359 relations: A Summary View of the Rights of British America, Aaron Burr, Abigail Adams, Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves, Afterlife, Age of Enlightenment, Albemarle County, Virginia, Albert Gallatin, Alexander Hamilton, Algiers, Alien and Sedition Acts, All men are created equal, American Bible Society, American Civil War, American Philosophical Society, American Political Science Association, American Revolution, American Revolutionary War, Andrea Palladio, Andresen, Anglo-Saxons, Annette Gordon-Reed, Anthony Merry, Anti-clericalism, Antoine-Simon Le Page du Pratz, Aristocracy, Articles of Confederation, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, Atheism, Autodidacticism, Avalon Project, Banastre Tarleton, Barbary Coast, Barbary pirates, Battle of Austerlitz, Beekeeping, Benedict Arnold, Benjamin Franklin, Benjamin Rush, Benjamin Stoddert, Berlin Decree, Black Hoof, British America, Brookings Institution, Caesar Augustus Rodney, Calvin Coolidge, Cambridge, New York, Cato Institute, Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, ..., Charles Gravier, comte de Vergennes, Charlottesville, Virginia, Cherokee, Chief Justice of the United States, Christian, Christianity, Church of England, Civil rights movement, Classical architecture, Cold War, College of William & Mary, Colonel (United States), Colony of Virginia, Committee of Five, Committee of the States, Compromise of 1790, Congress of the Confederation, Constitution of Virginia, Continental Congress, Corps of Discovery, Creator deity, Crinkle crankle wall, Dabney Carr, David Hume, David McCullough, Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms, Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the Citizen of 1789, Deism, Democratic-Republican Party, Don Quixote, Douglas L. Wilson, Dumas Malone, Edmond-Charles Genêt, Edmund Bacon (1785–1866), Edmund Randolph, Edward Gibbon, Embargo Act of 1807, Empiricism, Episcopal Church (United States), Establishment Clause, Eston Hemings, Executive privilege, Federalism in the United States, Federalist Party, Fee tail, First Amendment to the United States Constitution, First Bank of the United States, First Barbary War, First Party System, Founding Fathers of the United States, Four Evangelists, François Barbé-Marbois, France in the American Revolutionary War, Francis Bacon, Francis Fauquier, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Frederick Jackson Turner, Free Negro, French Revolution, Gazette of the United States, George Clinton (vice president), George Hammond (diplomat), George III of the United Kingdom, George Logan, George Mason, George Tucker (politician), George Washington, George Wythe, Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette, Gordon S. 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Madison, Maria Cosway, Martha Jefferson, Martha Jefferson Randolph, Martha Washington, Mary Jefferson Eppes, Massachusetts Historical Society, Memorandums taken on a journey from Paris into the southern parts of France and Northern Italy, in the year 1787, Meriwether Lewis, Merrill D. 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Burwell, William Blackstone, William Clark, William Dunbar (explorer), William Eaton (soldier), William Fleming (governor), William Johnson (judge), William Pinkney, William Randolph, William Robertson (historian), William Short (American ambassador), William Small, William Stephens Smith, Williamsburg, Virginia, Woodrow Wilson, World Digital Library, XYZ Affair, Y chromosome, Yusuf Karamanli. Expand index (309 more) » « Shrink index
A Summary View of the Rights of British America was a tract written by Thomas Jefferson in 1774, before the U.S. Declaration of Independence, in which he laid out for delegates to the First Continental Congress a set of grievances against King George III, especially against the King's and Parliament's response to the Boston Tea Party.
Aaron Burr Jr. (February 6, 1756 – September 14, 1836) was an American politician.
Abigail Adams (née Smith; November 22, [O.S. November 11] 1744 – October 28, 1818) was the closest advisor and wife of John Adams, as well as the mother of John Quincy Adams.
The Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves of 1807 (enacted March 2, 1807) is a United States federal law that stated that no new slaves were permitted to be imported into the United States.
Afterlife (also referred to as life after death or the hereafter) is the belief that an essential part of an individual's identity or the stream of consciousness continues to manifest after the death of the physical body.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Albemarle County is a county located in the Piedmont region of the Commonwealth of Virginia.
Abraham Alfonse Albert Gallatin (January 29, 1761 – August 12, 1849) was a Swiss-American politician, diplomat, ethnologist and linguist.
Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757July 12, 1804) was a statesman and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
Algiers (الجزائر al-Jazā’er, ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻ, Alger) is the capital and largest city of Algeria.
The Alien and Sedition Acts were four bills passed by the Federalist-dominated 5th United States Congress and signed into law by President John Adams in 1798.
The quotation "All men are created equal" has been called an "immortal declaration," and "perhaps single phrase" of the American Revolutionary period with the greatest "continuing importance." Thomas Jefferson first used the phrase in the U.S. Declaration of Independence, which he penned in 1776 during the beginning of the American Revolution.
The American Bible Society (ABS) is a United States–based nondenominational Bible society which publishes, distributes and translates the Bible and provides study aids and other tools to help people engage with the Bible.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
The American Philosophical Society (APS), founded in 1743 and located in Philadelphia, is an eminent scholarly organization of international reputation that promotes useful knowledge in the sciences and humanities through excellence in scholarly research, professional meetings, publications, library resources, and community outreach.
