.
Skopje (Скопје) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Macedonia.
Thessaloniki (Θεσσαλονίκη, Thessaloníki), also familiarly known as Thessalonica, Salonica, or Salonika is the second-largest city in Greece, with over 1 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area, and the capital of Greek Macedonia, the administrative region of Central Macedonia and the Decentralized Administration of Macedonia and Thrace.
The Treaty of Batum was signed in Batum on 4 June 1918 between the Ottoman Empire and the three Transcaucasian states: the First Republic of Armenia, the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic and the Democratic Republic of Georgia.
The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on 3 March 1918 between the new Bolshevik government of Soviet Russia and the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire), that ended Russia's participation in World War I. The treaty was signed at Brest-Litovsk (Brześć Litewski; since 1945 Brest), after two months of negotiations.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Tutak (Դութախ - Duthakh), is a town and a district of Ağrı Province in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey.
Typhus, also known as typhus fever, is a group of infectious diseases that include epidemic typhus, scrub typhus and murine typhus.
Van (Van; Վան; Wan; فان; Εύα, Eua) is a city in eastern Turkey's Van Province, located on the eastern shore of Lake Van.
Varto (Zazaki & Kurmanji: "Gımgım"; Barzanissa) is a town in eastern Turkey.
Veles (Велес) is a city in the central part of the Republic of Macedonia on the Vardar river.
Viranşehir (Wêranşar) is a market town serving a cotton-growing area of Şanlıurfa Province, in southeastern Turkey, 93 km east of Şanlıurfa city and 53 km north-west of the Syrian border at Ceylanpınar.
Wehib Pasha also known as Vehip Pasha, Mehmed Wehib Pasha, Mehmet Vehip Pasha (modern Turkish: Kaçı Vehip Paşa or Mehmet Vehip (Kaçı), 1877–1940), was a general in the Ottoman Army.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
The X Corps of the Ottoman Empire (Turkish: 10 ncu Kolordu or Onuncu Kolordu) was one of the corps of the Ottoman Army.
The XI Corps of the Ottoman Empire (Turkish: 11 nci Kolordu or On Birinci Kolordu) was one of the corps of the Ottoman Army.
The Young Turk Revolution (July 1908) of the Ottoman Empire was when the Young Turks movement restored the Ottoman constitution of 1876 and ushered in multi-party politics in a two stage electoral system (electoral law) under the Ottoman parliament.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.