326 relations: A History of Western Philosophy, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, Abbot, Abiogenesis, Absence of good, Actus Essendi, Adam and Eve, Adoro te devote, Advent, Aeterni Patris, Alasdair MacIntyre, Alban Butler, Albertus Magnus, Ambrose, Anarchy, Ancient Greek, Anglican Communion, Anonimo Gaddiano, Anselm of Canterbury, Anthony Kenny, Apollinaris of Laodicea, Apophatic theology, Appian Way, Aquinas Institute, Aquinas School, Aquino, Italy, Aristotelianism, Aristotle, Ascoli Piceno, Athanasius of Alexandria, Augustine of Hippo, Averroes, Averroism, Avicenna, Avignon, Étienne Gilson, Étienne Tempier, Bartholomew of Lucca, Basilica of Saint-Sernin, Toulouse, Beatific vision, Beatification, Belcastro, Bertrand Russell, Boethius, Brian Davies (philosopher), Calendar of saints, Canon Episcopi, Canon law, Canon law of the Catholic Church, Canonization, ..., Cardinal virtues, Carlo Crivelli, Catharism, Catholic Church, Catholic theology, Catholic University of America Press, Cato Institute, Charity (virtue), Charles I of Anjou, Charlton Heston, Christian mysticism, Christology, Church of the Jacobins, Cicero, Cistercians, Contra Errores Graecorum, Convent, Corpus Christi (feast), Cosmological argument, Cost-of-production theory of value, Courage, Crucifixion of Jesus, Dante Alighieri, Decretal, Deontological ethics, Devil's advocate, Dictionary of Scientific Biography, Dionysius the Areopagite, Divine Comedy, Divine grace, Divine law, Divine simplicity, Division of labour, Doctor of the Church, Doctrine, Dominican Order, East–West Schism, Eastern Orthodox Church, Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, Editio Leonina, Edward Feser, Eleonore Stump, Empedocles, Encyclical, Encyclopædia Metropolitana, Epistemology, Epistle to the Philippians, Erwin Panofsky, Ethics, Eucharist, Eutyches, Existence of God, Faith, First Council of Nicaea, First principle, Five Ways (Aquinas), Fossanova Abbey, Franciscans, Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, Free will, Friar, G. E. M. Anscombe, G. K. Chesterton, General revelation, General Roman Calendar, Gentile da Fabriano, Gratia non tollit naturam, sed perficit, HarperCollins, Henry Adams, Heresy, High Middle Ages, Holy Spirit, Homo unius libri, Hope, Hylomorphism, Hypostasis (philosophy and religion), Incarnation, Incarnation (Christianity), Infidel, International Council of Universities of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Italians, J. Budziszewski, Jacques Maritain, Jacques Paul Migne, James Joseph Walsh, James Joyce, James V. Schall, Januarius, Jerome, Jesus, Jesus in Christianity, Jews, John Finnis, John of Wildeshausen, John Peckham, Josef Pieper, Joseph Rickaby, Jurist, Just price, Just war theory, Justice, Kenosis, Kingdom of Sicily, Knight, Last rites, Latin, Latin Church, Lauda Sion, Lazio, Legazpi, Albay, Lent, Levitation (paranormal), Libertarianism, Library of Congress, List of Catholic philosophers and theologians, List of institutions named after Thomas Aquinas, Logic, Logical truth, Ludovico Antonio Muratori, Lutheranism, Magisterium, Maimonides, Malleus Maleficarum, Mani (prophet), Martin Grabmann, Master of the Order of Preachers, Matins, Medieval philosophy, Medieval university, Memorial (liturgy), Mendicant orders, Metaphysics, Metaphysics (Aristotle), Miracle, Modern philosophy, Monarchy, Monastery, Mont Saint Michel and Chartres, Monte Cassino, Monte San Giovanni Campano, Mortal sin, Mutation, Mysterii Paschalis, Naples, Natural law, Natural theology, Nature, Neoplatonism, Nestorius, Neural oscillation, Nicomachean Ethics, Oligarchy, Omnipotence paradox, On the Soul, Oneworld Publications, Order of Saint Benedict, Original sin, Orvieto, Otto van Veen, Paganism, Pange Lingua Gloriosi Corporis Mysterium, Papal States, Paul Strathern, Paul the Apostle, Peter Lombard, Petrus de Ibernia, Philippa Foot, Philosophical realism, Philosophy of mind, Photinus, Physics (Aristotle), Plato, Political philosophy, Pontifical Academy of St. Thomas Aquinas, Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Pope, Pope Benedict XV, Pope Clement IV, Pope Gregory I, Pope Gregory IX, Pope Gregory X, Pope Innocent IV, Pope John XXII, Pope Leo XIII, Pope Paul VI, Pope Pius V, Pope Pius XI, Pope Urban IV, Positive law, Priesthood in the Catholic Church, Principle of double effect, Privation, Protestantism, Prudence, Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite, Quiddity, Ralph McInerny, Reason, Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange, Reginald of Piperno, Religious text, Revelation, Roccasecca, Roger II of Sicily, Rule of Faith, Sacred, Sacred tradition, Sacris solemniis, Sacristan, SAGE Publications, Saint, Saint Nicholas, Salvation, San Juan, Metro Manila, Santa Maria sopra Minerva, Santa Sabina, Santi Domenico e Sisto, Santo Tomas, Batangas, Satisfaction theory of atonement, Scholasticism, School of Salamanca, Second Council of Lyon, Self-ownership, Semiotics, Sentences, Siger of Brabant, Sin, Slavery, Socrates, Song of Songs, Soul, Species, Speculative reason, Sperm, Spontaneous generation, St. Thomas Aquinas College, St. Thomas Aquinas High School (Florida), Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Statues of Madonna, Saint Dominic and Thomas Aquinas, Charles Bridge, Studium generale, Substantial form, Summa contra Gentiles, Summa Theologica, Synderesis, Temperance (virtue), The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, The Spectator, Theological virtues, Theology, Thomism, Thomistic sacramental theology, Thought of Thomas Aquinas, Toulouse, Trinity, Tyrant, Umberto Eco, University Library in Bratislava Digital Library, University of Naples Federico II, University of Navarra, University of Paris, University of Santo Tomas, University of Santo Tomas–Legazpi, University of St. Thomas (Minnesota), Unmoved mover, Utilitarianism, Valentinus (Gnostic), Valle Romita Polyptych, Venial sin, Verbum Supernum Prodiens, Virtue ethics, Waldensians, Walter Jackson Freeman III, Western philosophy, William of Moerbeke, William of Saint-Amour. 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A History of Western Philosophy is a 1945 book by philosopher Bertrand Russell.
A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man is the first novel by Irish writer James Joyce.