The American Political Science Association (APSA) is a professional association of political science students and scholars in the United States.
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
Andrea Palladio (30 November 1508 – 19 August 1580) was an Italian architect active in the Republic of Venice.
Andresen and the parallel form Andreasen (Norwegian cognate Andreassen) are Danish-Norwegian patronymic surnames meaning "son of Andreas".
The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.
Annette Gordon-Reed (born November 19, 1958) is an American historian and law professor.
Anthony Merry (2 August 1756 – 14 June 1835) was a British diplomat.
Anti-clericalism is opposition to religious authority, typically in social or political matters.
Antoine-Simon Le Page du Pratz (1695?–1775), Discovering Lewis & Clark was an ethnographer, historian, and naturalist who is best known for his Histoire de la Louisiane.
Aristocracy (Greek ἀριστοκρατία aristokratía, from ἄριστος aristos "excellent", and κράτος kratos "power") is a form of government that places strength in the hands of a small, privileged ruling class.
The Articles of Confederation, formally the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, was an agreement among the 13 original states of the United States of America that served as its first constitution.
Associate Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States are the members of the Supreme Court of the United States other than the Chief Justice of the United States.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
Autodidacticism (also autodidactism) or self-education (also self-learning and self-teaching) is education without the guidance of masters (such as teachers and professors) or institutions (such as schools).
The Avalon Project is a digital library of documents relating to law, history and diplomacy.
Sir Banastre Tarleton, 1st Baronet, GCB (21 August 175415 January 1833) was a British soldier and politician.
The Barbary Coast, or Berber Coast, was the term used by Europeans from the 16th until the early 19th century to refer to much of the collective land of the Berber people.
The Barbary pirates, sometimes called Barbary corsairs or Ottoman corsairs, were Ottoman pirates and privateers who operated from North Africa, based primarily in the ports of Salé, Rabat, Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli.
The Battle of Austerlitz (2 December 1805/11 Frimaire An XIV FRC), also known as the Battle of the Three Emperors, was one of the most important and decisive engagements of the Napoleonic Wars.
Beekeeping (or apiculture) is the maintenance of bee colonies, commonly in man-made hives, by humans.
Benedict Arnold (Brandt (1994), p. 4June 14, 1801) was a general during the American Revolutionary War who fought heroically for the American Continental Army—then defected to the enemy in 1780.
Benjamin Franklin (April 17, 1790) was an American polymath and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
Benjamin Rush (– April 19, 1813) was a Founding Father of the United States.
Benjamin Stoddert (1744 – December 18, 1813) was the first United States Secretary of the Navy from May 1, 1798 to March 31, 1801.
The Berlin Decree was issued in Berlin by Napoleon on November 21, 1806, following the French success against Prussia at the Battle of Jena.
Catecahassa or Black Hoof (c. 1740–1831) was the head civil chief of the Shawnee Indians in the Ohio Country of what became the United States.
British America refers to English Crown colony territories on the continent of North America and Bermuda, Central America, the Caribbean, and Guyana from 1607 to 1783.
The Brookings Institution is a century-old American research group on Think Tank Row in Washington, D.C. It conducts research and education in the social sciences, primarily in economics, metropolitan policy, governance, foreign policy, and global economy and development.
Caesar Augustus Rodney (January 4, 1772 – June 10, 1824) was an American lawyer and politician from Wilmington, in New Castle County, Delaware.
John Calvin Coolidge Jr. (July 4, 1872 – January 5, 1933) was an American politician and the 30th President of the United States (1923–1929).
Cambridge is an affluent town in Washington County, New York, United States.
The Cato Institute is an American libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. It was founded as the Charles Koch Foundation in 1974 by Ed Crane, Murray Rothbard, and Charles Koch, chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the conglomerate Koch Industries.
Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis KG, PC (31 December 1738 – 5 October 1805), styled Viscount Brome between 1753 and 1762 and known as The Earl Cornwallis between 1762 and 1792, was a British Army general and official.
Charles Cotesworth "C.
Charles Gravier, Count of Vergennes (29 December 1719 – 13 February 1787) was a French statesman and diplomat.
Charlottesville, colloquially known as C'ville and officially named the City of Charlottesville, is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia.
The Cherokee (translit or translit) are one of the indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands.
The Chief Justice of the United States is the chief judge of the Supreme Court of the United States and thus the head of the United States federal court system, which functions as the judicial branch of the nation's federal government.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.
The civil rights movement (also known as the African-American civil rights movement, American civil rights movement and other terms) was a decades-long movement with the goal of securing legal rights for African Americans that other Americans already held.
