297 relations: Agnosticism, Aldous Huxley, Alfred Newton, Alfred Russel Wallace, Alphonse Pyramus de Candolle, Anatomy, Andrew Huxley, Animal magnetism, Antitheism, Archaeopteryx, Archibald Geikie, Arthur Balfour, Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, Arthur Shipley, Asa Gray, Ascidiacea, Auguste Comte, Autodidacticism, Barney Miller, Baron Avebury, Benjamin Disraeli, Bernard Lightman, Biological anthropology, Biologist, Bipolar disorder, Blackfriars Road, Book of Genesis, Brachiopod, Brave New World, British Geological Survey, British Raj, British Science Association, Burke and Hare murders, Cambridge University Press, Cardiff University, Cephalopod, Charing Cross Hospital, Charles Darwin, Charles Dickens, Charles Kingsley, Charles Lyell, Chordate, Christian apologetics, Christian socialism, Clark University, Clarke Medal, Cnidaria, Coelacanth, Comparative anatomy, Compatibilism, ..., Compsognathus, Connecticut River, Contagious Diseases Acts, Copley Medal, Creation (2009 film), Cretaceous, Crispin Tickell, Crispin Whittell, Croonian Lecture, Cytoplasmic streaming, Dandy, Darwin (operating system), Darwin in Malibu, Darwin Medal, Determinism, Doug Linder, Ealing, East Finchley Cemetery, Eastbourne, Edinburgh Review, Education, Edward Forbes, Edward Frankland, Edward Linley Sambourne, Edwin Lankester, Empirical evidence, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., Eocene, Essays and Reviews, Ethics, Eugène Dubois, European and American voyages of scientific exploration, Evolution, Evolution of birds, Evolution of fish, Evolution of the horse, Evolutionary ethics, Eyeless in Gaza (novel), Fellow of the Royal Society, Francis Maitland Balfour, Frederick Denison Maurice, Frederick McCoy, Free will, Fritz Müller, Fullerian Professor of Physiology, Geological Society of London, George Bentham, George Busk, George Newport, George Peabody, George Rolleston, Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, German language, Giovanni Battista Grassi, Glaciology, Gradualism, Great Hippocampus Question, Greek language, Groucho Marx, H. G. Wells, Hayden Memorial Geological Award, Henry Brougham, 1st Baron Brougham and Vaux, Henry Fairfield Osborn, Henry James, Henry Walter Bates, Herbert Spencer, Heredity, Hermann von Helmholtz, Hesperornis, HMS Dreadnought (1801), HMS Rattlesnake (1822), Homo erectus, Homology (biology), Horse Feathers, Huxley family, Huxley's layer, Hydrozoa, Invertebrate, James Burnett, Lord Monboddo, James Hutton, Jean-Baptiste Édouard Bornet, Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Jermyn Street, Jesus, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johannes Peter Müller, John Collier (painter), John Lubbock, 1st Baron Avebury, John MacGillivray, John Marshall (surgeon), John Stevens Henslow, John Tyndall, John William Draper, Joseph Dalton Hooker, Joseph Lister, Julian Huxley, Larvacea, Latin, Laurent-Guillaume de Koninck, Leonard Huxley (writer), Leviathan (Westerfeld novel), Linnean Medal, Linnean Society of London, List of presidents of the Royal Society, London, London School Board, Longman, Lorenz Oken, Lungfish, Major depressive disorder, Man's Place in Nature, Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, Marshall Hall (physiologist), Marx Brothers, Meme, Mer de Glace, Metaphysical Society, Michael Foster (physiologist), Michael Ruse, Middlesex, Miohippus, Moral authority, Morphology (biology), Mulford B. Foster, Natural History Review, Natural selection, Nature (journal), Neanderthal, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Nonconformist, Norman Lockyer, Oakwood Hospital, Old Testament, On a Piece of Chalk, On the Origin of Species, On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties; and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection, Oral exam, Order (biology), Order of the Polar Star, Organized religion, Origin of birds, Orohippus, Othniel Charles Marsh, Oxford, Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum, Paleozoic, Patrick Geddes, Peabody Museum of Natural History, Peter Eckersley (engineer), Phanerozoic, Philosophical Magazine, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Phylum, Physiology, Pleistocene, Popular Science, Positivism, Privy council, Protoplasm, Punch (magazine), Quarterly Review, Quekett Microscopical Club, Ray Lankester, Ray Society, Reactions to On the Origin of Species, Red Cloud, Reflex arc, Richard Owen, Robert Chambers (publisher, born 1802), Robert FitzRoy, Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, Robert Knox, Robert Mallet, Romanes Lecture, Roscoe Lee Browne, Rotherhithe, Rotifer, Royal College of Science for Ireland, Royal College of Surgeons of England, Royal Commission, Royal Institution, Royal Medal, Royal Navy, Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Royal School of Mines, Royal Society, Samuel Johnson, Samuel Wilberforce, Sarcopterygii, Satire, Sauropsida, Scarlet fever, Science education, Second Anglo-Afghan War, Sir Benjamin Collins Brodie, 1st Baronet, Sir Philip Grey Egerton, 10th Baronet, Sir William Hamilton, 9th Baronet, South London Gallery, Surgery, Sussex, Sydney, Tetrapod, The Auk, The Club (dining club), The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, The Doors of Perception, The Fortnightly Review, The Island of Doctor Moreau, The Pall Mall Gazette, The Right Honourable, The Times, The Water-Babies, A Fairy Tale for a Land Baby, The Westminster Review, Theropoda, Thomas Archer Hirst, Thomas Carlyle, Thomas Eckersley, Thomas Wharton Jones, Thomas Young (scientist), Toby Jones, Tunicate, UNESCO, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, University College Hospital, University College London, University College, Oxford, University of Chicago Press, University of London, Vanity Fair (UK magazine), Vertebrate, Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation, Vivisection, Vladimir Lenin, William Ewart Gladstone, William Henry Flower, William Kingdon Clifford, William Spottiswoode, William Turner Thiselton-Dyer, Wollaston Medal, Woodburytype, Worshipful Society of Apothecaries, X Club, Yale University, Zoology, 1860 Oxford evolution debate. 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Agnosticism is the view that the existence of God, of the divine or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable.