Abbot, meaning father, is an ecclesiastical title given to the male head of a monastery in various traditions, including Christianity.
Abiogenesis, or informally the origin of life,Compare: Also occasionally called biopoiesis.
The absence of good (privatio boni) is a theological doctrine that evil, unlike good, is insubstantial, so that thinking of it as an entity is misleading.
Actus Essendi is a Latin expression coined by Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225–1274).
Adam and Eve, according to the creation myth of the Abrahamic religions, were the first man and woman.
"Adoro te devote" is a Eucharistic hymn written by Thomas Aquinas.
Advent is a season observed in many Christian churches as a time of expectant waiting and preparation for the celebration of the Nativity of Jesus at Christmas as well as the return of Jesus at the second coming.
Aeterni Patris (English: Of the Eternal Father) was an encyclical issued by Pope Leo XIII in August 1879, (not to be confused with the apostolic letter of the same name written by Pope Pius IX in 1868 calling the First Vatican Council).
Alasdair Chalmers MacIntyre (born 12 January 1929) is a Scottish philosopher, primarily known for his contribution to moral and political philosophy, but also known for his work in history of philosophy and theology.
Alban Butler (13 October 171015 May 1773) was an English Roman Catholic priest and hagiographer.
Albertus Magnus, O.P. (c. 1200 – November 15, 1280), also known as Saint Albert the Great and Albert of Cologne, was a German Catholic Dominican friar and bishop.
Aurelius Ambrosius (– 397), better known in English as Ambrose, was a bishop of Milan who became one of the most influential ecclesiastical figures of the 4th century.
Anarchy is the condition of a society, entity, group of people, or a single person that rejects hierarchy.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
The Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian communion with 85 million members, founded in 1867 in London, England.
An anonymous author known as the Anonimo Gaddiano, Anonimo Magliabechiano, or Anonimo Fiorentino ("the anonymous Florentine") is the author of the Codice Magliabechiano or Magliabechiano, a manuscript with 128 pages of text, probably from the 1530s and 1540s, and now in the Central National Library of Florence (Magliab. XVII, 17).
Anselm of Canterbury (1033/4-1109), also called (Anselmo d'Aosta) after his birthplace and (Anselme du Bec) after his monastery, was a Benedictine monk, abbot, philosopher and theologian of the Catholic Church, who held the office of archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109.
Sir Anthony John Patrick Kenny (born 16 March 1931) is an English philosopher whose interests lie in the philosophy of mind, ancient and scholastic philosophy, the philosophy of Wittgenstein and the philosophy of religion.
Apollinaris the Younger (died 382 or 390) was a bishop of Laodicea in Syria.
Apophatic theology, also known as negative theology, is a form of theological thinking and religious practice which attempts to approach God, the Divine, by negation, to speak only in terms of what may not be said about the perfect goodness that is God.
The Appian Way (Latin and Italian: Via Appia) is one of the earliest and strategically most important Roman roads of the ancient republic.
The Aquinas Institute is a co-educational Catholic school in Rochester, New York established in 1902.
Aquinas School is a Catholic school for boys located in San Juan, Metro Manila, Philippines.
Aquino is a town and comune in the province of Frosinone, in the Lazio region of Italy, northwest of Cassino.
Aristotelianism is a tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Ascoli Piceno (Asculum) is a town and comune in the Marche region of Italy, capital of the province of the same name.
Athanasius of Alexandria (Ἀθανάσιος Ἀλεξανδρείας; ⲡⲓⲁⲅⲓⲟⲥ ⲁⲑⲁⲛⲁⲥⲓⲟⲩ ⲡⲓⲁⲡⲟⲥⲧⲟⲗⲓⲕⲟⲥ or Ⲡⲁⲡⲁ ⲁⲑⲁⲛⲁⲥⲓⲟⲩ ⲁ̅; c. 296–298 – 2 May 373), also called Athanasius the Great, Athanasius the Confessor or, primarily in the Coptic Orthodox Church, Athanasius the Apostolic, was the 20th bishop of Alexandria (as Athanasius I).
Saint Augustine of Hippo (13 November 354 – 28 August 430) was a Roman African, early Christian theologian and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy.
Ibn Rushd (ابن رشد; full name; 1126 – 11 December 1198), often Latinized as Averroes, was an Andalusian philosopher and thinker who wrote about many subjects, including philosophy, theology, medicine, astronomy, physics, Islamic jurisprudence and law, and linguistics.
Averroism refers to a school of medieval philosophy based on the application of the works of 12th-century Andalusian Islamic philosopher Averroes, a Muslim commentator on Aristotle, in 13th-century Latin Christian scholasticism.
Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.
Avignon (Avenio; Provençal: Avignoun, Avinhon) is a commune in south-eastern France in the department of Vaucluse on the left bank of the Rhône river.
Étienne Gilson (13 June 1884 – 19 September 1978) was a French philosopher and historian of philosophy.
Étienne (Stephen) Tempier (also known as Stephanus of Orleans; died 3 September 1279) was a French bishop of Paris during the 13th century.
Bartholomew of Lucca, born Bartolomeo Fiadóni, and also known as Tolomeo da Lucca or Ptolemy da Lucca (c. 1236 – c. 1327) was a medieval Italian historian.
The Basilica of Saint-Sernin (Occitan: Basilica de Sant Sarnin) is a church in Toulouse, France, the former abbey church of the Abbey of Saint-Sernin or St Saturnin.
In Christian theology, the beatific vision (visio beatifica) is the ultimate direct self-communication of God to the individual person.
Beatification (from Latin beatus, "blessed" and facere, "to make") is a recognition accorded by the Catholic Church of a dead person's entrance into Heaven and capacity to intercede on behalf of individuals who pray in his or her name.
Belcastro (Bellicastrum; Calabrian: Bercastru) is a comune, former bishopric and present Latin Catholic titular see in the province of Catanzaro, in the Calabria region of southern Italy.
Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic, political activist, and Nobel laureate.
Anicius Manlius Severinus Boëthius, commonly called Boethius (also Boetius; 477–524 AD), was a Roman senator, consul, magister officiorum, and philosopher of the early 6th century.
Father Brian Evan Anthony Davies, OP (born 1951) is a British philosopher.
The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organizing a liturgical year by associating each day with one or more saints and referring to the day as the feast day or feast of said saint.
The title canon Episcopi (also capitulum Episcopi) is conventionally given to a certain passage found in medieval canon law.
Canon law (from Greek kanon, a 'straight measuring rod, ruler') is a set of ordinances and regulations made by ecclesiastical authority (Church leadership), for the government of a Christian organization or church and its members.
The canon law of the Catholic Church is the system of laws and legal principles made and enforced by the hierarchical authorities of the Catholic Church to regulate its external organization and government and to order and direct the activities of Catholics toward the mission of the Church.