Classical architecture usually denotes architecture which is more or less consciously derived from the principles of Greek and Roman architecture of classical antiquity, or sometimes even more specifically, from the works of Vitruvius.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
The College of William & Mary (also known as William & Mary, or W&M) is a public research university in Williamsburg, Virginia. Founded in 1693 by letters patent issued by King William III and Queen Mary II, it is the second-oldest institution of higher education in the United States, after Harvard University. William & Mary educated American Presidents Thomas Jefferson (third), James Monroe (fifth), and John Tyler (tenth) as well as other key figures important to the development of the nation, including the fourth U.S. Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall of Virginia, Speaker of the House of Representatives Henry Clay of Kentucky, sixteen members of the Continental Congress, and four signers of the Declaration of Independence, earning it the nickname "the Alma Mater of the Nation." A young George Washington (1732–1799) also received his surveyor's license through the college. W&M students founded the Phi Beta Kappa academic honor society in 1776 and W&M was the first school of higher education in the United States to install an honor code of conduct for students. The establishment of graduate programs in law and medicine in 1779 makes it one of the earliest higher level universities in the United States. In addition to its undergraduate program (which includes an international joint degree program with the University of St Andrews in Scotland and a joint engineering program with Columbia University in New York City), W&M is home to several graduate programs (including computer science, public policy, physics, and colonial history) and four professional schools (law, business, education, and marine science). In his 1985 book Public Ivies: A Guide to America's Best Public Undergraduate Colleges and Universities, Richard Moll categorized William & Mary as one of eight "Public Ivies".
In the United States Army, Marine Corps, and Air Force, colonel is the most senior field grade military officer rank, immediately above the rank of lieutenant colonel and immediately below the rank of brigadier general.
The Colony of Virginia, chartered in 1606 and settled in 1607, was the first enduring English colony in North America, following failed proprietary attempts at settlement on Newfoundland by Sir Humphrey GilbertGILBERT (Saunders Family), SIR HUMPHREY" (history), Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online, University of Toronto, May 2, 2005 in 1583, and the subsequent further south Roanoke Island (modern eastern North Carolina) by Sir Walter Raleigh in the late 1580s. The founder of the new colony was the Virginia Company, with the first two settlements in Jamestown on the north bank of the James River and Popham Colony on the Kennebec River in modern-day Maine, both in 1607. The Popham colony quickly failed due to a famine, disease, and conflict with local Native American tribes in the first two years. Jamestown occupied land belonging to the Powhatan Confederacy, and was also at the brink of failure before the arrival of a new group of settlers and supplies by ship in 1610. Tobacco became Virginia's first profitable export, the production of which had a significant impact on the society and settlement patterns. In 1624, the Virginia Company's charter was revoked by King James I, and the Virginia colony was transferred to royal authority as a crown colony. After the English Civil War in the 1640s and 50s, the Virginia colony was nicknamed "The Old Dominion" by King Charles II for its perceived loyalty to the English monarchy during the era of the Protectorate and Commonwealth of England.. From 1619 to 1775/1776, the colonial legislature of Virginia was the House of Burgesses, which governed in conjunction with a colonial governor. Jamestown on the James River remained the capital of the Virginia colony until 1699; from 1699 until its dissolution the capital was in Williamsburg. The colony experienced its first major political turmoil with Bacon's Rebellion of 1676. After declaring independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1775, before the Declaration of Independence was officially adopted, the Virginia colony became the Commonwealth of Virginia, one of the original thirteen states of the United States, adopting as its official slogan "The Old Dominion". The entire modern states of West Virginia, Kentucky, Indiana and Illinois, and portions of Ohio and Western Pennsylvania were later created from the territory encompassed, or claimed by, the colony of Virginia at the time of further American independence in July 1776.
The Committee of Five of the Second Continental Congress was a team of five men who drafted and presented to the Congress what would become America's Declaration of Independence of July 4, 1776.
A Committee of the States was an arm of the United States government, under the Articles of Confederation.
The Compromise of 1790 was a compromise between Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson with James Madison wherein Hamilton won the decision for the national government to take over and pay the state debts, while Jefferson and Madison obtained the national capital (District of Columbia) for the South.
The Congress of the Confederation, or the Confederation Congress, formally referred to as the United States in Congress Assembled, was the governing body of the United States of America that existed from March 1, 1781, to March 4, 1789.
The Constitution of the Commonwealth of Virginia is the document that defines and limits the powers of the state government and the basic rights of the citizens of the U.S. Commonwealth of Virginia.
The Continental Congress, also known as the Philadelphia Congress, was a convention of delegates called together from the Thirteen Colonies.
The Corps of Discovery was a specially-established unit of the United States Army which formed the nucleus of the Lewis and Clark Expedition that took place between May 1804 and September 1806.
A creator deity or creator god (often called the Creator) is a deity or god responsible for the creation of the Earth, world, and universe in human mythology.
A crinkle crankle wall, also known as a crinkum crankum, serpentine, ribbon or wavy wall, is an unusual type of garden wall.
Dabney Carr (April 27, 1773 – January 8, 1837) was a Virginia lawyer, writer and a justice of the Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals.
David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.
David Gaub McCullough (born July 7, 1933) is an American author, narrator, historian, and lecturer.
The Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms was a document issued by the Second Continental Congress on July 6, 1775, to explain why the Thirteen Colonies had taken up arms in what had become the American Revolutionary War.
The Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the Citizen of 1789 (Déclaration des droits de l'homme et du citoyen de 1789), set by France's National Constituent Assembly in 1789, is a human civil rights document from the French Revolution.
Deism (or; derived from Latin "deus" meaning "god") is a philosophical belief that posits that God exists and is ultimately responsible for the creation of the universe, but does not interfere directly with the created world.
The Democratic-Republican Party was an American political party formed by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison around 1792 to oppose the centralizing policies of the new Federalist Party run by Alexander Hamilton, who was secretary of the treasury and chief architect of George Washington's administration.
