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Thomas Hobbes

Index Thomas Hobbes

Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy. [1]

151 relations: Aloysius Martinich, Amanuensis, Amsterdam, Aristotle, Arminianism, Atheism, Authority, Bachelor of Arts, Basil Blackwell, BBC Radio 4, Behemoth (Hobbes book), Bellum omnium contra omnes, Ben Jonson, Brill Publishers, Bubonic plague, C. B. Macpherson, Cambridge University Press, Cato Institute, Cavalier, Charles II of England, Charlton, Brinkworth, Christen Sørensen Longomontanus, Civil society, Classical liberalism, Court of High Commission, Crosier, Cuius regio, eius religio, De Cive, De Corpore, Derbyshire, Determinism, Divine providence, Duke of Devonshire, Early modern period, Empiricism, Engagement controversy, England, English Civil War, English Council of State, English people, Ethical egoism, Ethics, Ferdinand Tönnies, Fetter Lane, First Council of Nicaea, Florence, Francis Bacon, Free Press (publisher), Free will, Gale (publisher), ..., Gas, Geometry, Gilles de Roberval, Gondibert, Grand Tour, Great Lives, Heresy in Christianity, Hertford College, Oxford, History, History of the Peloponnesian War, Hobbesian trap, Homer, House of Commons of the United Kingdom, House of Elzevir, Hugo Grotius, Iliad, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Ioannis D. Evrigenis, J. G. A. Pocock, Jersey, John Bramhall, John Locke, John Pell, John Wallis, Joseph Butler, Jurisprudence, Leo Strauss, Leviathan, Leviathan (Hobbes book), Leviathan and the Air-Pump, Long Parliament, Malmesbury, Malmesbury School, Marin Mersenne, Materialism, Mechanism (philosophy), Meditations on First Philosophy, Michael Oakeshott, Niccolò Machiavelli, Nicene Creed, Noel Malcolm, Odyssey, Oxford University Press, Patriarchalism, Peloponnesian War, Perez Zagorin, Peter Lang (publisher), Physics, Pierre Manent, Polemic, Political philosophy, Political Psychology, Princeton University Press, Puritans, Quentin Skinner, Realism (international relations), René Descartes, Restoration (England), Revelation, Rice University, Robert Filmer, Robert Grosseteste, Robert Payne (natural philosopher), Roger Bacon, Routledge, Royal Society, SAGE Publications, Samuel de Sorbiere, Scholasticism, Separation of powers, Short Parliament, Simon Schaffer, Sir Gervase Clifton, 1st Baronet, Sir Gervase Clifton, 2nd Baronet, Social contract, Sociology, Spanish Armada, Squaring the circle, St John the Baptist's Church, Ault Hucknall, St. Martin's Press, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, State (polity), State of nature, Steven Pinker, Steven Shapin, Tacitus, Tertullian, Theology, Thucydides, University of Chicago Press, University of Oxford, University of St Andrews, Vicar (Anglicanism), W. W. Norton & Company, Western philosophy, Westport, Wiltshire, William Cavendish, 1st Earl of Devonshire, William Cavendish, 2nd Earl of Devonshire, William Cavendish, 3rd Earl of Devonshire, Wiltshire, 17th-century philosophy. Expand index (101 more) »

Aloysius Martinich

Aloysius Patrick Martinich (born June 28, 1946) is an American analytic philosopher.

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An amanuensis is a person employed to write or type what another dictates or to copy what has been written by another, and also refers to a person who signs a document on behalf of another under the latter's authority.

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Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.

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Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.

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Arminianism is based on theological ideas of the Dutch Reformed theologian Jacobus Arminius (1560–1609) and his historic supporters known as Remonstrants.

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Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.

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Authority derives from the Latin word and is a concept used to indicate the foundational right to exercise power, which can be formalized by the State and exercised by way of judges, monarchs, rulers, police officers or other appointed executives of government, or the ecclesiastical or priestly appointed representatives of a higher spiritual power (God or other deities).