Canonization is the act by which a Christian church declares that a person who has died was a saint, upon which declaration the person is included in the "canon", or list, of recognized saints.
Four cardinal virtues were recognized in classical antiquity and in traditional Christian theology.
Carlo Crivelli (Venice c. 1430 – Ascoli Piceno 1495) was an Italian Renaissance painter of conservative Late Gothic decorative sensibility, who spent his early years in the Veneto, where he absorbed influences from the Vivarini, Squarcione and Mantegna.
Catharism (from the Greek: καθαροί, katharoi, "the pure ") was a Christian dualist or Gnostic revival movement that thrived in some areas of Southern Europe, particularly northern Italy and what is now southern France, between the 12th and 14th centuries.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Catholic theology is the understanding of Catholic doctrine or teachings, and results from the studies of theologians.
The Catholic University of America Press, also known as CUA Press, is the publishing division of The Catholic University of America.
The Cato Institute is an American libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. It was founded as the Charles Koch Foundation in 1974 by Ed Crane, Murray Rothbard, and Charles Koch, chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the conglomerate Koch Industries.
In Christian theology charity, Latin caritas, is understood by Thomas Aquinas as "the friendship of man for God", which "unites us to God".
Charles I (early 1226/12277 January 1285), commonly called Charles of Anjou, was a member of the royal Capetian dynasty and the founder of the second House of Anjou.
Charlton Heston (born John Charles Carter or Charlton John Carter; October 4, 1923 – April 5, 2008) was an American actor and political activist.
Christian mysticism refers to the development of mystical practices and theory within Christianity.
Christology (from Greek Χριστός Khristós and -λογία, -logia) is the field of study within Christian theology which is primarily concerned with the ontology and person of Jesus as recorded in the canonical Gospels and the epistles of the New Testament.
The Church of the Jacobins is a deconsecrated Roman Catholic church located in Toulouse, France.
Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.
A Cistercian is a member of the Cistercian Order (abbreviated as OCist, SOCist ((Sacer) Ordo Cisterciensis), or ‘’’OCSO’’’ (Ordo Cisterciensis Strictioris Observantiae), which are religious orders of monks and nuns. They are also known as “Trappists”; as Bernardines, after the highly influential St. Bernard of Clairvaux (though that term is also used of the Franciscan Order in Poland and Lithuania); or as White Monks, in reference to the colour of the "cuccula" or white choir robe worn by the Cistercians over their habits, as opposed to the black cuccula worn by Benedictine monks. The original emphasis of Cistercian life was on manual labour and self-sufficiency, and many abbeys have traditionally supported themselves through activities such as agriculture and brewing ales. Over the centuries, however, education and academic pursuits came to dominate the life of many monasteries. A reform movement seeking to restore the simpler lifestyle of the original Cistercians began in 17th-century France at La Trappe Abbey, leading eventually to the Holy See’s reorganization in 1892 of reformed houses into a single order Order of Cistercians of the Strict Observance (OCSO), commonly called the Trappists. Cistercians who did not observe these reforms became known as the Cistercians of the Original Observance. The term Cistercian (French Cistercien), derives from Cistercium, the Latin name for the village of Cîteaux, near Dijon in eastern France. It was in this village that a group of Benedictine monks from the monastery of Molesme founded Cîteaux Abbey in 1098, with the goal of following more closely the Rule of Saint Benedict. The best known of them were Robert of Molesme, Alberic of Cîteaux and the English monk Stephen Harding, who were the first three abbots. Bernard of Clairvaux entered the monastery in the early 1110s with 30 companions and helped the rapid proliferation of the order. By the end of the 12th century, the order had spread throughout France and into England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, Spain, Portugal, Italy, and Eastern Europe. The keynote of Cistercian life was a return to literal observance of the Rule of St Benedict. Rejecting the developments the Benedictines had undergone, the monks tried to replicate monastic life exactly as it had been in Saint Benedict's time; indeed in various points they went beyond it in austerity. The most striking feature in the reform was the return to manual labour, especially agricultural work in the fields, a special characteristic of Cistercian life. Cistercian architecture is considered one of the most beautiful styles of medieval architecture. Additionally, in relation to fields such as agriculture, hydraulic engineering and metallurgy, the Cistercians became the main force of technological diffusion in medieval Europe. The Cistercians were adversely affected in England by the Protestant Reformation, the Dissolution of the Monasteries under King Henry VIII, the French Revolution in continental Europe, and the revolutions of the 18th century, but some survived and the order recovered in the 19th century.
Contra errores Graecorum, ad Urbanum IV Pontificem Maximum (Against the Errors of the Greeks, to Pope Urban IV) is a short treatise (an "opusculum") written in 1263 by Roman Catholic theologian Saint Thomas Aquinas as a contribution to Pope Urban's efforts at reunion with the Eastern Church.
A convent is either a community of priests, religious brothers, religious sisters, or nuns; or the building used by the community, particularly in the Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion.
The Feast of Corpus Christi (Latin for "Body of Christ") is a Catholic liturgical solemnity celebrating the real presence of the body and blood of Jesus Christ, the Son of God, in the Eucharist—known as transubstantiation.
In natural theology and philosophy, a cosmological argument is an argument in which the existence of a unique being, generally seen as some kind of god, is deduced or inferred from facts or alleged facts concerning causation, change, motion, contingency, or finitude in respect of the universe as a whole or processes within it.
In economics, the cost-of-production theory of value is the theory that the price of an object or condition is determined by the sum of the cost of the resources that went into making it.
Courage (also called bravery or valour) is the choice and willingness to confront agony, pain, danger, uncertainty, or intimidation.
The crucifixion of Jesus occurred in 1st-century Judea, most likely between AD 30 and 33.
Durante degli Alighieri, commonly known as Dante Alighieri or simply Dante (c. 1265 – 1321), was a major Italian poet of the Late Middle Ages.
Decretals (epistolae decretales) are letters of a pope that formulate decisions in ecclesiastical law of the Catholic Church.
In moral philosophy, deontological ethics or deontology (from Greek δέον, deon, "obligation, duty") is the normative ethical position that judges the morality of an action based on rules.
The Advocatus Diaboli (Latin for Devil's Advocate) was formerly an official position within the Catholic Church: one who "argued against the canonization (sainthood) of a candidate in order to uncover any character flaws or misrepresentation of the evidence favoring canonization".
The Dictionary of Scientific Biography is a scholarly reference work that was published from 1970 through 1980.
Saint Dionysius the Areopagite (Greek Διονύσιος ὁ Ἀρεοπαγίτης) was a judge at the court Areopagus in Athens who lived in the first century AD.