The Ingenious Nobleman Sir Quixote of La Mancha (El Ingenioso Hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha), or just Don Quixote (Oxford English Dictionary, ""), is a Spanish novel by Miguel de Cervantes.
Douglas L. Wilson (born November 10, 1935) is a professor and co-director of Lincoln Studies Center at Knox College.
Dumas Malone (January 10, 1892 – December 27, 1986) was an American historian, biographer, and editor noted for his six-volume biography on Thomas Jefferson, Jefferson and His Time, for which he received the 1975 Pulitzer Prize for history.
Edmond-Charles Genêt (January 8, 1763July 14, 1834), also known as Citizen Genêt, was the French ambassador to the United States during the French Revolution.
Edmund Bacon (1785–1866), was the business manager and primary overseer for 20 years for Thomas Jefferson, third President of the United States, at Monticello.
Edmund Jennings Randolph (August 10, 1753 September 12, 1813) was an American attorney and politician.
Edward Gibbon FRS (8 May 173716 January 1794) was an English historian, writer and Member of Parliament.
The Embargo Act of 1807 was a general embargo enacted by the United States Congress against Great Britain and France during the Napoleonic Wars.
In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.
The Episcopal Church is the United States-based member church of the worldwide Anglican Communion.
In United States law, the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, together with that Amendment's Free Exercise Clause, form the constitutional right of freedom of religion.
Eston Hemings Jefferson (May 21, 1808 – January 3, 1856) was born a slave at Monticello, the youngest son of Sally Hemings, a mixed-race slave.
Executive privilege is the power of the President of the United States and other members of the executive branch of the United States Government to resist certain subpoenas and other interventions by the legislative and judicial branches of government in pursuit of information or personnel relating to the executive.
Federalism in the United States is the constitutional relationship between U.S. state governments and the federal government of the United States.
The Federalist Party, referred to as the Pro-Administration party until the 3rd United States Congress (as opposed to their opponents in the Anti-Administration party), was the first American political party.
In English common law, fee tail or entail is a form of trust established by deed or settlement which restricts the sale or inheritance of an estate in real property and prevents the property from being sold, devised by will, or otherwise alienated by the tenant-in-possession, and instead causes it to pass automatically by operation of law to an heir pre-determined by the settlement deed.
The First Amendment (Amendment I) to the United States Constitution prevents Congress from making any law respecting an establishment of religion, prohibiting the free exercise of religion, or abridging the freedom of speech, the freedom of the press, the right to peaceably assemble, or to petition for a governmental redress of grievances.
The President, Directors and Company, of the Bank of the United States, commonly known as the First Bank of the United States, was a national bank, chartered for a term of twenty years, by the United States Congress on February 25, 1791.
The First Barbary War (1801–1805), also known as the Tripolitanian War and the Barbary Coast War, was the first of two Barbary Wars, in which the United States and Sweden fought against the four North African states known collectively as the "Barbary States".
The First Party System is a model of American politics used in history and political science to periodize the political party system that existed in the United States between roughly 1792 and 1824.
The Founding Fathers of the United States led the American Revolution against the Kingdom of Great Britain.
In Christian tradition, the Four Evangelists are Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, the authors attributed with the creation of the four Gospel accounts in the New Testament that bear the following titles: Gospel according to Matthew; Gospel according to Mark; Gospel according to Luke and Gospel according to John.
François Barbé-Marbois, marquis de Barbé-Marbois (31 January 1745 – 12 February 1837) was a French politician.
French involvement in the American Revolutionary War began in 1775, when France, a rival of the British Empire, secretly shipped supplies to the Continental Army.
Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban, (22 January 15619 April 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator, and author.
Francis Fauquier (1703 – 3 March 1768) was a Lieutenant Governor of Virginia Colony (in what is today the United States), and served as acting governor from 1758 until his death in 1768.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.
Frederick Jackson Turner (November 14, 1861 – March 14, 1932) was an American historian in the early 20th century, based at the University of Wisconsin until 1910, and then at Harvard.
In United States history, a free Negro or free black was the legal status, in the geographic area of the United States, of blacks who were not slaves.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
The Gazette of the United States (1789-1793) was an early American partisan newspaper first issued on April 15, 1789, as a biweekly publication friendly to the administration of George Washington, and to the policies and members of the emerging Federalist Party.
George Clinton (July 26, 1739April 20, 1812) was an American soldier and statesman, considered one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
George Hammond (1763–1853) was a British diplomat and one of the first British envoys to the United States from 1791 to 1795.
George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820.
George Logan (September 9, 1753April 9, 1821) was an American physician, farmer, legislator and politician from Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania.
George Mason (sometimes referred to as George Mason IV; October 7, 1792) was a Virginia planter, politician and delegate to the U.S. Constitutional Convention of 1787, one of three delegates, together with fellow Virginian Edmund Randolph and Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts, who refused to sign the Constitution.
George Tucker (August 20, 1775 – April 10, 1861) was an American attorney, politician, historian, author, and educator.
George Washington (February 22, 1732 –, 1799), known as the "Father of His Country," was an American soldier and statesman who served from 1789 to 1797 as the first President of the United States.
George Wythe (1726 – June 8, 1806) was the first American law professor, a noted classics scholar, and a Virginia judge.
