268 relations: Abel Boyer, Albany Congress, Albany Plan, American Revolution, American Revolutionary War, Anabaptism, Anglicanism, Anglo-Dutch Wars, Anne Hutchinson, Anton-Hermann Chroust, Appalachian Mountains, Aquidneck Island, Ashley Jackson (historian), Atlantic history, Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic slave trade, Baptists, Barbados, Battle of Cartagena de Indias, Battles of Lexington and Concord, Benjamin Franklin, Bermuda, Bills of credit, Board of Trade, Boston, Boston Tea Party, British America, British colonization of the Americas, British Empire, British Isles, British North America, British West Indies, Brown University, Calvinism, Canonicus, Cartagena, Colombia, Cash crop, Catholic Church, Cecil Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore, Charles I of England, Charles II of England, Charles McLean Andrews, Charleston, South Carolina, Chennai, Chesapeake Bay, Church of England, College of William & Mary, Colonial American military history, Colonial government in the Thirteen Colonies, Colonial history of the United States, ..., Colonial South and the Chesapeake, Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Colony of Virginia, Columbia University, Commodity money, Common law, Concord, Massachusetts, Congregational church, Connecticut Colony, Connecticut River, Constitution of the United Kingdom, Constitutional monarchy, Continental Association, Continental Congress, Continental Reformed church, Credit in the Thirteen Colonies, Crown colony, Cuisine of the Thirteen Colonies, Currency Act, Dartmouth College, Deism, Delaware Colony, Delaware River, Delaware Valley, Dominion of New England, Dutch Americans, Dutch language, Dutch Reformed Church, Dutch Republic, Dutch West India Company, Early American currency, East Florida, East India Company, East Jersey, Edmund Andros, Edward Vernon, English language, First Continental Congress, First Great Awakening, Flag of Great Britain, French and Indian War, French language, French people, French Revolution, George III of the United Kingdom, George Louis Beer, George Washington, Georgia (U.S. state), German Americans, German language, Germans, Glorious Revolution, Grenada, Gross domestic product, Haitian Revolution, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Harvard College, Herbert L. Osgood, History of immigration to the United States, History of Nova Scotia, History of the Connecticut Constitution, History of the United States (1776–89), Hudson Bay, Hudson River, Huguenots, Indian Reserve (1763), Indigenous languages of the Americas, Intolerable Acts, Invasion of Quebec (1775), Ireland, James II of England, James Oglethorpe, James Otis Jr., James VI and I, Jamestown, Virginia, Jews, John Roebuck, Judaism, Kennebec River, King George's War, Kingdom of England, Kingdom of France, Kingdom of Great Britain, Lawrence H. 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Abel Boyer (1667? – 16 November 1729) was a French-English lexicographer, journalist and miscellaneous writer.
The Albany Congress (also known as "The Conference of Albany") was a meeting of representatives sent by the legislatures of seven of the thirteen British colonies in British America: Connecticut, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Pennsylvania, and Rhode Island.
The Albany Plan of Union was a plan to create a unified government for the Thirteen Colonies, suggested by Benjamin Franklin, then a senior leader (age 48) and a delegate from Pennsylvania, at the Albany Congress on July 10, 1754 in Albany, New York.
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
Anabaptism (from Neo-Latin anabaptista, from the Greek ἀναβαπτισμός: ἀνά- "re-" and βαπτισμός "baptism", Täufer, earlier also WiedertäuferSince the middle of the 20th century, the German-speaking world no longer uses the term "Wiedertäufer" (translation: "Re-baptizers"), considering it biased. The term Täufer (translation: "Baptizers") is now used, which is considered more impartial. From the perspective of their persecutors, the "Baptizers" baptized for the second time those "who as infants had already been baptized". The denigrative term Anabaptist signifies rebaptizing and is considered a polemical term, so it has been dropped from use in modern German. However, in the English-speaking world, it is still used to distinguish the Baptizers more clearly from the Baptists, a Protestant sect that developed later in England. Cf. their self-designation as "Brethren in Christ" or "Church of God":.) is a Christian movement which traces its origins to the Radical Reformation.
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.
The Anglo-Dutch wars (Engels–Nederlandse Oorlogen or Engelse Zeeoorlogen) were a series of conflicts fought, on one side, by the Dutch States (the Dutch Republic, later the Batavian Republic) and, on the other side, first by England and later by the Kingdom of Great Britain/the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Anne Hutchinson (née Marbury; July 1591 – August 1643) was a Puritan spiritual adviser, mother of 15, and an important participant in the Antinomian Controversy which shook the infant Massachusetts Bay Colony from 1636 to 1638.
Anton-Hermann Chroust (29 January 1907 – January 1982) was a German-American jurist, philosopher and historian.
The Appalachian Mountains (les Appalaches), often called the Appalachians, are a system of mountains in eastern North America.