Aldous Leonard Huxley (26 July 1894 – 22 November 1963) was an English writer, novelist, philosopher, and prominent member of the Huxley family.
Alfred Newton FRS HFRSE (11 June 18297 June 1907) was an English zoologist and ornithologist.
Alfred Russel Wallace (8 January 18237 November 1913) was an English naturalist, explorer, geographer, anthropologist, and biologist.
Alphonse Louis Pierre Pyrame de Candolle (28 October 18064 April 1893) was a French-Swiss botanist, the son of the Swiss botanist Augustin Pyramus de Candolle.
Anatomy (Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.
Sir Andrew Fielding Huxley (22 November 191730 May 2012) was a Nobel Prize-winning English physiologist and biophysicist.
Animal magnetism, also known as mesmerism, was the name given by the German doctor Franz Mesmer in the 18th century to what he believed to be an invisible natural force (lebensmagnetismus) possessed by all living/animate beings (humans, animals, vegetables, etc.). He believed that the force could have physical effects, including healing.
Antitheism (sometimes anti-theism) is the opposition to theism.
Archaeopteryx, meaning "old wing" (sometimes referred to by its German name Urvogel ("original bird" or "first bird")), is a genus of bird-like dinosaurs that is transitional between non-avian feathered dinosaurs and modern birds.
Sir Archibald Geikie (28 December 183510 November 1924), was a Scottish geologist and writer.
Arthur James Balfour, 1st Earl of Balfour, (25 July 184819 March 1930) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1902 to 1905.
Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, (13 December 1815 – 18 July 1881), known as Dean Stanley, was an English churchman and academic.
Sir Arthur Everett Shipley GBE FRS (10 March 1861 – 22 September 1927) was an English zoologist and Vice-Chancellor of the University of Cambridge.
Asa Gray (November 18, 1810 – January 30, 1888) is considered the most important American botanist of the 19th century.
Ascidiacea (commonly known as the ascidians or sea squirts) is a paraphyletic class in the subphylum Tunicata of sac-like marine invertebrate filter feeders.
Isidore Marie Auguste François Xavier Comte (19 January 1798 – 5 September 1857) was a French philosopher who founded the discipline of praxeology and the doctrine of positivism.
Autodidacticism (also autodidactism) or self-education (also self-learning and self-teaching) is education without the guidance of masters (such as teachers and professors) or institutions (such as schools).
Barney Miller is an American sitcom set in a New York City Police Department police station on East 6th St in Greenwich Village.
Baron Avebury, of Avebury in the County of Wiltshire, is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, (21 December 1804 – 19 April 1881) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who twice served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
Bernard Vise Lightman, FRSC (born April 30, 1950) is a Canadian historian, and professor of Humanities and Science and Technology Studies at York University, in Toronto, Canada.
Biological anthropology, also known as physical anthropology, is a scientific discipline concerned with the biological and behavioral aspects of human beings, their related non-human primates and their extinct hominin ancestors.
A biologist, is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of biology, the scientific study of life.
Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.
Blackfriars Road is a road in Southwark, SE1.
The Book of Genesis (from the Latin Vulgate, in turn borrowed or transliterated from Greek "", meaning "Origin"; בְּרֵאשִׁית, "Bərēšīṯ", "In beginning") is the first book of the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh) and the Old Testament.
Brachiopods, phylum Brachiopoda, are a group of lophotrochozoan animals that have hard "valves" (shells) on the upper and lower surfaces, unlike the left and right arrangement in bivalve molluscs.
Brave New World is a dystopian novel written in 1931 by English author Aldous Huxley, and published in 1932.
The British Geological Survey (BGS) is a partly publicly-funded body which aims to advance geoscientific knowledge of the United Kingdom landmass and its continental shelf by means of systematic surveying, monitoring and research.
The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.
The British Science Association (BSA) is a charity and learned society founded in 1831 to aid in the promotion and development of science.
The Burke and Hare murders were a series of 16 murders committed over a period of about ten months in 1828 in Edinburgh, Scotland.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Cardiff University (Prifysgol Caerdydd) is a public research university in Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom.