Marie-Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette (6 September 1757 – 20 May 1834), in the United States often known simply as Lafayette, was a French aristocrat and military officer who fought in the American Revolutionary War.
Gordon Stewart Wood (born November 27, 1933) is Alva O. Way University Professor and Professor of History Emeritus at Brown University, and the recipient of the 1993 Pulitzer Prize for History for The Radicalism of the American Revolution (1992).
Gordonsville is a town in Orange County in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States.
Gourmet is a cultural ideal associated with the culinary arts of fine food and drink, or haute cuisine, which is characterised by refined, even elaborate preparations and presentations of aesthetically balanced meals of several contrasting, often quite rich courses.
The Governor of the Commonwealth of Virginia serves as the chief executive of the Commonwealth of Virginia for a four-year term.
The Gribeauval system (French: système Gribeauval) was an artillery system introduced by Lieutenant General Jean Baptiste Vaquette de Gribeauval during the 18th century.
John Gutzon de la Mothe Borglum (March 25, 1867 – March 6, 1941) was an American artist and sculptor.
The Haitian Revolution (Révolution haïtienne) was a successful anti-slavery and anti-colonial insurrection by self-liberated slaves against French colonial rule in Saint-Domingue, now the sovereign nation of Haiti.
Harman Blennerhassett (8 October 1765 – 2 February 1831) was an Anglo-Irish lawyer and politician.
Harriet Hemings (May 1801 – 1870) was born into slavery at Monticello, the home of Thomas Jefferson, third President of the United States, in the first year of his presidency.
The Hôtel de Langeac was a residence in Paris, France located at 92, Avenue des Champs-Élysées.
Henry Brockholst Livingston (November 25, 1757 – March 18, 1823) was an American Revolutionary War officer, a justice of the New York Court of Appeals and eventually an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.
Henry Dearborn (February 23, 1751 – June 6, 1829) was an American soldier and statesman.
Henry Soane (1622–1661) was a Virginia politician and landowner.
Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke (16 September 1678 – 12 December 1751) was an English politician, government official and political philosopher.
In political studies, surveys have been conducted in order to construct historical rankings of the success of individuals who have served as President of the United States.
HMS Leopard was a 50-gun ''Portland''-class fourth rate of the Royal Navy.
Horticulture is the science and art of growing plants (fruits, vegetables, flowers, and any other cultivar).
The Virginia House of Burgesses was formed in 1642 by the General Assembly at the suggestion of then-Governor William Berkeley.
Impressment, colloquially "the press" or the "press gang", is the taking of men into a military or naval force by compulsion, with or without notice.
Indigenous languages of the Americas are spoken by indigenous peoples from Alaska and Greenland to the southern tip of South America, encompassing the land masses that constitute the Americas.
Interchangeable parts are parts (components) that are, for practical purposes, identical.
Interposition is a claimed right of a U.S. state to oppose actions of the federal government that the state deems unconstitutional.
The Intolerable Acts was the term invented by 19th century historians to refer to a series of punitive laws passed by the British Parliament in 1774 after the Boston Tea Party.
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
Isham Randolph (December 1684 – November 1742), sometimes referred to as Isham Randolph of Dungeness, was the maternal grandfather of United States President Thomas Jefferson.
John "Jack" Jouett, Jr. (December 7, 1754 – March 1, 1822) was a politician and a hero of the American Revolution, known as the "Paul Revere of the South" for his late night ride to warn Thomas Jefferson, then the governor of Virginia, and the Virginia legislature of the approach of British cavalry, who had been sent to capture them.
James Asheton Bayard Sr. (July 28, 1767 – August 6, 1815) was an American lawyer and politician from Wilmington, in New Castle County, Delaware.
Captain James Cook (7 November 1728Old style date: 27 October14 February 1779) was a British explorer, navigator, cartographer, and captain in the Royal Navy.
James Hemings (17651801) was an American mixed-race slave owned and freed by Thomas Jefferson.
James Madison Jr. (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the fourth President of the United States from 1809 to 1817.
James Maury (1717–1769) was a prominent Virginia educator and Anglican cleric during the American Colonial period and the progenitor of the prominent Maury political family.
James Monroe (April 28, 1758 – July 4, 1831) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the fifth President of the United States from 1817 to 1825.
James Thomson Callender (1758 – July 17, 1803) was a political pamphleteer and journalist whose writing was controversial in his native Scotland and the United States.
James Wilkinson (March 24, 1757 – December 28, 1825) was an American soldier and statesman, who was associated with several scandals and controversies.
Jane Randolph Jefferson (February 10, 1720 – March 31, 1776) was the wife of Peter Jefferson and the mother of US president Thomas Jefferson.
The Treaty of Amity, Commerce, and Navigation, Between His Britannic Majesty and the United States of America, commonly known as the Jay Treaty, and also as Jay's Treaty, was a 1795 treaty between the United States and Great Britain that averted war, resolved issues remaining since the Treaty of Paris of 1783 (which ended the American Revolutionary War), and facilitated ten years of peaceful trade between the United States and Britain in the midst of the French Revolutionary Wars, which began in 1792.
The Life and Morals of Jesus of Nazareth, commonly referred to as the Jefferson Bible, refers to one of two religious works constructed by Thomas Jefferson.