The Divine Comedy (Divina Commedia) is a long narrative poem by Dante Alighieri, begun c. 1308 and completed in 1320, a year before his death in 1321.
Divine grace is a theological term present in many religions.
Divine law is any law that is understood as deriving from a transcendent source, such as the will of God or gods, in contrast to man-made law.
In theology, the doctrine of divine simplicity says that God is without parts.
The division of labour is the separation of tasks in any system so that participants may specialize.
Doctor of the Church (Latin doctor "teacher") is a title given by the Catholic Church to saints whom they recognize as having been of particular importance, particularly regarding their contribution to theology or doctrine.
Doctrine (from doctrina, meaning "teaching", "instruction" or "doctrine") is a codification of beliefs or a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the essence of teachings in a given branch of knowledge or in a belief system.
The Order of Preachers (Ordo Praedicatorum, postnominal abbreviation OP), also known as the Dominican Order, is a mendicant Catholic religious order founded by the Spanish priest Dominic of Caleruega in France, approved by Pope Honorius III via the Papal bull Religiosam vitam on 22 December 1216.
The East–West Schism, also called the Great Schism and the Schism of 1054, was the break of communion between what are now the Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox churches, which has lasted since the 11th century.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
The Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople (Οἰκουμενικόν Πατριαρχεῖον Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Oikoumenikón Patriarkhíon Konstantinoupóleos,; Patriarchatus Oecumenicus Constantinopolitanus; Rum Ortodoks Patrikhanesi, "Roman Orthodox Patriarchate") is one of the fourteen autocephalous churches (or "jurisdictions") that together compose the Eastern Orthodox Church.
The Editio Leonina or Leonine Edition is the edition of the works of Saint Thomas Aquinas originally sponsored by Pope Leo XIII in 1879.
Edward Feser (born April 16, 1968) is an American philosopher, writer, and academic.
Eleonore Stump is the Robert J. Henle Professor of Philosophy at Saint Louis University, where she has taught since 1992.
Empedocles (Ἐμπεδοκλῆς, Empedoklēs) was a Greek pre-Socratic philosopher and a citizen of Akragas, a Greek city in Sicily.
An encyclical was originally a circular letter sent to all the churches of a particular area in the ancient Roman Church.
The Encyclopædia Metropolitana was an encyclopedic work published in London, from 1817 to 1845, by part publication.
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.
The Epistle of Paul to the Philippians, often referred to simply as Philippians, is the eleventh book in the New Testament.
Erwin Panofsky (March 30, 1892 in Hannover – March 14, 1968 in Princeton, New Jersey) was a German-Jewish art historian, whose academic career was pursued mostly in the U.S. after the rise of the Nazi regime.
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
The Eucharist (also called Holy Communion or the Lord's Supper, among other names) is a Christian rite that is considered a sacrament in most churches and an ordinance in others.
Eutyches (Εὐτυχής; c. 380 – c. 456) was a presbyter and archimandrite at Constantinople.
The existence of God is a subject of debate in the philosophy of religion and popular culture.
In the context of religion, one can define faith as confidence or trust in a particular system of religious belief, within which faith may equate to confidence based on some perceived degree of warrant, in contrast to the general sense of faith being a belief without evidence.
The First Council of Nicaea (Νίκαια) was a council of Christian bishops convened in the Bithynian city of Nicaea (now İznik, Bursa province, Turkey) by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in AD 325.
A first principle is a basic, foundational, self-evident proposition or assumption that cannot be deduced from any other proposition or assumption.
The Quinque viæ (Latin "Five Ways") (sometimes called "five proofs") are five logical arguments regarding the existence of God summarized by the 13th-century Catholic philosopher and theologian St. Thomas Aquinas in his book Summa Theologica.
Fossanova Abbey, earlier Fossa Nuova, is a Cistercian monastery in Italy, in the province of Latina, near the railway-station of Priverno, about south-east of Rome.
The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi.
Frederick II (26 December 1194 – 13 December 1250; Fidiricu, Federico, Friedrich) was King of Sicily from 1198, King of Germany from 1212, King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 and King of Jerusalem from 1225.
Free will is the ability to choose between different possible courses of action unimpeded.
A friar is a brother member of one of the mendicant orders founded since the twelfth or thirteenth century; the term distinguishes the mendicants' itinerant apostolic character, exercised broadly under the jurisdiction of a superior general, from the older monastic orders' allegiance to a single monastery formalized by their vow of stability.
Gertrude Elizabeth Margaret Anscombe (18 March 1919 – 5 January 2001), usually cited as G. E. M.
Gilbert Keith Chesterton, KC*SG (29 May 1874 – 14 June 1936), was an English writer, poet, philosopher, dramatist, journalist, orator, lay theologian, biographer, and literary and art critic.
In theology, general revelation, or natural revelation, refers to knowledge about God and spiritual matters, discovered through natural means, such as observation of nature (the physical universe), philosophy and reasoning.
The General Roman Calendar is the liturgical calendar that indicates the dates of celebrations of saints and mysteries of the Lord (Jesus Christ) in the Roman Rite, wherever this liturgical rite is in use.
Gentile da Fabriano (1370 – 1427) was an Italian painter known for his participation in the International Gothic painter style.
Gratia non tollit naturam, sed perficit is translated as 'Grace does not destroy nature, but perfects it', or 'grace does not destroy nature but fulfills it'.
HarperCollins Publishers L.L.C. is one of the world's largest publishing companies and is one of the Big Five English-language publishing companies, alongside Hachette, Macmillan, Penguin Random House, and Simon & Schuster.
Henry Brooks Adams (February 16, 1838 – March 27, 1918) was an American historian and member of the Adams political family, being descended from two U.S. Presidents.
Heresy is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization.
The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the period of European history that commenced around 1000 AD and lasted until around 1250 AD.
Holy Spirit (also called Holy Ghost) is a term found in English translations of the Bible that is understood differently among the Abrahamic religions.
Homo unius libri ("(a) man of one book") is a Latin phrase attributed to Thomas Aquinas in a literary tradition going back to at least the 17th century, bishop Jeremy Taylor (1613–1667) being the earliest known writer in English to have done so.
Hope is an optimistic state of mind that is based on an expectation of positive outcomes with respect to events and circumstances in one's life or the world at large.
Hylomorphism (or hylemorphism) is a philosophical theory developed by Aristotle, which conceives being (ousia) as a compound of matter and form.
Hypostasis (Greek: ὑπόστασις) is the underlying state or underlying substance and is the fundamental reality that supports all else.
Incarnation literally means embodied in flesh or taking on flesh.