Aquidneck Island, officially Rhode Island, is an island in Narragansett Bay and in the U.S. state of Rhode Island and the Providence Plantations, which is partially named after the island.
Ashley Jackson is a professor of imperial and military history in the Defence Studies Department at King's College London and a visiting fellow at Kellogg College, University of Oxford.
Atlantic history is a specialty field in history that studies of the Atlantic World in the early modern period.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
The Atlantic slave trade or transatlantic slave trade involved the transportation by slave traders of enslaved African people, mainly to the Americas.
Baptists are Christians distinguished by baptizing professing believers only (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism), and doing so by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling).
Barbados is an island country in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies, in the Caribbean region of North America.
The Battle of Cartagena de Indias was an amphibious military engagement between the forces of Britain under Vice-Admiral Edward Vernon and those of Spain under the Viceroy Sebastián de Eslava. It took place at the city of Cartagena de Indias in March 1741, in present-day Colombia. The battle was a significant episode of the War of Jenkins' Ear and a large-scale naval campaign. The conflict later subsumed into the greater conflict of the War of the Austrian Succession. The battle resulted in a major defeat for the British Navy and Army. The defeat caused heavy losses for the British. Disease (especially yellow fever), rather than deaths from combat, took the greatest toll on both the Spanish and British forces.
The Battles of Lexington and Concord were the first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War.
Benjamin Franklin (April 17, 1790) was an American polymath and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
Bermuda is a British Overseas Territory in the North Atlantic Ocean.
Bills of credit are documents similar to banknotes issued by a government that represent a government's indebtedness to the holder.
The Board of Trade is a British government department concerned with commerce and industry, currently within the Department for International Trade.
Boston is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.
The Boston Tea Party was a political and mercantile protest by the Sons of Liberty in Boston, Massachusetts, on December 16, 1773.
British America refers to English Crown colony territories on the continent of North America and Bermuda, Central America, the Caribbean, and Guyana from 1607 to 1783.
The British colonization of the Americas (including colonization by both the English and the Scots) began in 1607 in Jamestown, Virginia, and reached its peak when colonies had been established throughout the Americas.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The British Isles are a group of islands off the north-western coast of continental Europe that consist of the islands of Great Britain, Ireland, the Isle of Man and over six thousand smaller isles.
The term "British North America" refers to the former territories of the British Empire on the mainland of North America.
The British West Indies, sometimes abbreviated to the BWI, is a collective term for the British territories in the Caribbean: Anguilla, Bermuda, the Cayman Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands, Montserrat and the British Virgin Islands.
Brown University is a private Ivy League research university in Providence, Rhode Island, United States.
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
Canonicus (c. 1565 – June 4, 1647) was a Native American chief of the Narragansett people.
The city of Cartagena, known in the colonial era as Cartagena de Indias (Cartagena de Indias), is a major port founded in 1533, located on the northern coast of Colombia in the Caribbean Coast Region.
A cash crop or profit crop is an agricultural crop which is grown for sale to return a profit.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Cecil Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore (8 August 1605 – 30 November 1675), was the first Proprietor of the Province of Maryland, ninth Proprietary Governor of the Colony of Newfoundland and second of the colony of Province of Avalon to its southeast.
Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649.
Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was king of England, Scotland and Ireland.
Charles McLean Andrews (February 22, 1863 – September 9, 1943) was one of the most distinguished American historians of his time as a leading authority on American colonial history.
Charleston is the oldest and largest city in the U.S. state of South Carolina, the county seat of Charleston County, and the principal city in the Charleston–North Charleston–Summerville Metropolitan Statistical Area.
Chennai (formerly known as Madras or) is the capital of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
The Chesapeake Bay is an estuary in the U.S. states of Maryland and Virginia.
The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.
The College of William & Mary (also known as William & Mary, or W&M) is a public research university in Williamsburg, Virginia. Founded in 1693 by letters patent issued by King William III and Queen Mary II, it is the second-oldest institution of higher education in the United States, after Harvard University. William & Mary educated American Presidents Thomas Jefferson (third), James Monroe (fifth), and John Tyler (tenth) as well as other key figures important to the development of the nation, including the fourth U.S. Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall of Virginia, Speaker of the House of Representatives Henry Clay of Kentucky, sixteen members of the Continental Congress, and four signers of the Declaration of Independence, earning it the nickname "the Alma Mater of the Nation." A young George Washington (1732–1799) also received his surveyor's license through the college. W&M students founded the Phi Beta Kappa academic honor society in 1776 and W&M was the first school of higher education in the United States to install an honor code of conduct for students. The establishment of graduate programs in law and medicine in 1779 makes it one of the earliest higher level universities in the United States. In addition to its undergraduate program (which includes an international joint degree program with the University of St Andrews in Scotland and a joint engineering program with Columbia University in New York City), W&M is home to several graduate programs (including computer science, public policy, physics, and colonial history) and four professional schools (law, business, education, and marine science). In his 1985 book Public Ivies: A Guide to America's Best Public Undergraduate Colleges and Universities, Richard Moll categorized William & Mary as one of eight "Public Ivies".