A cephalopod is any member of the molluscan class Cephalopoda (Greek plural κεφαλόποδα, kephalópoda; "head-feet") such as a squid, octopus or nautilus.
Charing Cross Hospital is an acute general teaching hospital located in Hammersmith, London, United Kingdom.
Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
Charles John Huffam Dickens (7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) was an English writer and social critic.
Charles Kingsley (12 June 1819 – 23 January 1875) was a broad church priest of the Church of England, a university professor, social reformer, historian and novelist.
Sir Charles Lyell, 1st Baronet, (14 November 1797 – 22 February 1875) was a Scottish geologist who popularised the revolutionary work of James Hutton.
A chordate is an animal belonging to the phylum Chordata; chordates possess a notochord, a hollow dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, and a post-anal tail, for at least some period of their life cycle.
Christian apologetics (ἀπολογία, "verbal defence, speech in defence") is a branch of Christian theology that attempts to defend Christianity against objections.
Christian socialism is a form of religious socialism based on the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth.
Clark University is an American private research university located in Worcester, Massachusetts.
The Clarke Medal is awarded by the Royal Society of New South Wales, the oldest learned society in Australia and in the Southern Hemisphere, for distinguished work in the Natural sciences.
Cnidaria is a phylum containing over 10,000 species of animals found exclusively in aquatic (freshwater and marine) environments: they are predominantly marine species.
The coelacanths constitute a now rare order of fish that includes two extant species in the genus Latimeria: the West Indian Ocean coelacanth (Latimeria chalumnae) primarily found near the Comoro Islands off the east coast of Africa and the Indonesian coelacanth (Latimeria menadoensis).
Comparative anatomy is the study of similarities and differences in the anatomy of different species.
Compatibilism is the belief that free will and determinism are mutually compatible and that it is possible to believe in both without being logically inconsistent.
Compsognathus (Greek kompsos/κομψός; "elegant", "refined" or "dainty", and gnathos/γνάθος; "jaw") is a genus of small, bipedal, carnivorous theropod dinosaur.
The Connecticut River is the longest river in the New England region of the United States, flowing roughly southward for through four states.
The Contagious Diseases Acts, also known as the CD Acts, were originally passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom in 1864, with alterations and editions made in 1866 and 1869.
The Copley Medal is a scientific award given by the Royal Society, for "outstanding achievements in research in any branch of science." It alternates between the physical and the biological sciences.
Creation is a 2009 British biographical drama film about Charles Darwin's relationship with his wife Emma and his memory of their eldest daughter Annie, as he struggles to write On the Origin of Species.
The Cretaceous is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period mya.
Sir Crispin Tickell (born 25 August 1930) is a British diplomat, environmentalist, and academic.
Crispin Whittell (born 19 December 1969 in Nairobi, Kenya) is a British director and playwright.
The Croonian Lectures are prestigious lectureships given at the invitation of the Royal Society and the Royal College of Physicians.
Cytoplasmic streaming, also called protoplasmic streaming and cyclosis, is the directed flow of cytosol (the liquid component of the cytoplasm) and organelles around fungal and plant cells.
A dandy, historically, is a man who places particular importance upon physical appearance, refined language, and leisurely hobbies, pursued with the appearance of nonchalance in a cult of self.
Darwin is an open-source Unix operating system first released by Apple Inc. in 2000.
Darwin in Malibu is a play by British playwright and director, Crispin Whittell.
The Darwin Medal is awarded by the Royal Society every alternate year for "work of acknowledged distinction in the broad area of biology in which Charles Darwin worked, notably in evolution, population biology, organismal biology and biological diversity".
Determinism is the philosophical theory that all events, including moral choices, are completely determined by previously existing causes.
Douglas O. Linder is an American author, narrator, and historian.
Ealing is a district of west London, England, located west of Charing Cross.
East Finchley Cemetery is a cemetery and crematorium in East End Road, East Finchley in the London Borough of Barnet.
Eastbourne is a town, seaside resort and borough in the non-metropolitan county of East Sussex on the south coast of England, east of Brighton.
The Edinburgh Review has been the title of four distinct intellectual and cultural magazines.
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.
Professor Edward Forbes FRS, FGS (12 February 1815 – 18 November 1854) was a Manx naturalist.
Sir Edward Frankland, (18 January 1825 – 9 August 1899) was a British chemist.
Edward Linley Sambourne (4 January 1844 – 3 August 1910) was an English cartoonist and illustrator most famous for being a draughtsman for the satirical magazine Punch for more than forty years and rising to the position of ‘First Cartoonist’ in his final decade.
Edwin Lankester FRS, FRMS, MRCS (23 April 1814 – 30 October 1874) was an English surgeon and naturalist who made a major contribution to the control of cholera in London: he was the first public analyst in England.
Empirical evidence, also known as sensory experience, is the information received by means of the senses, particularly by observation and documentation of patterns and behavior through experimentation.
Encyclopædia Britannica Online is the website of Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. and its Encyclopædia Britannica, with more than 120,000 articles that are updated regularly.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. is a Scottish-founded, now American company best known for publishing the Encyclopædia Britannica, the world's oldest continuously published encyclopedia.