In Christian theology, the doctrine of the Incarnation holds that Jesus, the preexistent divine Logos (Koine Greek for "Word") and the second hypostasis of the Trinity, God the Son and Son of the Father, taking on a human body and human nature, "was made flesh" and conceived in the womb of Mary the Theotokos (Greek for "God-bearer"). The doctrine of the Incarnation, then, entails that Jesus Christ is fully God and fully human, his two natures joined in hypostatic union.
Infidel (literally "unfaithful") is a term used in certain religions for those accused of unbelief in the central tenets of their own religion, for members of another religion, or for the irreligious.
The International Council of Universities of Saint Thomas Aquinas (Spanish: Consejo Internacional de Universidades Santo Tomás de Aquino) is a world-wide network of universities inspired by the thought of St. Thomas Aquinas.
The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (IEP) is a scholarly online encyclopedia, dealing with philosophy, philosophical topics, and philosophers.
The Italians (Italiani) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to the Italian peninsula.
Jacques Maritain (18 November 1882 – 28 April 1973) was a French Catholic philosopher.
Jacques Paul Migne (25 October 1800 – 24 October 1875) was a French priest who published inexpensive and widely distributed editions of theological works, encyclopedias, and the texts of the Church Fathers, with the goal of providing a universal library for the Catholic priesthood.
James Joseph Walsh, M.D., LL.D., Litt.D., Sc.D. (1865–1942) was an American physician and author.
James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (2 February 1882 – 13 January 1941) was an Irish novelist, short story writer, and poet.
James Vincent Schall, S.J. (born January 20, 1928) is an American Jesuit Roman Catholic priest, teacher, writer, and philosopher.
Januarius (Ianuarius; Gennaro), also known as, was Bishop of Benevento and is a martyr and saint of the Roman Catholic and the Eastern Orthodox Churches.
Jerome (Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος; c. 27 March 347 – 30 September 420) was a priest, confessor, theologian, and historian.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
In Christianity, Jesus is believed to be the Messiah (Christ) and through his crucifixion and resurrection, humans can be reconciled to God and thereby are offered salvation and the promise of eternal life.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
John Mitchell Finnis (born 28 July 1940) is an Australian legal philosopher, jurist and scholar specializing in jurisprudence and the philosophy of law.
John of Wildeshausen, O.P., also called Johannes Teutonicus (c. 1180 – 4 November 1252) was a German Dominican friar, who was made a bishop in Bosnia and later the fourth Master General of the Dominican Order.
John Peckham (c. 1230 – 8 December 1292) was Archbishop of Canterbury in the years 1279–1292.
Josef Pieper (4 May 1904 – 6 November 1997) was a German Catholic philosopher and an important figure in the resurgence of interest in the thought of Thomas Aquinas in early-to-mid 20th-century philosophy.
Joseph John Rickaby (1845-1932) was an English Jesuit priest and philosopher.
A jurist (from medieval Latin) is someone who researches and studies jurisprudence (theory of law).
The just price is a theory of ethics in economics that attempts to set standards of fairness in transactions.
Just war theory (Latin: jus bellum iustum) is a doctrine, also referred to as a tradition, of military ethics studied by military leaders, theologians, ethicists and policy makers.
Justice is the legal or philosophical theory by which fairness is administered.
In Christian theology, kenosis (Greek:, kénōsis, lit.) is the 'self-emptying' of Jesus' own will and becoming entirely receptive to God's divine will.
The Kingdom of Sicily (Regnum Siciliae, Regno di Sicilia, Regnu di Sicilia, Regne de Sicília, Reino de Sicilia) was a state that existed in the south of the Italian peninsula and for a time Africa from its founding by Roger II in 1130 until 1816.
A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch, bishop or other political leader for service to the monarch or a Christian Church, especially in a military capacity.
The last rites, in Catholicism, are the last prayers and ministrations given to many Catholics when possible shortly before death.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Latin Church, sometimes called the Western Church, is the largest particular church sui iuris in full communion with the Pope and the rest of the Catholic Church, tracing its history to the earliest days of Christianity.
"Lauda Sion Salvatorem" is a sequence prescribed for the Roman Catholic Mass for the feast of Corpus Christi.
Lazio (Latium) is one of the 20 administrative regions of Italy.
Legazpi, officially the City of Legazpi, (Ciudad kan Legazpi; Lungsod ng Legazpi) and often referred to as Legazpi City, is a component city and the capital of the province of Albay in the Philippines.
Lent (Latin: Quadragesima: Fortieth) is a solemn religious observance in the Christian liturgical calendar that begins on Ash Wednesday and ends approximately six weeks later, before Easter Sunday.
Levitation or transvection in the paranormal context is the rising of a human body and other objects into the air by mystical means.
Libertarianism (from libertas, meaning "freedom") is a collection of political philosophies and movements that uphold liberty as a core principle.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
This is a list of philosophers and theologians whose Catholicism is important to their work.
Institutions of learning named after Thomas Aquinas include the following.
Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.
Logical truth is one of the most fundamental concepts in logic, and there are different theories on its nature.
Ludovico Antonio Muratori (21 October 1672 – 23 January 1750) was an Italian historian, notable as a leading scholar of his age, and for his discovery of the Muratorian fragment, the earliest known list of New Testament books.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
The magisterium of the Catholic Church is the church's authority or office to establish teachings.
Moses ben Maimon (Mōšeh bēn-Maymūn; موسى بن ميمون Mūsā bin Maymūn), commonly known as Maimonides (Μαϊμωνίδης Maïmōnídēs; Moses Maimonides), and also referred to by the acronym Rambam (for Rabbeinu Mōšeh bēn Maimun, "Our Rabbi Moses son of Maimon"), was a medieval Sephardic Jewish philosopher who became one of the most prolific and influential Torah scholars of the Middle Ages.
The Malleus Maleficarum, usually translated as the Hammer of Witches, is the best known and the most important treatise on witchcraft.
Mani (in Middle Persian Māni, New Persian: مانی Māni, Syriac Mānī, Greek Μάνης, Latin Manes; also Μανιχαῖος, Latin Manichaeus, from Syriac ܡܐܢܝ ܚܝܐ Mānī ḥayyā "Living Mani"), of Iranian origin, was the prophet and the founder of Manichaeism, a gnostic religion of Late Antiquity which was widespread but no longer prevalent by name.
Martin Grabmann (5 January 1875 – 9 January 1949) was a German Catholic priest, mediaevalist and historian of theology and philosophy.
The Master of the Order of Preachers is the leader of the Order of Preachers, commonly known as the Dominicans.
Matins is the monastic nighttime liturgy, ending at dawn, of the canonical hours.
Medieval philosophy is the philosophy in the era now known as medieval or the Middle Ages, the period roughly extending from the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century A.D. to the Renaissance in the 16th century.