Colonial American military history is the military record of the Thirteen Colonies from their founding to the American Revolution in 1775.
Colonial government in the Thirteen Colonies of North America shared many attributes.
The colonial history of the United States covers the history of European colonization of the Americas from the start of colonization in the early 16th century until their incorporation into the United States of America.
During the British colonization of North America, the Thirteen Colonies provided England with much needed money and resources.
The Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations was one of the original Thirteen Colonies established on the east coast of North America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean.
The Colony of Virginia, chartered in 1606 and settled in 1607, was the first enduring English colony in North America, following failed proprietary attempts at settlement on Newfoundland by Sir Humphrey GilbertGILBERT (Saunders Family), SIR HUMPHREY" (history), Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online, University of Toronto, May 2, 2005 in 1583, and the subsequent further south Roanoke Island (modern eastern North Carolina) by Sir Walter Raleigh in the late 1580s. The founder of the new colony was the Virginia Company, with the first two settlements in Jamestown on the north bank of the James River and Popham Colony on the Kennebec River in modern-day Maine, both in 1607. The Popham colony quickly failed due to a famine, disease, and conflict with local Native American tribes in the first two years. Jamestown occupied land belonging to the Powhatan Confederacy, and was also at the brink of failure before the arrival of a new group of settlers and supplies by ship in 1610. Tobacco became Virginia's first profitable export, the production of which had a significant impact on the society and settlement patterns. In 1624, the Virginia Company's charter was revoked by King James I, and the Virginia colony was transferred to royal authority as a crown colony. After the English Civil War in the 1640s and 50s, the Virginia colony was nicknamed "The Old Dominion" by King Charles II for its perceived loyalty to the English monarchy during the era of the Protectorate and Commonwealth of England.. From 1619 to 1775/1776, the colonial legislature of Virginia was the House of Burgesses, which governed in conjunction with a colonial governor. Jamestown on the James River remained the capital of the Virginia colony until 1699; from 1699 until its dissolution the capital was in Williamsburg. The colony experienced its first major political turmoil with Bacon's Rebellion of 1676. After declaring independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1775, before the Declaration of Independence was officially adopted, the Virginia colony became the Commonwealth of Virginia, one of the original thirteen states of the United States, adopting as its official slogan "The Old Dominion". The entire modern states of West Virginia, Kentucky, Indiana and Illinois, and portions of Ohio and Western Pennsylvania were later created from the territory encompassed, or claimed by, the colony of Virginia at the time of further American independence in July 1776.
Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.
Commodity money is money whose value comes from a commodity of which it is made.
Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.
Concord is a town in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, in the United States.
Congregational churches (also Congregationalist churches; Congregationalism) are Protestant churches in the Reformed tradition practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs.
The Connecticut Colony or Colony of Connecticut, originally known as the Connecticut River Colony or simply the River Colony, was an English colony in North America that became the U.S. state of Connecticut.
The Connecticut River is the longest river in the New England region of the United States, flowing roughly southward for through four states.
The United Kingdom does not have one specific constitutional document named as such.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
The Continental Association, often known simply as the "Association", was a system created by the First Continental Congress in 1774 for implementing a trade boycott with Great Britain.
The Continental Congress, also known as the Philadelphia Congress, was a convention of delegates called together from the Thirteen Colonies.
A Continental Reformed church is a Reformed church that has its origin in the European continent.
The Thirteen Colonies made wide use of credit.
Crown colony, dependent territory and royal colony are terms used to describe the administration of United Kingdom overseas territories that are controlled by the British Government.
The cuisine of the Thirteen Colonies includes the foods, eating habits, and cooking methods of the Colonial United States.
The Currency Act is one of many several Acts of the Parliament of Great Britain that regulated paper money issued by the colonies of British America.
Dartmouth College is a private Ivy League research university in Hanover, New Hampshire, United States.
Deism (or; derived from Latin "deus" meaning "god") is a philosophical belief that posits that God exists and is ultimately responsible for the creation of the universe, but does not interfere directly with the created world.
Delaware Colony in the North American Middle Colonies consisted of land on the west bank of the Delaware River Bay.
The Delaware River is a major river on the Atlantic coast of the United States.
The Delaware Valley is the valley through which the Delaware River flows.
The Dominion of New England in America (1686–89) was an administrative union of English colonies covering New England and the Mid-Atlantic Colonies (except for the Colony of Pennsylvania).
Dutch Americans are Americans of Dutch descent whose ancestors came from the Netherlands in the recent or distant past.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
The Dutch Reformed Church (in or NHK) was the largest Christian denomination in the Netherlands from the onset of the Protestant Reformation until 1930.
The Dutch Republic was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from the Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.