The Jefferson disk, or wheel cypher as Thomas Jefferson named it, also known as the Bazeries Cylinder, is a cipher system using a set of wheels or disks, each with the 26 letters of the alphabet arranged around their edge.
The Jefferson Memorial is a presidential memorial in Washington, D.C., dedicated to Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826), one of the most important of the American Founding Fathers as the main drafter and writer of the Declaration of Independence, member of the Continental Congress, governor of the newly independent Commonwealth of Virginia, American minister to King Louis XVI, and the Kingdom of France, first U.S. Secretary of State under the first President George Washington, the second Vice President of the United States under second President John Adams, and also the third President (1801–1809), as well as being the founder of the University of Virginia at Charlottesville, Virginia.
Jefferson Monroe Levy (April 16, 1852 – March 6, 1924) was a three-term U.S. Congressman from New York, a leader of the New York Democratic Party, and a renowned real estate and stock speculator.
A Manual of Parliamentary Practice for the Use of the Senate of the United States, written by Thomas Jefferson in 1801, is the first American book on parliamentary procedure.
Jeffersonian democracy, named after its advocate Thomas Jefferson, was one of two dominant political outlooks and movements in the United States from the 1790s to the 1820s.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
John Adams (October 30 [O.S. October 19] 1735 – July 4, 1826) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the first Vice President (1789–1797) and second President of the United States (1797–1801).
John Breckinridge (December 2, 1760 – December 14, 1806) was a lawyer and politician from the U.S. state of Virginia.
John Harvie (1742 – February 6, 1807) was an American lawyer and builder from Virginia.
John Jay (December 12, 1745 – May 17, 1829) was an American statesman, Patriot, diplomat, one of the Founding Fathers of the United States, negotiator and signatory of the Treaty of Paris of 1783, second Governor of New York, and the first Chief Justice of the United States (1789–1795).
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
John James Marshall (September 24, 1755 – July 6, 1835) was an American politician and the fourth Chief Justice of the United States from 1801 to 1835.
John Quincy Adams (July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848) was an American statesman who served as a diplomat, minister and ambassador to foreign nations, and treaty negotiator, United States Senator, U.S. Representative (Congressman) from Massachusetts, and the sixth President of the United States from 1825 to 1829.
John Randolph (June 2, 1773May 24, 1833), known as John Randolph of Roanoke,Roanoke refers to Roanoke Plantation in Charlotte County, Virginia, not to the city of the same name.
John Smith (c. 1735July 30, 1824) was one of the first two U.S. Senators from the state of Ohio.
Joseph John Ellis (born July 18, 1943) is an American historian whose work focuses on the lives and times of the founders of the United States of America.
Joseph Priestley FRS (– 6 February 1804) was an 18th-century English Separatist theologian, natural philosopher, chemist, innovative grammarian, multi-subject educator, and liberal political theorist who published over 150 works.
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.
The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions (or Resolves) were political statements drafted in 1798 and 1799, in which the Kentucky and Virginia legislatures took the position that the federal Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional.
The Ordinance of 1784 (enacted April 23, 1784) called for the land in the recently created United States of America west of the Appalachian Mountains, north of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi River to be divided into separate states.
A law clerk or a judicial clerk is an individual—generally an attorney—who provides direct assistance and counsel to a judge in making legal determinations and in writing opinions by researching issues before the court.
The Lee Resolution (also known as "The Resolution for Independence") was the formal assertion passed by the Second Continental Congress on July 2, 1776 which declared the establishment of a new country of United Colonies as independent from the British Empire, creating what became the United States of America.
Levi Lincoln Sr. (May 15, 1749 – April 14, 1820) was an American revolutionary, lawyer, and statesman from Massachusetts.
The Lewis and Clark Expedition from May 1804 to September 1806, also known as the Corps of Discovery Expedition, was the first American expedition to cross the western portion of the United States.
Liberia, officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the West African coast.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
In political philosophy, limited government is where the government is empowered by law from a starting point of having no power, or where governmental power is restricted by law, usually in a written constitution.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
Thomas Clarkson (1760 – 1846), the pioneering abolitionist, prepared a "map" of the "streams" of "forerunners and coadjutors" of the abolitionist movement, which he published in his work, The History of the Rise, Progress, and Accomplishment of the Abolition of the African Slave-Trade by the British Parliament published in 1808.
The United States Ambassador to France is the official representative of the President of the United States to the President of France.
The following is a list of the Governors of the Commonwealth of Virginia.
The President of the United States is the elected head of state and head of government of the United States.
Although many paths may lead to the Presidency of the United States, the most common job experience, occupation or profession of U.S. presidents has been lawyer.
This is a list of Presidents of the United States who owned slaves.
This is a list of Secretaries of State of the United States.
The Louisiana Purchase (Vente de la Louisiane "Sale of Louisiana") was the acquisition of the Louisiana territory (828,000 square miles or 2.14 million km²) by the United States from France in 1803.
The Territory of Louisiana or Louisiana Territory was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from July 4, 1805, until June 4, 1812, when it was renamed the Missouri Territory.
Madison Hemings, born James Madison Hemings (18 January 1805 – 28 November 1877), was the son of the mixed-race slave Sally Hemings.
Marbury v. Madison,, was a U.S. Supreme Court case that established the principle of judicial review in the United States, so that American courts have the power to strike down laws, statutes, and executive actions that contravene the U.S. Constitution.