A medieval university is a corporation organized during the Middle Ages for the purposes of higher learning.
A memorial in the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church is a lower-ranked feast day in honour of a saint, the dedication of a church, or a mystery of the religion.
Mendicant orders are, primarily, certain Christian religious orders that have adopted a lifestyle of poverty, traveling, and living in urban areas for purposes of preaching, evangelism, and ministry, especially to the poor.
Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.
Metaphysics (Greek: τὰ μετὰ τὰ φυσικά; Latin: Metaphysica) is one of the principal works of Aristotle and the first major work of the branch of philosophy with the same name.
A miracle is an event not explicable by natural or scientific laws.
Modern philosophy is philosophy developed in the modern era and associated with modernity.
A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty.
A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in communities or alone (hermits).
Mont Saint Michel and Chartres is a book written by the American historian and scholar Henry Adams (1838–1918).
Monte Cassino (sometimes written Montecassino) is a rocky hill about southeast of Rome, in the Latin Valley, Italy, to the west of the town of Cassino and altitude.
Monte San Giovanni Campano is a comune (municipality) of about 12,800 inhabitants in the province of Frosinone in the Italian region Lazio, located about southeast of Rome and about east of Frosinone.
A mortal sin (peccatum mortale), in Catholic theology, is a gravely sinful act, which can lead to damnation if a person does not repent of the sin before death.
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
Mysterii Paschalis is the incipit of an apostolic letter issued motu proprio (that is, "of his own accord") by Pope Paul VI on 14 February 1969.
Naples (Napoli, Napule or; Neapolis; lit) is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan.
Natural law (ius naturale, lex naturalis) is a philosophy asserting that certain rights are inherent by virtue of human nature, endowed by nature—traditionally by God or a transcendent source—and that these can be understood universally through human reason.
Natural theology, once also termed physico-theology, is a type of theology that provides arguments for the existence of God based on reason and ordinary experience of nature.
Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe.
Neoplatonism is a term used to designate a strand of Platonic philosophy that began with Plotinus in the third century AD against the background of Hellenistic philosophy and religion.
Nestorius (in Νεστόριος; 386 – 450) was Archbishop of Constantinople (now Istanbul) from 10 April 428 to August 431, when Emperor Theodosius II confirmed his condemnation by the Council of Ephesus on 22 June.
Neural oscillations, or brainwaves, are rhythmic or repetitive patterns of neural activity in the central nervous system.
The Nicomachean Ethics (Ἠθικὰ Νικομάχεια) is the name normally given to Aristotle's best-known work on ethics.
Oligarchy is a form of power structure in which power rests with a small number of people.
The omnipotence paradox is a family of paradoxes that arise with some understandings of the term 'omnipotent'.
On the Soul (Greek Περὶ Ψυχῆς, Peri Psychēs; Latin De Anima) is a major treatise written by Aristotle c.350 B.C..
Oneworld Publications is a British independent publishing firm founded in 1986 by Novin Doostdar and Juliet Mabey originally to publish accessible non-fiction by experts and academics for the general market.
The Order of Saint Benedict (OSB; Latin: Ordo Sancti Benedicti), also known as the Black Monksin reference to the colour of its members' habitsis a Catholic religious order of independent monastic communities that observe the Rule of Saint Benedict.
Original sin, also called "ancestral sin", is a Christian belief of the state of sin in which humanity exists since the fall of man, stemming from Adam and Eve's rebellion in Eden, namely the sin of disobedience in consuming the forbidden fruit from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.
Orvieto is a city and comune in the Province of Terni, southwestern Umbria, Italy situated on the flat summit of a large butte of volcanic tuff.
Otto van Veen, also known by his Latinized name Otto Venius or Octavius Vaenius, (c.1556 – 6 May 1629) was a painter, draughtsman, and humanist active primarily in Antwerp and Brussels in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth century.
Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).
"Pange Lingua Gloriosi Corporis Mysterium" is a Medieval Latin hymn written by Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225–1274) for the Feast of Corpus Christi.
The Papal States, officially the State of the Church (Stato della Chiesa,; Status Ecclesiasticus; also Dicio Pontificia), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula under the direct sovereign rule of the Pope, from the 8th century until 1870.
Paul Strathern (born 1940) is a British writer and academic.
Paul the Apostle (Paulus; translit, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; c. 5 – c. 64 or 67), commonly known as Saint Paul and also known by his Jewish name Saul of Tarsus (translit; Saũlos Tarseús), was an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of the Christ to the first century world.
Peter Lombard (also Peter the Lombard, Pierre Lombard or Petrus Lombardus; 1096, Novara – 21/22 July 1160, Paris), was a scholastic theologian, Bishop of Paris, and author of Four Books of Sentences, which became the standard textbook of theology, for which he earned the accolade Magister Sententiarum.
Petrus de Ibernia, also known as Peter of Ireland, writer and lecturer, fl.
Philippa Ruth Foot, FBA (née Bosanquet; 3 October 1920 3 October 2010) was a British philosopher.
Realism (in philosophy) about a given object is the view that this object exists in reality independently of our conceptual scheme.
Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the nature of the mind.
Photinus (Greek Φωτεινός; died 376), was a Christian heresiarch and bishop of Sirmium in Pannonia Secunda (today the town Sremska Mitrovica in Serbia), best known for denying the incarnation of Christ.
The Physics (Greek: Φυσικὴ ἀκρόασις Phusike akroasis; Latin: Physica, or Naturalis Auscultationes, possibly meaning "lectures on nature") is a named text, written in ancient Greek, collated from a collection of surviving manuscripts known as the Corpus Aristotelicum because attributed to the 4th-century BC philosopher, teacher, and mentor of Macedonian rulers, Aristotle.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
Political philosophy, or political theory, is the study of topics such as politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of laws by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever.
The Pontifical Academy of St.
The Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas (PUST), also known as the Angelicum in honor of its patron the Doctor Angelicus Thomas Aquinas, is located in the historic center of Rome, Italy.
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Pope Benedict XV (Latin: Benedictus; Benedetto), born Giacomo Paolo Giovanni Battista della Chiesa (21 November 1854 – 22 January 1922), was head of the Catholic Church from 3 September 1914 until his death in 1922.
Pope Clement IV (Clemens IV; 23 November 1190 – 29 November 1268), born Gui Foucois (Guido Falcodius; Guy de Foulques or Guy Foulques) and also known as Guy le Gros (French for "Guy the Fat"; Guido il Grosso), was bishop of Le Puy (1257–1260), archbishop of Narbonne (1259–1261), cardinal of Sabina (1261–1265), and Pope from 5 February 1265 until his death.
Pope Saint Gregory I (Gregorius I; – 12 March 604), commonly known as Saint Gregory the Great, Gregory had come to be known as 'the Great' by the late ninth century, a title which is still applied to him.