The Eocene Epoch, lasting from, is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic Era.
Essays and Reviews, edited by John William Parker, published in March 1860, is a broad-church volume of seven essays on Christianity.
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
Marie Eugène François Thomas Dubois (28 January 1858 – 16 December 1940) was a Dutch paleoanthropologist and geologist.
The era of European and American voyages of scientific exploration followed the Age of Discovery and were inspired by a new confidence in science and reason that arose in the Age of Enlightenment.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
The evolution of birds began in the Jurassic Period, with the earliest birds derived from a clade of theropoda dinosaurs named Paraves.
The evolution of fish began about 530 million years ago during the Cambrian explosion.
The evolution of the horse, a mammal of the family Equidae, occurred over a geologic time scale of 50 million years, transforming the small, dog-sized, forest-dwelling Eohippus into the modern horse.
Evolutionary ethics is a field of inquiry that explores how evolutionary theory might bear on our understanding of ethics or morality.
Eyeless in Gaza is a bestselling novel by Aldous Huxley, first published in 1936.
Fellowship of the Royal Society (FRS, ForMemRS and HonFRS) is an award granted to individuals that the Royal Society judges to have made a "substantial contribution to the improvement of natural knowledge, including mathematics, engineering science and medical science".
Francis (Frank) Maitland Balfour, known as F. M. Balfour, (10 November 1851 – 19 July 1882) was a British biologist.
John Frederick Denison Maurice (29 August 1805 – 1 April 1872), often known as F. D. Maurice, was an English Anglican theologian, a prolific author, and one of the founders of Christian socialism.
Sir Frederick McCoy (1817 – 16 May 1899), was an Irish palaeontologist, zoologist, and museum administrator, active in Australia.
Free will is the ability to choose between different possible courses of action unimpeded.
Johann Friedrich Theodor Müller (31 March 1821 – 21 May 1897), better known as Fritz Müller, and also as Müller-Desterro, was a German biologist who emigrated to southern Brazil, where he lived in and near the German community of Blumenau, Santa Catarina.
The Fullerian Chairs at the Royal Institution in London, England, were established by John 'Mad Jack' Fuller.
The Geological Society of London, known commonly as the Geological Society, is a learned society based in the United Kingdom.
George Bentham (22 September 1800 – 10 September 1884) was an English botanist, described by the weed botanist Duane Isely as "the premier systematic botanist of the nineteenth century".
George Busk RN FRS (12 August 1807 – 10 August 1886) was a British naval surgeon, zoologist and palaeontologist.
George Newport FRS (4 February 1803, Canterbury – 6 April 1854, London) was a prominent English entomologist.
George Peabody (February 18, 1795 – November 4, 1869) was an American financier and philanthropist.
George Rolleston MA MD FRCP FRS (30 July 1829 – 16 June 1881) was an English physician and zoologist.
Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (7 September 1707 – 16 April 1788) was a French naturalist, mathematician, cosmologist, and encyclopédiste.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Giovanni Battista Grassi (27 March 1854 – 4 May 1925) was an Italian physician and zoologist, most well known for his pioneering works on parasitology, especially on malariology.
Glaciology (from Latin: glacies, "frost, ice", and Ancient Greek: λόγος, logos, "subject matter"; literally "study of ice") is the scientific study of glaciers, or more generally ice and natural phenomena that involve ice.
Gradualism, from the Latin gradus ("step"), is a hypothesis, a theory or a tenet assuming that change comes about gradually or that variation is gradual in nature and happens over time as opposed to in large steps.
The Great Hippocampus Question was a 19th-century scientific controversy about the anatomy of apes and human uniqueness.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Julius Henry "Groucho" Marx (October 2, 1890 – August 19, 1977) was an American comedian, writer, stage, film, radio, and television star.
Herbert George Wells.
The Hayden Memorial Geological Award is presented by the Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University (formerly the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
Henry Peter Brougham, 1st Baron Brougham and Vaux, (19 September 1778 – 7 May 1868) was a British statesman who became Lord Chancellor of Great Britain.
Henry Fairfield Osborn, Sr. (August 8, 1857 – November 6, 1935) was an American paleontologist and geologist.
Henry James, OM (–) was an American author regarded as a key transitional figure between literary realism and literary modernism, and is considered by many to be among the greatest novelists in the English language.
Henry Walter Bates (8 February 1825 in Leicester – 16 February 1892 in London) was an English naturalist and explorer who gave the first scientific account of mimicry in animals.
Herbert Spencer (27 April 1820 – 8 December 1903) was an English philosopher, biologist, anthropologist, sociologist, and prominent classical liberal political theorist of the Victorian era.
Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.
Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (August 31, 1821 – September 8, 1894) was a German physician and physicist who made significant contributions in several scientific fields.
Hesperornis (meaning "western bird") is a genus of flightless aquatic birds that spanned the first half of the Campanian age of the Late Cretaceous period (83.5–78 mya).
HMS Dreadnought was a Royal Navy 98-gun second rate.
HMS Rattlesnake was an ''Atholl''-class 28-gun sixth-rate corvette of the Royal Navy launched in 1822.