Dutch West India Company (Geoctroyeerde Westindische Compagnie, or GWIC; Chartered West India Company) was a chartered company (known as the "WIC") of Dutch merchants as well as foreign investors.
Early American currency went through several stages of development in colonial and post-Revolutionary history of the United States.
East Florida (Florida Oriental) was a colony of Great Britain from 1763 to 1783 and a province of Spanish Florida from 1783 to 1821.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
The Province of East Jersey, along with the Province of West Jersey, between 1674 and 1702 in accordance with the Quintipartite Deed were two distinct political divisions of the Province of New Jersey, which became the U.S. state of New Jersey.
Sir Edmund Andros (6 December 1637 – 24 February 1714) was an English colonial administrator in North America.
Admiral Edward Vernon (12 November 1684 – 30 October 1757) was an English naval officer.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
The First Continental Congress was a meeting of delegates from twelve of the Thirteen Colonies who met from September 5 to October 26, 1774, at Carpenters' Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, early in the American Revolution.
The First Great Awakening (sometimes Great Awakening) or the Evangelical Revival was a series of Christian revivals that swept Britain and its Thirteen Colonies between the 1730s and 1740s.
The flag of Great Britain, commonly known as the Union Jack or Union Flag, is a maritime flag of Great Britain that was used from 1606 to 1801.
The French and Indian War (1754–63) comprised the North American theater of the worldwide Seven Years' War of 1756–63.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
The French (Français) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation who are identified with the country of France.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820.
George Louis Beer (July 26, 1872 – March 15, 1920) was a renowned American historian of the "Imperial school".
George Washington (February 22, 1732 –, 1799), known as the "Father of His Country," was an American soldier and statesman who served from 1789 to 1797 as the first President of the United States.
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States.
German Americans (Deutschamerikaner) are Americans who have full or partial German ancestry.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange, who was James's nephew and son-in-law.
Grenada is a sovereign state in the southeastern Caribbean Sea consisting of the island of Grenada and six smaller islands at the southern end of the Grenadines island chain.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
The Haitian Revolution (Révolution haïtienne) was a successful anti-slavery and anti-colonial insurrection by self-liberated slaves against French colonial rule in Saint-Domingue, now the sovereign nation of Haiti.
Halifax, officially known as the Halifax Regional Municipality (HRM), is the capital of the Canadian province of Nova Scotia.
Harvard College is the undergraduate liberal arts college of Harvard University.
Herbert Levi Osgood (April 9, 1855 in Canton, Maine – September 11, 1918 in New York City) was an American historian of colonial American history.
The history of immigration to the United States details the movement of people to the United States starting with the first European settlements from around 1600.
Nova Scotia (also known as Mi'kma'ki and Acadia) is a Canadian province located in Canada's Maritimes.
Connecticut is known as the "constitution state." The origin of this title is uncertain, but the nickname is assumed to be a reference to the Fundamental Orders of 1638-39 which represent the framework for the first formal government written by a representative body in Connecticut.
Between 1776 and 1789, the United States of America emerged as an independent country, creating and ratifying its new constitution and establishing its national government.
Hudson Bay (Inuktitut: Kangiqsualuk ilua, baie d'Hudson) (sometimes called Hudson's Bay, usually historically) is a large body of saltwater in northeastern Canada with a surface area of.
The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York in the United States.
Huguenots (Les huguenots) are an ethnoreligious group of French Protestants who follow the Reformed tradition.
The Indian Reserve is a historical term for the largely uncolonized area in North America acquired by Great Britain from France through the Treaty of Paris (1763) at the end of the Seven Years' War (known as the French and Indian War in the North American theatre), and set aside in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 for use by American Indians, who already inhabited it.
Indigenous languages of the Americas are spoken by indigenous peoples from Alaska and Greenland to the southern tip of South America, encompassing the land masses that constitute the Americas.
The Intolerable Acts was the term invented by 19th century historians to refer to a series of punitive laws passed by the British Parliament in 1774 after the Boston Tea Party.
The Invasion of Quebec in 1775 was the first major military initiative by the newly formed Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
James II and VII (14 October 1633O.S. – 16 September 1701An assertion found in many sources that James II died 6 September 1701 (17 September 1701 New Style) may result from a miscalculation done by an author of anonymous "An Exact Account of the Sickness and Death of the Late King James II, as also of the Proceedings at St. Germains thereupon, 1701, in a letter from an English gentleman in France to his friend in London" (Somers Tracts, ed. 1809–1815, XI, pp. 339–342). The account reads: "And on Friday the 17th instant, about three in the afternoon, the king died, the day he always fasted in memory of our blessed Saviour's passion, the day he ever desired to die on, and the ninth hour, according to the Jewish account, when our Saviour was crucified." As 17 September 1701 New Style falls on a Saturday and the author insists that James died on Friday, "the day he ever desired to die on", an inevitable conclusion is that the author miscalculated the date, which later made it to various reference works. See "English Historical Documents 1660–1714", ed. by Andrew Browning (London and New York: Routledge, 2001), 136–138.) was King of England and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688.