Pope Gregory IX Gregorius IX (born Ugolino di Conti; c. 1145 or before 1170 – 22 August 1241), was Pope from 19 March 1227 to his death in 1241.
Pope Gregory X (Gregorius X; – 10 January 1276), born Teobaldo Visconti, was Pope from 1 September 1271 to his death in 1276 and was a member of the Secular Franciscan Order.
Pope Innocent IV (Innocentius IV; c. 1195 – 7 December 1254), born Sinibaldo Fieschi, was Pope of the Catholic Church from 25 June 1243 to his death in 1254.
Pope John XXII (Ioannes XXII; 1244 – 4 December 1334), born Jacques Duèze (or d'Euse), was Pope from 7 August 1316 to his death in 1334.
Pope Leo XIII (Leone; born Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci; 2 March 1810 – 20 July 1903) was head of the Catholic Church from 20 February 1878 to his death.
Pope Paul VI (Paulus VI; Paolo VI; born Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini; 26 September 1897 – 6 August 1978) reigned from 21 June 1963 to his death in 1978.
Pope Saint Pius V (17 January 1504 – 1 May 1572), born Antonio Ghislieri (from 1518 called Michele Ghislieri, O.P.), was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 8 January 1566 to his death in 1572.
Pope Pius XI, (Pio XI) born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti (31 May 1857 – 10 February 1939), was head of the Catholic Church from 6 February 1922 to his death in 1939.
Pope Urban IV (Urbanus IV; c. 1195 – 2 October 1264), born Jacques Pantaléon,Steven Runciman, The Sicilian Vespers: A History of the Mediterranean Word in the Later Thirteenth Century, (Cambridge University Press, 2000), 54.
Positive laws (ius positum) are human-made laws that oblige or specify an action.
The ministerial orders of the Catholic Church (for similar but different rules among Eastern Catholics see Eastern Catholic Church) are those of bishop, presbyter (more commonly called priest in English), and deacon.
The principle of double effect—also known as the rule of double effect; the doctrine of double effect, often abbreviated as DDE or PDE, double-effect reasoning; or simply double effect—is a set of ethical criteria which Christian philosophers, and some others, have advocated for evaluating the permissibility of acting when one's otherwise legitimate act (for example, relieving a terminally ill patient's pain) may also cause an effect one would otherwise be obliged to avoid (sedation and a slightly shortened life).
Privation is the absence or lack of basic necessities, such as food and water.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Prudence (prudentia, contracted from providentia meaning "seeing ahead, sagacity") is the ability to govern and discipline oneself by the use of reason.
Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite (Διονύσιος ὁ Ἀρεοπαγίτης), also known as Pseudo-Denys, was a Christian theologian and philosopher of the late 5th to early 6th century, who wrote a set of works known as the Corpus Areopagiticum or Corpus Dionysiacum.
In scholastic philosophy, "quiddity" (Latin: quidditas) was another term for the essence of an object, literally its "whatness" or "what it is".
Ralph Matthew McInerny (February 24, 1929 – January 29, 2010) was an American author and Professor of Philosophy at the University of Notre Dame.
Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, establishing and verifying facts, applying logic, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.
Réginald Marie Garrigou-Lagrange, O.P. (February 21, 1877 – February 15, 1964) was a French Catholic theologian.
Reginald of Piperno (or Reginald of Priverno) was an Italian Dominican, theologian and companion of St.
Religious texts (also known as scripture, or scriptures, from the Latin scriptura, meaning "writing") are texts which religious traditions consider to be central to their practice or beliefs.
In religion and theology, revelation is the revealing or disclosing of some form of truth or knowledge through communication with a deity or other supernatural entity or entities.
Roccasecca is a town and comune in the Province of Frosinone, in the Lazio region of central Italy.
Roger II (22 December 1095Houben, p. 30. – 26 February 1154) was King of Sicily, son of Roger I of Sicily and successor to his brother Simon.
The rule of faith (regula fidei) is the name given to the ultimate authority or standard in religious belief.
Sacred means revered due to sanctity and is generally the state of being perceived by religious individuals as associated with divinity and considered worthy of spiritual respect or devotion; or inspiring awe or reverence among believers.
Sacred Tradition, or Holy Tradition, is a theological term used in some Christian traditions, primarily those claiming apostolic succession such as the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Assyrian, and Anglican traditions, to refer to the foundation of the doctrinal and spiritual authority of the Christian Church and of the Bible.
"Sacris solemniis" is a hymn written by St.
A sacristan is an officer charged with care of the sacristy, the church, and their contents.
SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in California.
A saint (also historically known as a hallow) is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of holiness or likeness or closeness to God.
Saint Nicholas (Ἅγιος Νικόλαος,, Sanctus Nicolaus; 15 March 270 – 6 December 343), also called Nikolaos of Myra or Nicholas of Bari, was Bishop of Myra, in Asia Minor (modern-day Demre, Turkey), and is a historic Christian saint.
Salvation (salvatio; sōtēría; yāšaʕ; al-ḵalaṣ) is being saved or protected from harm or being saved or delivered from a dire situation.
San Juan City (Lungsod ng San Juan) is the smallest city in the Philippines in terms of population and land area.
Santa Maria sopra Minerva (Saint Mary above Minerva, Sancta Maria supra Minervam) is one of the major churches of the Roman Catholic Order of Preachers (better known as the Dominicans) in Rome, Italy.
The Basilica of Saint Sabina (Basilica Sanctae Sabinae, Basilica di Santa Sabina all'Aventino) is a historical church on the Aventine Hill in Rome, Italy.
The Church of Santi Domenico e Sisto (Saints Dominic and Sixtus) is one of the titular churches in Rome, Italy in the care of the Roman Catholic Order of Preachers, better known as the Dominicans.
, officially the, (name), is a settlement_text in the province of,. According to the, it has a population of people.
The satisfaction theory of atonement is a theory in Christian theology that Jesus Christ suffered crucifixion as a substitute for human sin, satisfying God's just wrath against humankind’s transgression due to Christ's infinite merit.
Scholasticism is a method of critical thought which dominated teaching by the academics ("scholastics", or "schoolmen") of medieval universities in Europe from about 1100 to 1700, and a program of employing that method in articulating and defending dogma in an increasingly pluralistic context.
The School of Salamanca (Escuela de Salamanca) is the Renaissance of thought in diverse intellectual areas by Spanish and Portuguese theologians, rooted in the intellectual and pedagogical work of Francisco de Vitoria.
The Second Council of Lyon was the fourteenth ecumenical council of the Catholic Church, convoked on 31 March 1272 and convened in Lyon, France, in 1274.