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Bachelor of Arts

A Bachelor of Arts (BA or AB, from the Latin baccalaureus artium or artium baccalaureus) is a bachelor's degree awarded for an undergraduate course or program in either the liberal arts, sciences, or both.

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Basil Blackwell

Sir Basil Henry Blackwell (29 May 18899 April 1984) was born in Oxford, England.

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BBC Radio 4

BBC Radio 4 is a radio station owned and operated by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) that broadcasts a wide variety of spoken-word programmes including news, drama, comedy, science and history.

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Behemoth (Hobbes book)

Behemoth, full title Behemoth: the history of the causes of the civil wars of England, and of the counsels and artifices by which they were carried on from the year 1640 to the year 1660, also known as The Long Parliament, is a book written by Thomas Hobbes discussing the English Civil War.

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Bellum omnium contra omnes

Bellum omnium contra omnes, a Latin phrase meaning "the war of all against all", is the description that Thomas Hobbes gives to human existence in the state of nature thought experiment that he conducts in De Cive (1642) and Leviathan (1651).

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Ben Jonson

Benjamin Jonson (c. 11 June 1572 – 6 August 1637) was an English playwright, poet, actor, and literary critic, whose artistry exerted a lasting impact upon English poetry and stage comedy.

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Brill Publishers

Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.

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Bubonic plague

Bubonic plague is one of three types of plague caused by bacterium Yersinia pestis.

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C. B. Macpherson

Crawford Brough Macpherson (18 November 1911 – 22 July 1987) was an influential Canadian political scientist who taught political theory at the University of Toronto.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Cato Institute

The Cato Institute is an American libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. It was founded as the Charles Koch Foundation in 1974 by Ed Crane, Murray Rothbard, and Charles Koch, chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the conglomerate Koch Industries.

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The term Cavalier was first used by Roundheads as a term of abuse for the wealthier Royalist supporters of King Charles I and his son Charles II of England during the English Civil War, the Interregnum, and the Restoration (1642 – c. 1679).

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Charles II of England

Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was king of England, Scotland and Ireland.

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Charlton, Brinkworth

Charlton is a village and civil parish in North Wiltshire, England, about northeast of Malmesbury and northwest of the village of Brinkworth.

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Christen Sørensen Longomontanus

Christen Sørensen Longomontanus (or Longberg) (4 October 1562 – 8 October 1647) was a Danish astronomer.

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Civil society

Civil society is the "aggregate of non-governmental organizations and institutions that manifest interests and will of citizens".

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Classical liberalism

Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on economic freedom.

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Court of High Commission

The Court of High Commission was the supreme ecclesiastic court in England.

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A crosier (also known as a crozier, paterissa, pastoral staff, or bishop's staff) is a stylized staff carried by high-ranking Roman Catholic, Eastern Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Anglican, and some Lutheran, United Methodist and Pentecostal prelates.

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Cuius regio, eius religio

Cuius regio, eius religio is a Latin phrase which literally means "Whose realm, his religion", meaning that the religion of the ruler was to dictate the religion of those ruled.

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De Cive

De Cive ("On the citizen") is one of Thomas Hobbes's major works.

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De Corpore

De Corpore ("On the Body") is a 1655 book by Thomas Hobbes.

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Derbyshire is a county in the East Midlands of England.

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Determinism is the philosophical theory that all events, including moral choices, are completely determined by previously existing causes.

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Divine providence

In theology, divine providence, or just providence, is God's intervention in the universe.

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Duke of Devonshire

Duke of Devonshire is a title in the Peerage of England held by members of the Cavendish family.

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Early modern period

The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.

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In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.

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Engagement controversy

The Engagement Controversy was a debate in England from 1649-1652 regarding loyalty to the new regime after Pride's Purge and the execution of Charles I. During this period hundreds of pamphlets were published in England supporting 'engagement' to the new regime or denying the right of English citizens to shift their allegiance from the deposed king to Oliver Cromwell and his associates.

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England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.

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English Civil War

The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") over, principally, the manner of England's governance.