James Edward Oglethorpe (22 December 1696 – 30 June 1785) was a British soldier, Member of Parliament, and philanthropist, as well as the founder of the colony of Georgia.
James Otis Jr. (February 5, 1725 – May 23, 1783) was a lawyer, political activist, pamphleteer and legislator in Boston, a member of the Massachusetts provincial assembly, and an early advocate of the Patriot views against British policy that led to the American Revolution.
James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625.
The Jamestown settlement in the Colony of Virginia was the first permanent English settlement in the Americas.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
John Roebuck of Kinneil FRS FRSE (1718 – 17 July 1794) was an English inventor and industrialist who played an important role in the Industrial Revolution and who is known for developing the industrial-scale manufacture of sulphuric acid.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
The Kennebec River is a U.S. Geological Survey.
King George's War (1744–1748) is the name given to the military operations in North America that formed part of the War of the Austrian Succession (1740–1748).
The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Kingdom of France (Royaume de France) was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe.
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.
Lawrence Henry Gipson (1880 – September 26, 1971) was an American historian, who won the 1950 Bancroft Prize and the 1962 Pulitzer Prize for History for volumes of his magnum opus, the fifteen-volume history of "The British Empire Before the American Revolution", published 1936–70.
A legislative session is the period of time in which a legislature, in both parliamentary and presidential systems, is convened for purpose of lawmaking, usually being one of two or more smaller divisions of the entire time between two elections.
The Lenape, also called the Leni Lenape, Lenni Lenape and Delaware people, are an indigenous people of the Northeastern Woodlands, who live in Canada and the United States.
Letters patent (always in the plural) are a type of legal instrument in the form of a published written order issued by a monarch, president, or other head of state, generally granting an office, right, monopoly, title, or status to a person or corporation.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
The London Company (also called the Virginia Company of London) was an English joint stock company established in 1606 by royal charter by King James I with the purpose of establishing colonial settlements in North America.
The title of Lord Proprietor was a position akin to head landlord or overseer of a territory.
Louisbourg is an unincorporated community and former town in Cape Breton Regional Municipality, Nova Scotia.
Louisiana (La Louisiane; La Louisiane française) or French Louisiana was an administrative district of New France.
Loyalists were American colonists who remained loyal to the British Crown during the American Revolutionary War, often called Tories, Royalists, or King's Men at the time.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Manhattan is the most densely populated borough of New York City, its economic and administrative center, and its historical birthplace.
Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and Washington, D.C. to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware to its east.
The Massachusetts Bay Colony (1628–1691) was an English settlement on the east coast of North America in the 17th century around the Massachusetts Bay, the northernmost of the several colonies later reorganized as the Province of Massachusetts Bay.
The Mayflower was an English ship that famously transported the first English Puritans, known today as the Pilgrims, from Plymouth, England to the New World in 1620.
The Mayflower Compact was the first governing document of Plymouth Colony.
The Mennonites are members of certain Christian groups belonging to the church communities of Anabaptist denominations named after Menno Simons (1496–1561) of Friesland (which today is a province of the Netherlands).
Mercantilism is a national economic policy designed to maximize the trade of a nation and, historically, to maximize the accumulation of gold and silver (as well as crops).
Methodism or the Methodist movement is a group of historically related denominations of Protestant Christianity which derive their inspiration from the life and teachings of John Wesley, an Anglican minister in England.
The Narragansett tribe are an Algonquian American Indian tribe from Rhode Island.
Native American religions are the spiritual practices of the indigenous peoples of the Americas.
Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States.
The Navigation Acts were a series of English laws that restricted colonial trade to England.
New Amsterdam (Nieuw Amsterdam, or) was a 17th-century Dutch settlement established at the southern tip of Manhattan Island that served as the seat of the colonial government in New Netherland.
New France (Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France in North America during a period beginning with the exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Great Britain and Spain in 1763.
The New Haven Colony was a small English colony in North America from 1637 to 1664 in what is now the state of Connecticut.
New Netherland (Dutch: Nieuw Nederland; Latin: Nova Belgica or Novum Belgium) was a 17th-century colony of the Dutch Republic that was located on the east coast of North America.
New Sweden (Swedish: Nya Sverige; Uusi Ruotsi; Nova Svecia) was a Swedish colony along the lower reaches of the Delaware River in North America from 1638 to 1655, established during the Thirty Years' War, when Sweden was a great power.
The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).
The Conspiracy of 1741, also known as the Negro Plot of 1741 or the Slave Insurrection of 1741, was a purported plot by slaves and poor whites in the British colony of New York in 1741 to revolt and level New York City with a series of fires.
Newfoundland Colony was the name for an English and later British colony established in 1610 on the island of the same name off the Atlantic coast of Canada, in what is now the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.