Maria Luisa Caterina Cecilia Cosway (ma-RYE-ah; née Hadfield; 11 June 1760 – 5 January 1838) was an Italian-English artist and educationalist.
Martha Skelton Jefferson (October 30, 1748 – September 6, 1782) was the wife of Thomas Jefferson.
Martha Jefferson "Patsy" Randolph (September 27, 1772 – October 10, 1836) was the daughter of Thomas Jefferson, the third President of the United States, and his wife Martha Wayles Skelton Jefferson.
Martha Washington (née Dandridge; – May 22, 1802) was the wife of George Washington, the first President of the United States.
Mary Jefferson Eppes (August 1, 1778 – April 17, 1804), known as Polly in childhood and Maria as an adult, was the younger of Thomas Jefferson's two daughters who survived infancy.
The Massachusetts Historical Society is a major historical archive specializing in early American, Massachusetts, and New England history.
Memorandums taken on a journey from Paris into the southern parts of France and Northern Italy, in the year 1787
Memorandums taken on a journey from Paris into the southern parts of France and Northern Italy, in the year 1787, or Memoranda, is a text by Thomas Jefferson, written during a trip beginning February 28, 1787 from France to Italy.
Meriwether Lewis (August 18, 1774 – October 11, 1809) was an American explorer, soldier, politician, and public administrator, best known for his role as the leader of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, also known as the Corps of Discovery, with William Clark.
Merrill Daniel Peterson (31 March 1921 – 23 September 2009) was a history professor at the University of Virginia and the editor of the prestigious Library of America edition of the selected writings of Thomas Jefferson.
The Midnight Judges Act (also known as the Judiciary Act of 1801;, and officially An act to provide for the more convenient organization of the Courts of the United States) represented an effort to solve an issue in the U.S. Supreme Court during the early 19th century.
The Military Peace Establishment Act documented and advanced a new set of laws and limits for the U.S. military.
Miscegenation (from the Latin miscere "to mix" + genus "kind") is the mixing of different racial groups through marriage, cohabitation, sexual relations, or procreation.
The Mississippi River is the chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system.
A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy.
The Monroe Doctrine was a United States policy of opposing European colonialism in the Americas beginning in 1823.
The Monroe–Pinkney Treaty of 1806 was a treaty drawn up by diplomats of the United States and Britain as a renewal of the Jay Treaty of 1795.
Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu (18 January 1689 – 10 February 1755), generally referred to as simply Montesquieu, was a French judge, man of letters, and political philosopher.
Monticello was the primary plantation of Thomas Jefferson, the third President of the United States, who began designing and building Monticello at age 26 after inheriting land from his father.
Mount Rushmore National Memorial is a sculpture carved into the granite face of Mount Rushmore, a batholith in the Black Hills in Keystone, South Dakota, United States.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is an independent agency of the United States government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records and with increasing public access to those documents, which comprise the National Archives.
The National Gazette was a Democratic-Republican partisan newspaper that was first published on October 31, 1791.
Natural Bridge is a geological formation in Rockbridge County, Virginia, comprising a natural arch with a span of.
Natural law (ius naturale, lex naturalis) is a philosophy asserting that certain rights are inherent by virtue of human nature, endowed by nature—traditionally by God or a transcendent source—and that these can be understood universally through human reason.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
The New Deal was a series of programs, public work projects, financial reforms and regulations enacted in the United States 1933-36, in response to the Great Depression.
New England is a geographical region comprising six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut.
New Orleans (. Merriam-Webster.; La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major United States port and the largest city and metropolitan area in the state of Louisiana.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
New York is a state in the northeastern United States.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
The Nonintercourse Act (also known as the Indian Intercourse Act or the Indian Nonintercourse Act) is the collective name given to six statutes passed by the Congress in 1790, 1793, 1796, 1799, 1802, and 1834 to set Amerindian boundaries of reservations.
The Northwest Ordinance (formally An Ordinance for the Government of the Territory of the United States, North-West of the River Ohio, and also known as The Ordinance of 1787) enacted July 13, 1787, was an act of the Congress of the Confederation of the United States.
The Northwest Passage (abbreviated as NWP) is, from the European and northern Atlantic point of view, the sea route to the Pacific Ocean through the Arctic Ocean, along the northern coast of North America via waterways through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.
Notes on the State of Virginia (1785) is a book written by Thomas Jefferson.
Nullification, in United States constitutional history, is a legal theory that a state has the right to nullify, or invalidate, any federal law which that state has deemed unconstitutional with respect to the United States Constitution (as opposed to the state's own constitution).
The Ohio River, which streams westward from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to Cairo, Illinois, is the largest tributary, by volume, of the Mississippi River in the United States.
Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written.
Organized religion (or organised religion—see spelling differences), also known as institutional religion, is religion in which belief systems and rituals are systematically arranged and formally established.
The Ouachita River is a river that runs south and east through the U.S. states of Arkansas and Louisiana, joining the Tensas River to form the Black River near Jonesville, Louisiana.
Palladian architecture is a European style of architecture derived from and inspired by the designs of the Venetian architect Andrea Palladio (1508–1580).