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English Council of State

The English Council of State, later also known as the Protector's Privy Council, was first appointed by the Rump Parliament on 14 February 1649 after the execution of King Charles I. Charles's execution on 30 January was delayed for several hours so that the House of Commons could pass an emergency bill to declare the representatives of the people, the House of Commons, as the source of all just power and to make it an offence to proclaim a new King.

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English people

The English are a nation and an ethnic group native to England who speak the English language. The English identity is of early medieval origin, when they were known in Old English as the Angelcynn ("family of the Angles"). Their ethnonym is derived from the Angles, one of the Germanic peoples who migrated to Great Britain around the 5th century AD. England is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, and the majority of people living there are British citizens. Historically, the English population is descended from several peoples the earlier Celtic Britons (or Brythons) and the Germanic tribes that settled in Britain following the withdrawal of the Romans, including Angles, Saxons, Jutes and Frisians. Collectively known as the Anglo-Saxons, they founded what was to become England (from the Old English Englaland) along with the later Danes, Anglo-Normans and other groups. In the Acts of Union 1707, the Kingdom of England was succeeded by the Kingdom of Great Britain. Over the years, English customs and identity have become fairly closely aligned with British customs and identity in general. Today many English people have recent forebears from other parts of the United Kingdom, while some are also descended from more recent immigrants from other European countries and from the Commonwealth. The English people are the source of the English language, the Westminster system, the common law system and numerous major sports such as cricket, football, rugby union, rugby league and tennis. These and other English cultural characteristics have spread worldwide, in part as a result of the former British Empire.

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Ethical egoism

Ethical egoism is the normative ethical position that moral agents ought to do what is in their own self-interest.

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Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.

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Ferdinand Tönnies

Ferdinand Tönnies (26 July 1855 – 9 April 1936) was a German sociologist and philosopher.

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Fetter Lane

Fetter Lane is a street in the ward of Farringdon Without in the City of London.

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First Council of Nicaea

The First Council of Nicaea (Νίκαια) was a council of Christian bishops convened in the Bithynian city of Nicaea (now İznik, Bursa province, Turkey) by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in AD 325.

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Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.

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Francis Bacon

Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban, (22 January 15619 April 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator, and author.

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Free Press (publisher)

Free Press was a book publishing imprint of Simon & Schuster.

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Free will

Free will is the ability to choose between different possible courses of action unimpeded.

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Gale (publisher)

Gale is an educational publishing company based in Farmington Hills, Michigan, in the western suburbs of Detroit.

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Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).

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Geometry (from the γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.

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Gilles de Roberval

Gilles Personne de Roberval (August 10, 1602 – October 27, 1675), French mathematician, was born at Roberval near Beauvais, France.

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Gondibert is an epic poem by William Davenant.

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Grand Tour

The term "Grand Tour" refers to the 17th- and 18th-century custom of a traditional trip of Europe undertaken by mainly upper-class young European men of sufficient means and rank (typically accompanied by a chaperon, such as a family member) when they had come of age (about 21 years old).

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Great Lives

Great Lives is a BBC Radio 4 biography series, produced in Bristol.

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Heresy in Christianity

When heresy is used today with reference to Christianity, it denotes the formal denial or doubt of a core doctrine of the Christian faithJ.D Douglas (ed).

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Hertford College, Oxford

Hertford College is a constituent college of the University of Oxford in England.

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History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.

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History of the Peloponnesian War

The History of the Peloponnesian War (Ἱστορίαι, "Histories") is a historical account of the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC), which was fought between the Peloponnesian League (led by Sparta) and the Delian League (led by Athens).

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Hobbesian trap

The Hobbesian trap (or Schelling's dilemma) is a theory that explains why preemptive strikes occur between two groups, out of bilateral fear of an imminent attack.

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Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.

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House of Commons of the United Kingdom

The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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House of Elzevir

Elzevir is the name of a celebrated family of Dutch booksellers, publishers, and printers of the 17th and early 18th centuries.