"No taxation without representation" is a slogan originating during the 1700s that summarized a primary grievance of the American colonists in the Thirteen Colonies, which was one of the major causes of the American Revolution.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
Nova Scotia (Latin for "New Scotland"; Nouvelle-Écosse; Scottish Gaelic: Alba Nuadh) is one of Canada's three maritime provinces, and one of the four provinces that form Atlantic Canada.
The Ohio Company, formally known as the Ohio Company of Virginia, was a land speculation company organized for the settlement by Virginians of the Ohio Country (approximately the present state of Ohio) and to trade with the Native Americans.
The Ohio Country (sometimes called the Ohio Territory or Ohio Valley by the French) was a name used in the 18th century for the regions of North America west of the Appalachian Mountains and in the region of the upper Ohio River south of Lake Erie.
The Ohio River, which streams westward from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to Cairo, Illinois, is the largest tributary, by volume, of the Mississippi River in the United States.
The terms Old Lights and New Lights (among others) are used in Protestant Christian circles to distinguish between two groups who were initially the same, but have come to a disagreement.
The Parliament of Great Britain was formed in 1707 following the ratification of the Acts of Union by both the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland.
Patriots (also known as Revolutionaries, Continentals, Rebels, or American Whigs) were those colonists of the Thirteen Colonies who rejected British rule during the American Revolution and declared the United States of America as an independent nation in July 1776.
Peter Minuit, Pieter Minuit, Pierre Minuit, or Peter Minnewit (between 1580 and 1585 – August 5, 1638) was a Walloon from Wesel, in present-day North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, then part of the Duchy of Cleves.
Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.
Philip Ludwell (1637/381716) of Rich Neck Plantation in James City County, Virginia was an American military and political figure, best known as governor of the British Colony of Carolina from 169194.
The Pilgrims or Pilgrim Fathers were early European settlers of the Plymouth Colony in present-day Plymouth, Massachusetts, United States.
Plymouth Colony (sometimes New Plymouth) was an English colonial venture in North America from 1620 to 1691.
The Plymouth Company was an English joint-stock company founded in 1606 by James I of England with the purpose of establishing settlements on the coast of North America.
The Plymouth Council for New England was the name of a 17th-century English joint stock company that was granted a royal charter to found colonial settlements along the coast of North America.
The Popham Colony—also known as the Sagadahoc Colony—was a short-lived English colonial settlement in North America that was founded in 1607 and located in the present-day town of Phippsburg, Maine, near the mouth of the Kennebec River by the proprietary Virginia Company of Plymouth.
The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known as the pound and less commonly referred to as Sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.
Presbyterianism is a part of the reformed tradition within Protestantism which traces its origins to Britain, particularly Scotland, and Ireland.
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.
Prince Edward Island (PEI or P.E.I.; Île-du-Prince-Édouard) is a province of Canada consisting of the island of the same name, and several much smaller islands.
Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey.
A proprietary colony was a type of British colony mostly in North America and the Caribbean in the 17th century.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Providence Plantation was the first permanent European American settlement in Rhode Island.
The Province of Carolina was an English and later a British colony of North America.
The Province of Georgia (also Georgia Colony) was one of the Southern colonies in British America.
The Province of Maine refers to any of several English colonies.
The Province of Maryland was an English and later British colony in North America that existed from 1632 until 1776, when it joined the other twelve of the Thirteen Colonies in rebellion against Great Britain and became the U.S. state of Maryland.
The Province of Massachusetts Bay was a crown colony in British North America and one of the thirteen original states of the United States from 1776.
The Province of New Hampshire was a colony of England and later a British province in North America.
The Province of New Jersey was one of the Middle Colonies of Colonial America and became New Jersey, a state of United States in 1783.
The Province of New York (1664–1776) was a British proprietary colony and later royal colony on the northeast coast of North America.
For history prior to 1712, see Province of Carolina. King Charles II of England granted the Carolina charter in 1663 for land south of Virginia Colony and north of Spanish Florida.
The Province of Pennsylvania, also known as the Pennsylvania Colony, was founded in English North America by William Penn on March 4, 1681 as dictated in a royal charter granted by King Charles II.
The Province of Quebec was a colony in North America created by Great Britain after the Seven Years' War.
The Province of South Carolina (also known as the South Carolina Colony) was originally part of the Province of Carolina in British America, which was chartered by eight Lords Proprietor in 1663.
"Provincial Congress" can refer to one of several extra-legal legislative bodies established in some of the Thirteen Colonies early in the American Revolution.
The Puritan migration to New England was marked in its effects in the two decades from 1620 to 1640, after which it declined sharply for a time.
The Puritans were English Reformed Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who sought to "purify" the Church of England from its "Catholic" practices, maintaining that the Church of England was only partially reformed.
Quakers (or Friends) are members of a historically Christian group of religious movements formally known as the Religious Society of Friends or Friends Church.