Homo erectus (meaning "upright man") is an extinct species of archaic humans that lived throughout most of the Pleistocene geological epoch.
In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.
Horse Feathers is a 1932 Pre-Code comedy film starring the Marx Brothers.
The Huxley family is a British family of which several members have excelled in science, medicine, arts, and literature.
The second layer of the inner root sheath of the hair consists of one or two layers of horny, flattened, nucleated cells, known as Huxley's layer.
Hydrozoa (hydrozoans, from ancient Greek ὕδρα, hydra, "sea serpent" and ζῷον, zoon, "animal") are a taxonomic class of individually very small, predatory animals, some solitary and some colonial, most living in salt water.
Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.
James Burnett, Lord Monboddo (baptised 25 October 1714; died 26 May 1799), was a Scottish judge, scholar of linguistic evolution, philosopher and deist.
James Hutton (3 June 1726 – 26 March 1797) was a Scottish geologist, physician, chemical manufacturer, naturalist, and experimental agriculturalist.
Jean-Baptiste Édouard Bornet (September 2, 1828 Guérigny – December 18, 1911 Paris was a French botanist.
Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck (1 August 1744 – 18 December 1829), often known simply as Lamarck, was a French naturalist.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer.
Jermyn Street is a one-way street in the St James's area of the City of Westminster in London, England.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman.
Johannes Peter Müller (14 July 1801 – 28 April 1858) was a German physiologist, comparative anatomist, ichthyologist, and herpetologist, known not only for his discoveries but also for his ability to synthesize knowledge.
John Maler Collier OBE RP ROI (27 January 1850 – 11 April 1934) was a leading English artist, and an author.
John Lubbock, 1st Baron Avebury, 4th Baronet, (30 April 183428 May 1913), known as Sir John Lubbock, 4th Baronet from 1865 until 1900, was an English banker, Liberal politician, philanthropist, scientist and polymath.
John MacGillivray (18 December 1821 – 6 June 1867) was a Scottish-naturalist, active in Australia between 1842 and 1867.
John Marshall FRS FRCS (11 September 1818 – 1 January 1891) was an English surgeon and teacher of anatomy.
John Stevens Henslow (6 February 1796 – 16 May 1861) was a British priest, botanist and geologist.
John Tyndall FRS (2 August 1820 – 4 December 1893) was a prominent 19th-century physicist.
John William Draper (May 5, 1811 – January 4, 1882) was an English-born American scientist, philosopher, physician, chemist, historian and photographer.
Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker (30 June 1817 – 10 December 1911) was a British botanist and explorer in the 19th century.
Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister, (5 April 182710 February 1912), known between 1883 and 1897 as Sir Joseph Lister, Bt., was a British surgeon and a pioneer of antiseptic surgery.
Sir Julian Sorell Huxley FRS (22 June 1887 – 14 February 1975) was a British evolutionary biologist, eugenicist, and internationalist.
Larvaceans (Class Appendicularia) are solitary, free-swimming tunicates found throughout the world's oceans.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Laurent-Guillaume de Koninck (3 May 1809 – 16 July 1887) was a Belgian palaeontologist and chemist, born at Leuven.
Leonard Huxley (11 December 1860 – 2 May 1933) was an English schoolteacher, writer and editor.
Leviathan is a 2009 dystopian novel written by Scott Westerfeld and illustrated by Keith Thompson.
The Linnean Medal of the Linnean Society of London was established in 1888, and is awarded annually to alternately a botanist or a zoologist or (as has been common since 1958) to one of each in the same year.
The Linnean Society of London is a society dedicated to the study of, and the dissemination of information concerning, natural history, evolution and taxonomy.
The President of the Royal Society (PRS) is the elected Head of the Royal Society of London who presides over meetings of the society's council.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
The School Board for London (known colloquially as the London School Board and often abbreviated to the LSB) was an institution of local government and the first directly elected body covering the whole of London.
Longman, commonly known as Pearson Longman, is a publishing company founded in London, England, in 1724 and is owned by Pearson PLC.
Lorenz Oken (1 August 1779 – 11 August 1851) was a German naturalist, botanist, biologist, and ornithologist.
Lungfish are freshwater rhipidistian fish belonging to the subclass Dipnoi.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature is an 1863 book by Thomas Henry Huxley, in which he gives evidence for the evolution of man and apes from a common ancestor.
The Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom (MBA) is a learned society with a scientific laboratory that undertakes research in marine biology.
Marshall Hall FRS (18 February 1790 – 11 August 1857) was an English physician, physiologist and early neurologist.
The Marx Brothers were an American family comedy act that was successful in vaudeville, on Broadway, and in motion pictures from 1905 to 1949.
A meme is an idea, behavior, or style that spreads from person to person within a culture—often with the aim of conveying a particular phenomenon, theme, or meaning represented by the meme.
The Mer de Glace is a valley glacier located on the northern slopes of the Mont Blanc massif, in the French Alps.
The Metaphysical Society was a British society, founded in 1869 by James Knowles.
Sir Michael Foster, KCB (8 March 1836 – 29 January 1907) was an English physiologist.