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Hugo Grotius

Hugo Grotius (10 April 1583 – 28 August 1645), also known as Huig de Groot or Hugo de Groot, was a Dutch jurist.

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The Iliad (Ἰλιάς, in Classical Attic; sometimes referred to as the Song of Ilion or Song of Ilium) is an ancient Greek epic poem in dactylic hexameter, traditionally attributed to Homer.

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (IEP) is a scholarly online encyclopedia, dealing with philosophy, philosophical topics, and philosophers.

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Ioannis D. Evrigenis

Ioannis D. Evrigenis is a Greek-American political philosopher.

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J. G. A. Pocock

John Greville Agard Pocock ONZM (born 7 March 1924) is a historian of political thought from New Zealand.

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Jersey (Jèrriais: Jèrri), officially the Bailiwick of Jersey (Bailliage de Jersey; Jèrriais: Bailliage dé Jèrri), is a Crown dependency located near the coast of Normandy, France.

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John Bramhall

John Bramhall (1594 – 25 June 1663) was an Archbishop of Armagh, and an Anglican theologian and apologist.

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John Locke

John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".

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John Pell

John Pell (1 March 1611 – 12 December 1685) was an English mathematician and political agent abroad.

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John Wallis

John Wallis (3 December 1616 – 8 November 1703) was an English clergyman and mathematician who is given partial credit for the development of infinitesimal calculus.

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Joseph Butler

Joseph Butler (18 May 1692 – 16 June 1752) was an English bishop, theologian, apologist, and philosopher.

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Jurisprudence or legal theory is the theoretical study of law, principally by philosophers but, from the twentieth century, also by social scientists.

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Leo Strauss

Leo Strauss (September 20, 1899 – October 18, 1973) was a German-American political philosopher and classicist who specialized in classical political philosophy.

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Leviathan is a sea monster referenced in the Hebrew Bible in the Book of Job, Psalms, the Book of Isaiah, and the Book of Amos.

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Leviathan (Hobbes book)

Leviathan or The Matter, Forme and Power of a Common-Wealth Ecclesiasticall and Civil—commonly referred to as Leviathan—is a book written by Thomas Hobbes (1588–1679) and published in 1651 (revised Latin edition 1668). Its name derives from the biblical Leviathan. The work concerns the structure of society and legitimate government, and is regarded as one of the earliest and most influential examples of social contract theory. Leviathan ranks as a classic western work on statecraft comparable to Machiavelli's The Prince. Written during the English Civil War (1642–1651), Leviathan argues for a social contract and rule by an absolute sovereign. Hobbes wrote that civil war and the brute situation of a state of nature ("the war of all against all") could only be avoided by strong, undivided government.

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Leviathan and the Air-Pump

Leviathan and the Air-Pump: Hobbes, Boyle, and the Experimental Life (published 1985) is a book by Steven Shapin and Simon Schaffer.

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Long Parliament

The Long Parliament was an English Parliament which lasted from 1640 until 1660.

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Malmesbury is a market town and civil parish in the southern Cotswolds in the county of Wiltshire, England.

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Malmesbury School

Malmesbury School in Malmesbury, Wiltshire, England, was founded in 1971 with the merger of Malmesbury Grammar School at Filands with Bremhilam Secondary Modern at Corn Gastons.

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Marin Mersenne

Marin Mersenne, Marin Mersennus or le Père Mersenne (8 September 1588 – 1 September 1648) was a French polymath, whose works touched a wide variety of fields.

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Materialism is a form of philosophical monism which holds that matter is the fundamental substance in nature, and that all things, including mental aspects and consciousness, are results of material interactions.

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Mechanism (philosophy)

Mechanism is the belief that natural wholes (principally living things) are like complicated machines or artifacts, composed of parts lacking any intrinsic relationship to each other.

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Meditations on First Philosophy

Meditations on First Philosophy —The original Meditations, translated, in its entirety.