The Quebec Act of 1774 (Acte de Québec), (the Act) formally known as the British North America (Quebec) Act 1774, was an act of the Parliament of Great Britain (citation 14 Geo. III c. 83) setting procedures of governance in the Province of Quebec.
Reformed Baptists (sometimes known as Particular Baptists or Calvinistic Baptists) are Baptists that hold to a Calvinist soteriology.
Modern republicanism is a guiding political philosophy of the United States that has been a major part of American civic thought since its founding.
The Restoration of the English monarchy took place in the Stuart period.
The Rhode Island Royal Charter was a document providing royal recognition to the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, approved by England's King Charles II in July 1663.
Richard Nicholls (1624 in Ampthill, Bedfordshire – 28 May 1672 on the North Sea, off Suffolk) was the first English colonial governor of New York province.
The rights of Englishmen are the perceived traditional rights of citizens of England.
The Roanoke Colony, also known as the Lost Colony, was established in 1585 on Roanoke Island in what is today's Dare County, North Carolina.
Robert Jenkins (1730s-40s in Llanelli, Wales – fl.) was a Welsh master mariner, famous as the protagonist of the "Jenkins's ear" incident, which became a contributory cause of the War of Jenkins' Ear between Britain and Spain in 1739.
Robert L. Middlekauff (born 1929) is a professor emeritus of colonial and early United States history at UC Berkeley.
Roger Williams (c. 21 December 1603 – between 27 January and 15 March 1683) was a Puritan minister, English Reformed theologian, and Reformed Baptist who founded the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.
A royal charter is a formal document issued by a monarch as letters patent, granting a right or power to an individual or a body corporate.
The Royal Proclamation of 1763 was issued October 7, 1763, by King George III following Great Britain's acquisition of French territory in North America after the end of the French and Indian War/Seven Years' War.
Rupert's Land, or Prince Rupert's Land, was a territory in British North America comprising the Hudson Bay drainage basin, a territory in which a commercial monopoly was operated by the Hudson's Bay Company for 200 years from 1670 to 1870.
The Saybrook Colony was established in late 1635 at the mouth of the Connecticut River in present-day Old Saybrook, Connecticut by John Winthrop, the Younger, son of John Winthrop, the Governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
The Second Anglo-Dutch War (4 March 1665 – 31 July 1667), or the Second Dutch War (Tweede Engelse Oorlog "Second English War") was a conflict fought between England and the Dutch Republic for control over the seas and trade routes, where England tried to end the Dutch domination of world trade during a period of intense European commercial rivalry.
The Second Continental Congress was a convention of delegates from the Thirteen Colonies that started meeting in the spring of 1775 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
The Second Northern War (1655–60, also First or Little Northern War) was fought between Sweden and its adversaries the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1655–60), Russia (1656–58), Brandenburg-Prussia (1657–60), the Habsburg Monarchy (1657–60) and Denmark–Norway (1657–58 and 1658–60).
The separation of church and state is a philosophic and jurisprudential concept for defining political distance in the relationship between religious organizations and the nation state.
Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic Jews or Sephardim (סְפָרַדִּים, Modern Hebrew: Sefaraddim, Tiberian: Səp̄āraddîm; also Ye'hude Sepharad, lit. "The Jews of Spain"), originally from Sepharad, Spain or the Iberian peninsula, are a Jewish ethnic division.
The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763.
Between America’s vast natural resources, excellent location in relation to the world market, capital flow and plentiful skilled labor; the American colonies had a comparative advantage in shipbuilding.
The Siege of Boston (April 19, 1775 – March 17, 1776) was the opening phase of the American Revolutionary War.
The Siege of Louisbourg took place in 1745 when a New England colonial force aided by a British fleet captured Louisbourg, the capital of the French province of Île-Royale (present-day Cape Breton Island) during the War of the Austrian Succession, known as King George's War in the British colonies.
Sir John Colleton, 1st Baronet (1608–1666) served Charles I during the English Civil War.
Slavery in the colonial area which later became the '''United States''' (1600–1776) developed from complex factors, and researchers have proposed several theories to explain the development of the institution of slavery and of the slave trade.
Social history, often called the new social history, is a field of history that looks at the lived experience of the past.
The Sons of Liberty was an organization that was created in the Thirteen American Colonies.
Spanish Florida refers to the Spanish territory of La Florida, which was the first major European land claim and attempted settlement in North America during the European Age of Discovery.
The Stamp Act of 1765 (short title Duties in American Colonies Act 1765; 5 George III, c. 12) was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain that imposed a direct tax on the colonies of British America and required that many printed materials in the colonies be produced on stamped paper produced in London, carrying an embossed revenue stamp.
The state cessions are those areas of the United States that the separate states ceded to the federal government in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
The Stono Rebellion (sometimes called Cato's Conspiracy or Cato's Rebellion) was a slave rebellion that began on 9 September 1739, in the colony of South Carolina.
Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote).