Michael Ruse, (born 21 June 1940) is a philosopher of science who specializes in the philosophy of biology and works on the relationship between science and religion, the creation–evolution controversy, and the demarcation problem within science.
Middlesex (abbreviation: Middx) is an historic county in south-east England.
Miohippus (meaning "small horse") was a genus of prehistoric horse existing longer than most Equidae.
Moral authority is authority premised on principles, or fundamental truths, which are independent of written, or positive, laws.
Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.
Mulford Bateman Foster (December 25, 1888 – August 28, 1978Foster Family Bible) was a botanist known by many as the "Father of the Bromeliad" as he was instrumental in the discovery and introduction of many new species of Bromeliad to the United States.
The Natural History Review was a short-lived, quarterly journal devoted to natural history.
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Neanderthals (also; also Neanderthal Man, taxonomically Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens neanderthalensis) are an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo, who lived in Eurasia during at least 430,000 to 38,000 years ago.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.
In English church history, a nonconformist was a Protestant who did not "conform" to the governance and usages of the established Church of England.
Sir Joseph Norman Lockyer, KCB FRS (17 May 1836 – 16 August 1920), known simply as Norman Lockyer, was an English scientist and astronomer.
Oakwood Hospital in Barming Heath near Maidstone, England was a psychiatric hospital founded in 1833 as the Kent County Lunatic Asylum to an Early Corridor design by the Surveyor to the County of Kent, John Whichcord Snr.
The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.
On a Piece of Chalk was an 1868 lecture by Thomas Henry Huxley to the working men of Norwich during a meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science.
On the Origin of Species (or more completely, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life),The book's full original title was On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life.
On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties; and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection
On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties; and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection is the title of a joint presentation of two scientific papers to the Linnean Society of London on 1 July 1858: On The Tendency of Varieties to Depart Indefinitely from the Original Type by Alfred Russel Wallace and an Extract from an unpublished Work on Species from Charles Darwin's Essay of 1844, together with an Abstract of a Letter from Darwin to Asa Gray.
The oral exam (also oral test or viva voce; Rigorosum in German-speaking nations) is a practice in many schools and disciplines in which an examiner poses questions to the student in spoken form.
In biological classification, the order (ordo) is.
The Order of the Polar Star (Swedish: Nordstjärneorden) is a Swedish order of chivalry created by King Frederick I on 23 February 1748, together with the Order of the Sword and the Order of the Seraphim.
Organized religion (or organised religion—see spelling differences), also known as institutional religion, is religion in which belief systems and rituals are systematically arranged and formally established.
The scientific question of within which larger group of animals birds evolved, has traditionally been called the origin of birds.
Orohippus (Gr., "mountain horse") is an extinct equid that lived in the Eocene (about 50 million years ago).
Othniel Charles Marsh (October 29, 1831 – March 18, 1899) was an American paleontologist.
Oxford is a city in the South East region of England and the county town of Oxfordshire.
The Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), alternatively (ETM1), and formerly known as the "Initial Eocene" or "" was a time period with more than 8 °C warmer global average temperature than today.
The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era (from the Greek palaios (παλαιός), "old" and zoe (ζωή), "life", meaning "ancient life") is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon.
Sir Patrick Geddes FRSE (2 October 1854 – 17 April 1932) was a Scottish biologist, sociologist, geographer, philanthropist and pioneering town planner.
The Peabody Museum of Natural History at Yale University is among the oldest, largest, and most prolific university natural history museums in the world.
Captain Peter Pendleton Eckersley (P. P. Eckersley, 6 January 189218 March 1963) was a pioneer of British broadcasting, the first Chief Engineer of the British Broadcasting Company Limited from 1922 to 1927 and Chief Engineer of the British Broadcasting Corporation until 1929.
The Phanerozoic Eon is the current geologic eon in the geologic time scale, and the one during which abundant animal and plant life has existed.
The Philosophical Magazine is one of the oldest scientific journals published in English.
Philosophical Transactions, titled Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (often abbreviated as Phil. Trans.) from 1776, is a scientific journal published by the Royal Society.
In biology, a phylum (plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
The Pleistocene (often colloquially referred to as the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations.
Popular Science (also known as PopSci) is an American quarterly magazine carrying popular science content, which refers to articles for the general reader on science and technology subjects.
Positivism is a philosophical theory stating that certain ("positive") knowledge is based on natural phenomena and their properties and relations.
A privy council is a body that advises the head of state of a nation, typically, but not always, in the context of a monarchic government.
Protoplasm is the living content of a cell that is surrounded by a plasma membrane.
Punch; or, The London Charivari was a British weekly magazine of humour and satire established in 1841 by Henry Mayhew and engraver Ebenezer Landells.
The Quarterly Review was a literary and political periodical founded in March 1809 by the well known London publishing house John Murray.
The Quekett Microscopical Club offers membership to all who are interested in the microscope and microscopy.
Sir Edwin Ray Lankester (15 May 1847 – 13 August 1929) was a British zoologist.
The Ray Society is a scientific text publication society that publishes works devoted principally to British flora and fauna.
The immediate reactions to On the Origin of Species, the book in which Charles Darwin described evolution by natural selection, included international debate, though the heat of controversy was less than that over earlier works such as Vestiges of Creation.