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Michael Oakeshott

Michael Joseph Oakeshott FBA (11 December 1901 – 19 December 1990) was an English philosopher and political theorist who wrote about philosophy of history, philosophy of religion, aesthetics, philosophy of education, and philosophy of law.

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Niccolò Machiavelli

Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (3 May 1469 – 21 June 1527) was an Italian diplomat, politician, historian, philosopher, humanist, and writer of the Renaissance period.

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Nicene Creed

The Nicene Creed (Greek: or,, Latin: Symbolum Nicaenum) is a statement of belief widely used in Christian liturgy.

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Noel Malcolm

Sir Noel Robert Malcolm, (born 26 December 1956) is an English political journalist, historian and academic.

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The Odyssey (Ὀδύσσεια Odýsseia, in Classical Attic) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Patriarchalism is a political theory that arose in England in the seventeenth century that defended the concept of absolute power for the monarchy, through language that emphasized the "paternal" power of the king over the state and his subjects.

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Peloponnesian War

The Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC) was an ancient Greek war fought by the Delian League led by Athens against the Peloponnesian League led by Sparta.

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Perez Zagorin

Perez Zagorin (May 20, 1920 – April 26, 2009) was an American historian who specialized in 16th- and 17th-century English and British history and political thought, early modern European history, and related areas in literature and philosophy.

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Peter Lang (publisher)

Peter Lang is an academic publisher specializing in the humanities and social sciences.

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Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

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Pierre Manent

Pierre Manent (born 6 May 1949, Toulouse) is a French political scientist and academic.

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A polemic is contentious rhetoric that is intended to support a specific position by aggressive claims and undermining of the opposing position.

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Political philosophy

Political philosophy, or political theory, is the study of topics such as politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of laws by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever.

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Political Psychology

Political Psychology is a peer-reviewed academic journal published bimonthly by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the International Society of Political Psychology.

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Princeton University Press

Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.

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The Puritans were English Reformed Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who sought to "purify" the Church of England from its "Catholic" practices, maintaining that the Church of England was only partially reformed.

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Quentin Skinner

Quentin Robert Duthie Skinner (born 26 November 1940, Oldham, Lancashire) is an intellectual historian.

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Realism (international relations)

Realism is a school of thought in international relations theory, theoretically formalising the Realpolitik statesmanship of early modern Europe.

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René Descartes

René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.

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Restoration (England)

The Restoration of the English monarchy took place in the Stuart period.

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In religion and theology, revelation is the revealing or disclosing of some form of truth or knowledge through communication with a deity or other supernatural entity or entities.

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Rice University

William Marsh Rice University, commonly known as Rice University, is a private research university located on a 300-acre (121 ha) campus in Houston, Texas, United States.

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Robert Filmer

Sir Robert Filmer (c. 1588 – 26 May 1653) was an English political theorist who defended the divine right of kings.

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Robert Grosseteste

Robert Grosseteste (Robertus Grosseteste; – 9 October 1253) was an English statesman, scholastic philosopher, theologian, scientist and Bishop of Lincoln.

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Robert Payne (natural philosopher)

Robert Payne (1596–1651) was an English cleric and academic, known also as a natural philosopher and experimentalist.

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Roger Bacon

Roger Bacon (Rogerus or Rogerius Baconus, Baconis, also Rogerus), also known by the scholastic accolade Doctor, was an English philosopher and Franciscan friar who placed considerable emphasis on the study of nature through empiricism.

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Routledge is a British multinational publisher.

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Royal Society

The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.

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SAGE Publications

SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in California.

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Samuel de Sorbiere

Samuel (de) Sorbière (1615–1670) was a French physician and man of letters, a philosopher and translator, who is best known for his promotion of the works of Thomas Hobbes and Pierre Gassendi, in whose view of physics he placed his support, though unable to refute René Descartes, but who developed a reputation in his own day for a truculent and disputatious nature.

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Scholasticism is a method of critical thought which dominated teaching by the academics ("scholastics", or "schoolmen") of medieval universities in Europe from about 1100 to 1700, and a program of employing that method in articulating and defending dogma in an increasingly pluralistic context.