The Sugar Act, also known as the American Revenue Act or the American Duties Act, was a revenue-raising act passed by the Parliament of Great Britain on 5 April 1764.
Tea Act 1773 (13 Geo 3 c 44) was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain.
The Third Anglo-Dutch War or the Third Dutch War (Derde Engelse Oorlog "Third English War", or Derde Engelse Zeeoorlog "Third English Sea War") was a military conflict between the Kingdom of England and the Dutch Republic, that lasted between April 1672 and early 1674.
General Thomas Gage (10 March 1718/19 – 2 April 1787) was a British Army general officer and colonial official best known for his many years of service in North America, including his role as British commander-in-chief in the early days of the American Revolution. Being born to an aristocratic family in England, he entered military service, seeing action in the French and Indian War, where he served alongside his future opponent George Washington in the 1755 Battle of the Monongahela. After the fall of Montreal in 1760, he was named its military governor. During this time he did not distinguish himself militarily, but proved himself to be a competent administrator. From 1763 to 1775 he served as commander-in-chief of the British forces in North America, overseeing the British response to the 1763 Pontiac's Rebellion. In 1774 he was also appointed the military governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, with instructions to implement the Intolerable Acts, punishing Massachusetts for the Boston Tea Party. His attempts to seize military stores of Patriot militias in April 1775 sparked the Battles of Lexington and Concord, beginning the American Revolutionary War. After the Pyrrhic victory in the June Battle of Bunker Hill, he was replaced by General William Howe in October, 1775, and returned to Great Britain.
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.
The Townshend Acts were a series of British acts passed during 1767 and 1768 and relating to the British American colonies in North America.
The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle of 1748, sometimes called the Treaty of Aachen, ended the War of the Austrian Succession following a congress assembled on 24 April 1748 at the Free Imperial City of Aachen, called Aix-la-Chapelle in French and then also in English, in the west of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Treaty of Breda was signed at the Dutch city of Breda, 31 July (Gregorian calendar), 1667, by England, the United Provinces (Netherlands), France, and Denmark–Norway.
The Treaty of Paris, also known as the Treaty of 1763, was signed on 10 February 1763 by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement, after Great Britain's victory over France and Spain during the Seven Years' War.
The Treaty of Paris, signed in Paris by representatives of King George III of Great Britain and representatives of the United States of America on September 3, 1783, ended the American Revolutionary War.
The Treaty of Utrecht, which established the Peace of Utrecht, is a series of individual peace treaties, rather than a single document, signed by the belligerents in the War of the Spanish Succession, in the Dutch city of Utrecht in March and April 1713.
The Treaty of Westminster of 1674 was the peace treaty that ended the Third Anglo-Dutch War.
Ulster (Ulaidh or Cúige Uladh, Ulster Scots: Ulstèr or Ulster) is a province in the north of the island of Ireland.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Declaration of Independence is the statement adopted by the Second Continental Congress meeting at the Pennsylvania State House (now known as Independence Hall) in Philadelphia on July 4, 1776.
The University of Pennsylvania (commonly known as Penn or UPenn) is a private Ivy League research university located in University City section of West Philadelphia.
Walloons (Wallons,; Walons) are a Romance ethnic people native to Belgium, principally its southern region of Wallonia, who speak French and Walloon.
The War of Jenkins' Ear (known as Guerra del Asiento in Spain) was a conflict between Britain and Spain lasting from 1739 to 1748, with major operations largely ended by 1742.
The War of the Austrian Succession (1740–1748) involved most of the powers of Europe over the question of Maria Theresa's succession to the Habsburg Monarchy.
Warwick (locally) is a city in Kent County, Rhode Island, the second largest city in the state with a population of 82,672 at the 2010 census.
West Florida (Florida Occidental) was a region on the north shore of the Gulf of Mexico that underwent several boundary and sovereignty changes during its history.
West Jersey and East Jersey were two distinct parts of the Province of New Jersey.
William Bradford (19 March 1590May 9, 1657) was an English Separatist originally from the West Riding of Yorkshire.
William Penn (14 October 1644 – 30 July 1718) was the son of Sir William Penn, and was an English real estate entrepreneur, philosopher, early Quaker, and founder of the English North American colony the Province of Pennsylvania.
William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham, (15 November 1708 – 11 May 1778) was a British statesman of the Whig group who led the government of Great Britain twice in the middle of the 18th century.
A world war, is a large-scale war involving many of the countries of the world or many of the most powerful and populous ones.
A writ of assistance is a written order (a writ) issued by a court instructing a law enforcement official, such as a sheriff or a tax collector, to perform a certain task.
Yale College is the undergraduate liberal arts college of Yale University.
The term "Yankee" and its contracted form "Yank" have several interrelated meanings, all referring to people from the United States; its various senses depend on the context.
The United States Census of 1860 was the eighth Census conducted in the United States starting June 1, 1860, and lasting five months.
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