Red Cloud (Lakota: Maȟpíya Lúta) (1822 – December 10, 1909) was one of the most important leaders of the Oglala Lakota.
A reflex arc is a neural pathway that controls a reflex.
Sir Richard Owen (20 July 1804 – 18 December 1892) was an English biologist, comparative anatomist and paleontologist.
Robert Chambers (10 July 1802 – 17 March 1871) was a Scottish publisher, geologist, evolutionary thinker, author and journal editor who, like his elder brother and business partner William Chambers, was highly influential in mid-19th century scientific and political circles.
Vice-Admiral Robert FitzRoy RN (5 July 1805 – 30 April 1865) was an English officer of the Royal Navy and a scientist.
Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, (3 February 183022 August 1903), styled Lord Robert Cecil before 1865 and Viscount Cranborne from June 1865 until April 1868, was a British statesman of the Conservative Party, serving as Prime Minister three times for a total of over thirteen years.
Robert Knox, (4 September 1793 – 20 December 1862) was a Scottish anatomist, zoologist, ethologist and doctor.
Robert Mallet, FRS, MRIA (3 June 1810 – 5 November 1881), Irish geophysicist, civil engineer, and inventor who distinguished himself in research on earthquakes and is sometimes called the father of seismology.
The Romanes Lecture is a prestigious free public lecture given annually at the Sheldonian Theatre, Oxford, England.
Roscoe Lee Browne (May 2, 1922 – April 11, 2007) was an American actor and director known for his rich voice and dignified bearing.
Rotherhithe is a residential district in south east London, England, and part of the London Borough of Southwark.
The rotifers (Rotifera, commonly called wheel animals) make up a phylum of microscopic and near-microscopic pseudocoelomate animals.
The Royal College of Science for Ireland (RCScI) was an institute for higher education in Dublin which existed from 1867 to 1926, specialising in physical sciences and applied science.
The Royal College of Surgeons of England (abbreviated RCS and sometimes RCSEng), is an independent professional body and registered charity promoting and advancing standards of surgical care for patients, regulating surgery, including dentistry, in England and Wales.
A Royal Commission is a major ad-hoc formal public inquiry into a defined issue in some monarchies.
The Royal Institution of Great Britain (often abbreviated as the Royal Institution or Ri) is an organisation devoted to scientific education and research, based in London.
A Royal Medal, known also as The King's Medal or The Queen's Medal, depending on the gender of the monarch at the time of the award, is a silver-gilt medal, of which three are awarded each year by the Royal Society, two for "the most important contributions to the advancement of natural knowledge" and one for "distinguished contributions in the applied sciences", done within the Commonwealth of Nations.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
The Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, abbreviated: KNAW) is an organization dedicated to the advancement of science and literature in the Netherlands.
The Royal School of Mines comprises the departments of Earth Science and Engineering, Materials and Bioengineering at Imperial College London.
The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.
Samuel Johnson LL.D. (18 September 1709 – 13 December 1784), often referred to as Dr.
Samuel Wilberforce FRS (7 September 1805 – 19 July 1873) was an English bishop in the Church of England, third son of William Wilberforce.
The Sarcopterygii or lobe-finned fish (from Greek σαρξ sarx, flesh, and πτερυξ pteryx, fin) – sometimes considered synonymous with Crossopterygii ("fringe-finned fish", from Greek κροσσός krossos, fringe) – constitute a clade (traditionally a class or subclass) of the bony fish, though a strict cladistic view includes the terrestrial vertebrates.
Satire is a genre of literature, and sometimes graphic and performing arts, in which vices, follies, abuses, and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, ideally with the intent of shaming individuals, corporations, government, or society itself into improvement.
Sauropsida ("lizard faces") is a group of amniotes that includes all existing birds and other reptiles as well as their fossil ancestors and other extinct relatives.
Scarlet fever is a disease which can occur as a result of a group A ''streptococcus'' (group A strep) infection.
Science education is the field concerned with sharing science content and process with individuals not traditionally considered part of the scientific community.
The Second Anglo-Afghan War (د افغان-انګرېز دويمه جګړه) was a military conflict fought between the British Raj and the Emirate of Afghanistan from 1878 to 1880, when the latter was ruled by Sher Ali Khan of the Barakzai dynasty, the son of former Emir Dost Mohammad Khan.
Sir Benjamin Collins Brodie, 1st Baronet, (9 June 178321 October 1862) was an English physiologist and surgeon who pioneered research into bone and joint disease.
Sir Philip de Malpas Grey Egerton, 10th Baronet FRS (13 November 1806 – 6 April 1881) was an English palaeontologist and Conservative politician from the Egerton family.
Sir William Hamilton, 9th Baronet FRSE DD FSAS (8 March 1788 – 6 May 1856) was a Scottish metaphysician.
The South London Gallery, founded 1891, is a public-funded gallery of contemporary art in Camberwell, London.
Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.
Sussex, from the Old English Sūþsēaxe (South Saxons), is a historic county in South East England corresponding roughly in area to the ancient Kingdom of Sussex.
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania.