Self-ownership (also known as sovereignty of the individual, individual sovereignty or individual autonomy) is the concept of property in one's own person, expressed as the moral or natural right of a person to have bodily integrity and be the exclusive controller of one's own body and life.
Semiotics (also called semiotic studies) is the study of meaning-making, the study of sign process (semiosis) and meaningful communication.
The Four Books of Sentences (Libri Quattuor Sententiarum) is a book of theology written by Peter Lombard in the 12th century.
Siger of Brabant (Sigerus, Sighier, Sigieri or Sygerius de Brabantia; c. 1240 – before 10 November 1284) was a 13th-century philosopher from the southern Low Countries who was an important proponent of Averroism.
In a religious context, sin is the act of transgression against divine law.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
Socrates (Sōkrátēs,; – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher, of the Western ethical tradition of thought.
The Song of Songs, also Song of Solomon or Canticles (Hebrew:, Šîr HašŠîrîm, Greek: ᾎσμα ᾎσμάτων, asma asmaton, both meaning Song of Songs), is one of the megillot (scrolls) found in the last section of the Tanakh, known as the Ketuvim (or "Writings"), and a book of the Old Testament.
In many religious, philosophical, and mythological traditions, there is a belief in the incorporeal essence of a living being called the soul. Soul or psyche (Greek: "psychē", of "psychein", "to breathe") are the mental abilities of a living being: reason, character, feeling, consciousness, memory, perception, thinking, etc.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
Speculative reason or pure reason is theoretical (or logical, deductive) thought (sometimes called theoretical reason), as opposed to practical (active, willing) thought.
Sperm is the male reproductive cell and is derived from the Greek word (σπέρμα) sperma (meaning "seed").
Spontaneous generation refers to an obsolete body of thought on the ordinary formation of living organisms without descent from similar organisms.
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible to Internet users.
The statues of Madonna, Saint Dominic and Thomas Aquinas are outdoor sculptures by Matěj Václav Jäckel, installed on the north side of the Charles Bridge in Prague, Czech Republic.
Studium generale is the old customary name for a medieval university.
A theory of substantial forms asserts that forms (or ideas) organize matter and make it intelligible.
The Summa contra Gentiles (also known as Liber de veritate catholicae fidei contra errores infidelium, "Book on the truth of the Catholic faith against the errors of the unbelievers") is one of the best-known books by St Thomas Aquinas, written during c. 1259–1265.
The Summa Theologiae (written 1265–1274 and also known as the Summa Theologica or simply the Summa) is the best-known work of Thomas Aquinas (c. 1225–1274).
Synderesis or synteresis, in scholastic moral philosophy, is the natural capacity or disposition (habitus) of the practical reason to apprehend intuitively the universal first principles of human action.
Temperance is defined as moderation or voluntary self-restraint.
The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics (2008), 2nd ed., is an eight-volume reference work on economics, edited by Steven N. Durlauf and Lawrence E. Blume and published by Palgrave Macmillan.
The Spectator is a weekly British magazine on politics, culture, and current affairs.
Theological virtues are virtues associated in Christian theology and philosophy with salvation resulting from the grace of God.
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.
Thomism is the philosophical school that arose as a legacy of the work and thought of Thomas Aquinas (1225–1274), philosopher, theologian, and Doctor of the Church.
Thomistic sacramental theology is St. Thomas Aquinas's theology of the sacraments of the Catholic Church.
This article contains a selection of thoughts of Thomas Aquinas on various topics.
Toulouse (Tolosa, Tolosa) is the capital of the French department of Haute-Garonne and of the region of Occitanie.
The Christian doctrine of the Trinity (from Greek τριάς and τριάδα, from "threefold") holds that God is one but three coeternal consubstantial persons or hypostases—the Father, the Son (Jesus Christ), and the Holy Spirit—as "one God in three Divine Persons".
A tyrant (Greek τύραννος, tyrannos), in the modern English usage of the word, is an absolute ruler unrestrained by law or person, or one who has usurped legitimate sovereignty.
Umberto Eco (5 January 1932 – 19 February 2016) was an Italian novelist, literary critic, philosopher, semiotician, and university professor.
The Digital Library of the University Library in Bratislava stands for an independent collection of digitzed items - periodicals, old prints, music works or monographies in user-attractive layout.
The University of Naples Federico II (Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II) is a university located in Naples, Italy.
The University of Navarra is a private not-for-profit university located on the southeast border of Pamplona, Spain.
The University of Paris (Université de Paris), metonymically known as the Sorbonne (one of its buildings), was a university in Paris, France, from around 1150 to 1793, and from 1806 to 1970.
The Pontifical and Royal University of Santo Tomas, The Catholic University of the Philippines, or simply the University of Santo Tomas (UST), is a private, Roman Catholic research university in Manila, Philippines.
The University of Santo Tomas–Legazpi (UST–Legazpi), formerly Aquinas University of Legazpi (AUL), is a Catholic University in Legazpi City, Philippines run and owned by the Dominican Fathers/Order of Preachers (OP).
The University of St.
The unmoved mover (that which moves without being moved) or prime mover (primum movens) is a concept advanced by Aristotle as a primary cause or "mover" of all the motion in the universe.
Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that states that the best action is the one that maximizes utility.
Valentinus (also spelled Valentinius; 100 – 160 AD) was the best known and for a time most successful early Christian gnostic theologian.
The Valle Romita Polyptych (Italian: Polittico di Valle Romita) is a painting by the Italian late Gothic painter Gentile da Fabriano, dating from c. 1410-1412 and now housed in the Pinacoteca di Brera in Milan.
According to Roman Catholicism, a venial sin is a lesser sin that does not result in a complete separation from God and eternal damnation in Hell as an unrepented mortal sin would.
"Verbum Supernum Prodiens" is a Catholic hymn in long metre by St Thomas Aquinas.
Virtue ethics (or aretaic ethics, from Greek ἀρετή (arete)) are normative ethical theories which emphasize virtues of mind and character.
The Waldensians (also known variously as Waldenses, Vallenses, Valdesi or Vaudois) are a pre-Protestant Christian movement founded by Peter Waldo in Lyon around 1173.
Walter Jackson Freeman III (January 30, 1927 – April 24, 2016), was an American biologist, theoretical neuroscientist and philosopher who conducted research in rabbits' olfactory perception, using EEG.
Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.
William of Moerbeke, O.P. (Willem van Moerbeke; Gulielmus de Moerbecum; 1215-35 – 1286), was a prolific medieval translator of philosophical, medical, and scientific texts from Greek language into Latin, enabled by the period of Latin rule of the Byzantine Empire.
William of Saint-Amour was a minor figure in thirteenth-century scholasticism, chiefly notable for his withering attacks on the friars.
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