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Separation of powers

The separation of powers is a model for the governance of a state.

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Short Parliament

The Short Parliament was a Parliament of England that was summoned by King Charles I of England on 20 February 1640 and sat from 13 April to 5 May 1640.

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Simon Schaffer

Simon J. Schaffer (born 1 January 1955) is a professor of the history and philosophy of science at the Department of History and Philosophy of Science at the University of Cambridge and was editor of The British Journal for the History of Science from 2004 to 2009.

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Sir Gervase Clifton, 1st Baronet

Sir Gervase Clifton, 1st Baronet, K.B. (25 November 1587 – 28 June 1666) was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1614 and 1666.

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Sir Gervase Clifton, 2nd Baronet

Sir Gervase Clifton (1612–1675) was 2nd Baronet Clifton of Clifton, Nottinghamshire.

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Social contract

In both moral and political philosophy, the social contract is a theory or model that originated during the Age of Enlightenment.

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Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.

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Spanish Armada

The Spanish Armada (Grande y Felicísima Armada, literally "Great and Most Fortunate Navy") was a Spanish fleet of 130 ships that sailed from A Coruña in late May 1588, under the command of the Duke of Medina Sidonia, with the purpose of escorting an army from Flanders to invade England.

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Squaring the circle

Squaring the circle is a problem proposed by ancient geometers.

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St John the Baptist's Church, Ault Hucknall

St John the Baptist’s Church, Ault Hucknall is a Grade I listed parish church in the Church of England in Ault Hucknall, Derbyshire.

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St. Martin's Press


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Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible to Internet users.

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State (polity)

A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.

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State of nature

The state of nature is a concept used in moral and political philosophy, religion, social contract theories and international law to denote the hypothetical conditions of what the lives of people might have been like before societies came into existence.

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Steven Pinker

Steven Arthur Pinker (born September 18, 1954) is a Canadian-American cognitive psychologist, linguist, and popular science author.

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Steven Shapin

Steven Shapin is an American historian and sociologist of science.

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Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (–) was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire.

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Tertullian, full name Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, c. 155 – c. 240 AD, was a prolific early Christian author from Carthage in the Roman province of Africa.

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Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.

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Thucydides (Θουκυδίδης,, Ancient Attic:; BC) was an Athenian historian and general.

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University of Chicago Press

The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.

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University of Oxford

The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.

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University of St Andrews

The University of St Andrews (informally known as St Andrews University or simply St Andrews; abbreviated as St And, from the Latin Sancti Andreae, in post-nominals) is a British public research university in St Andrews, Fife, Scotland.

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Vicar (Anglicanism)

Vicar is the title given to certain parish priests in the Church of England.

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W. W. Norton & Company


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Western philosophy

Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.

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Westport, Wiltshire

Westport, sometimes called Westport St.

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William Cavendish, 1st Earl of Devonshire

William Cavendish, 1st Earl of Devonshire MP (27 December 1552 – 3 March 1626) was an English nobleman, politician, and courtier.

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William Cavendish, 2nd Earl of Devonshire

William Cavendish, 2nd Earl of Devonshire MP (c. 1590 – 20 June 1628) was an English nobleman, courtier, and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1614 until 1626 when he succeeded to the peerage and sat in the House of Lords.

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William Cavendish, 3rd Earl of Devonshire

William Cavendish, 3rd Earl of Devonshire KB FRS (c. 10 October 1617 – 23 November 1684) was an English nobleman and politician, known as a royalist supporter.

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Wiltshire is a county in South West England with an area of.

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17th-century philosophy

17th century philosophy in the West is generally regarded as seeing the start of modern philosophy, and the shaking off of the medieval approach, especially scholasticism.

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Hobbes, Hobbes, Thomas, Hobbesian, Hobbesian state, Hobbesianism, Hobbism, Hobbsian, Hobbsianism, T. Hobbes, Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, Thomas Hobbs of Malmsbury, Tom Hobbes.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Hobbes

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