The superclass Tetrapoda (from Greek: τετρα- "four" and πούς "foot") contains the four-limbed vertebrates known as tetrapods; it includes living and extinct amphibians, reptiles (including dinosaurs, and its subgroup birds) and mammals (including primates, and all hominid subgroups including humans), as well as earlier extinct groups.
The Auk: Ornithological Advances is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal and the official publication of the American Ornithological Society (AOS).
The Club or Literary Club is a London dining club founded in February 1764 by the artist Joshua Reynolds and essayist Samuel Johnson, with Edmund Burke, the Irish philosopher-politician.
The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex is a book by English naturalist Charles Darwin, first published in 1871, which applies evolutionary theory to human evolution, and details his theory of sexual selection, a form of biological adaptation distinct from, yet interconnected with, natural selection.
The Doors of Perception is a philosophical essay, released as a book, by Aldous Huxley.
The Fortnightly Review was one of the most prominent and influential magazines in nineteenth-century England.
The Island of Doctor Moreau is an 1896 science fiction novel by English author H. G. Wells.
The Pall Mall Gazette was an evening newspaper founded in London on 7 February 1865 by George Murray Smith; its first editor was Frederick Greenwood.
The Right Honourable (The Rt Hon. or Rt Hon.) is an honorific style traditionally applied to certain persons and to certain collective bodies in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Fiji, India, some other Commonwealth realms, the Anglophone Caribbean, Mauritius, and occasionally elsewhere.
The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.
The Water-Babies, A Fairy Tale for a Land Baby is a children's novel by Charles Kingsley.
The Westminster Review was a quarterly British publication.
Theropoda (or, from Greek θηρίον "wild beast" and πούς, ποδός "foot") or theropods are a dinosaur suborder characterized by hollow bones and three-toed limbs.
Thomas Archer Hirst FRS (22 April 1830 – 16 February 1892) was a 19th-century mathematician, specialising in geometry.
Thomas Carlyle (4 December 17955 February 1881) was a Scottish philosopher, satirical writer, essayist, translator, historian, mathematician, and teacher.
Thomas Lydwell Eckersley FRS (27 December 1886 – 15 February 1959) was an English theoretical physicist and engineer.
Thomas Wharton Jones (9 January 1808 – 7 November 1891) was an eminent ophthalmologist and physiologist of the 19th century.
Thomas Young FRS (13 June 1773 – 10 May 1829) was a British polymath and physician.
Toby Edward Heslewood JonesBirths, Marriages & Deaths Index of England & Wales, 1916–2005.; at ancestry.com (born 7 September 1966) is an English actor.
A tunicate is a marine invertebrate animal, a member of the subphylum Tunicata, which is part of the Chordata, a phylum which includes all animals with dorsal nerve cords and notochords.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
University College Hospital (UCH) is a teaching hospital located in London, England.
University College London (UCL) is a public research university in London, England, and a constituent college of the federal University of London.
University College (in full The Master and Fellows of the College of the Great Hall of the University of Oxford,Darwall-Smith, Robin, A History of University College, Oxford. Oxford University Press, 2008.. colloquially referred to as "Univ"), is a constituent college of the University of Oxford in England.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
The University of London (abbreviated as Lond. or more rarely Londin. in post-nominals) is a collegiate and a federal research university located in London, England.
The second Vanity Fair was a British weekly magazine published from 1868 to 1914.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation is an 1844 work of speculative natural history and philosophy by Robert Chambers.
Vivisection is surgery conducted for experimental purposes on a living organism, typically animals with a central nervous system, to view living internal structure.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
William Ewart Gladstone, (29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British statesman of the Liberal Party.
Sir William Henry Flower KCB FRCS FRS (30 November 1831 – 1 July 1899) was an English surgeon, museum curator and comparative anatomist, who became a leading authority on mammals and especially on the primate brain.
William Kingdon Clifford FRS (4 May 1845 – 3 March 1879) was an English mathematician and philosopher.
William H. Spottiswoode (11 January 1825 – 27 June 1883) was an English mathematician and physicist.
Sir William Turner Thiselton-Dyer (28 July 1843 – 23 December 1928) was a leading British botanist, and the third director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
The Wollaston Medal is a scientific award for geology, the highest award granted by the Geological Society of London.
A Woodburytype is both a printing process and the print that it produces.
The Worshipful Society of Apothecaries of London is one of the livery companies of the City of London.
The X Club was a dining club of nine men who supported the theories of natural selection and academic liberalism in late 19th-century England.
Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.
Zoology or animal biology is the branch of biology that studies the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct, and how they interact with their ecosystems.
The 1860 Oxford evolution debate took place at the Oxford University Museum in Oxford, England, on 30 June 1860, seven months after the publication of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species.
Darwin's Bulldog, Darwins Bulldog, Leiotrichi race, Melanochroi race, Mincopies, Mincopies race, T H Huxley, T Huxley, T. H. Huxley, T.H Huxley, T.H. Huxley, T.H.Huxley, TH Huxley, Th huxley, Thomas H. Huxley, Thomas Henry Huxley PC FRS, Thomas Henry Huxley, PC, FRS, Thomas Huxley.