The Pantheon (or; Pantheum,Although the spelling Pantheon is standard in English, only Pantheum is found in classical Latin; see, for example, Pliny, Natural History: "Agrippae Pantheum decoravit Diogenes Atheniensis". See also Oxford Latin Dictionary, s.v. "Pantheum"; Oxford English Dictionary, s.v.: "post-classical Latin pantheon a temple consecrated to all the gods (6th cent.; compare classical Latin pantheum". from Greek Πάνθειον Pantheion, " of all the gods") is a former Roman temple, now a church, in Rome, Italy, on the site of an earlier temple commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD). It was completed by the emperor Hadrian and probably dedicated about 126 AD. Its date of construction is uncertain, because Hadrian chose not to inscribe the new temple but rather to retain the inscription of Agrippa's older temple, which had burned down. The building is circular with a portico of large granite Corinthian columns (eight in the first rank and two groups of four behind) under a pediment. A rectangular vestibule links the porch to the rotunda, which is under a coffered concrete dome, with a central opening (oculus) to the sky. Almost two thousand years after it was built, the Pantheon's dome is still the world's largest unreinforced concrete dome. The height to the oculus and the diameter of the interior circle are the same,. It is one of the best-preserved of all Ancient Roman buildings, in large part because it has been in continuous use throughout its history, and since the 7th century, the Pantheon has been used as a church dedicated to "St. Mary and the Martyrs" (Sancta Maria ad Martyres) but informally known as "Santa Maria Rotonda". The square in front of the Pantheon is called Piazza della Rotonda. The Pantheon is a state property, managed by Italy's Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities and Tourism through the Polo Museale del Lazio; in 2013 it was visited by over 6 million people. The Pantheon's large circular domed cella, with a conventional temple portico front, was unique in Roman architecture. Nevertheless, it became a standard exemplar when classical styles were revived, and has been copied many times by later architects.
Pasha or Paşa (پاشا, paşa), in older works sometimes anglicized as bashaw, was a higher rank in the Ottoman political and military system, typically granted to governors, generals, dignitaries and others.
Patrick Henry (May 29, 1736June 6, 1799) was an American attorney, planter, and orator well known for his declaration to the Second Virginia Convention (1775): "Give me liberty, or give me death!" A Founding Father, he served as the first and sixth post-colonial Governor of Virginia, from 1776 to 1779 and from 1784 to 1786.
Paul Finkelman (born November 15, 1949, in Brooklyn, New York) is an American legal historian, and became the President of Gratz College, Melrose Park, PA in 2017.
A pedometer is a device, usually portable and electronic or electromechanical, that counts each step a person takes by detecting the motion of the person's hands or hips.
Pentemont Abbey (Abbaye de Penthemont, Pentemont, Panthemont or Pantemont) is a set of 18th and 19th century buildings at the corner of Rue de Grenelle and Rue de Bellechasse in the 7th arrondissement of Paris.
Peter Jefferson (February 29, 1708 – August 17, 1757) was the father of US President Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826).
Peter S. Onuf is an American historian and professor known for his work on U.S. President Thomas Jefferson.
Philip Morin Freneau (January 2, 1752 – December 18, 1832) was an American poet, nationalist, polemicist, sea captain and newspaper editor sometimes called the "Poet of the American Revolution".
Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics.
The Pike Expedition (July 15, 1806 – July 1, 1807) was a military party sent out by President Thomas Jefferson and authorized by the United States government to explore the south and west of the recent Louisiana Purchase.
The "Plan for Establishing Uniformity in the Coinage, Weights, and Measures of the United States" was a report submitted to the U.S. House of Representatives on July 13, 1790, by Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson.
A plough (UK) or plow (US; both) is a tool or farm implement used in farming for initial cultivation of soil in preparation for sowing seed or planting to loosen or turn the soil.
A Polygraph is a device that produces a copy of a piece of writing simultaneously with the creation of the original, using pens and ink.
Poplar Forest is a plantation and plantation house in Forest, Bedford County, Virginia.
A postmaster is the head of an individual post office.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
Presidents of the United States have frequently appeared on U.S. postage stamps since the mid–1800s.
Primogeniture is the right, by law or custom, of the paternally acknowledged, firstborn son to inherit his parent's entire or main estate, in preference to daughters, elder illegitimate sons, younger sons and collateral relatives; in some cases the estate may instead be the inheritance of the firstborn child or occasionally the firstborn daughter.
Progressivism in the United States is a broadly based reform movement that reached its height early in the 20th century and is generally considered to be middle class and reformist in nature.
The Quasi-War (Quasi-guerre) was an undeclared war fought almost entirely at sea between the United States and France from 1798 to 1800.
The Randolph family is a prominent Virginia political family, whose members contributed to the politics of Colonial Virginia and Virginia after it gained its statehood.
Randolph Jefferson (October 1, 1755 – August 7, 1815) was the younger brother of Thomas Jefferson and a planter.
Reading law is the method by which persons in common law countries, particularly the United States, entered the legal profession before the advent of law schools.
The Red River Expedition, also known as the Freeman-Custis Expedition, Freeman Red River Expedition, Sparks Expedition, or officially as the Exploring Expedition of Red River in 1806, was one of the first civilian scientific expeditions to explore the Southwestern United States.
The Red River, or sometimes the Red River of the South, is a major river in the southern United States of America. The river was named for the red-bed country of its watershed. It is one of several rivers with that name. Although it was once a tributary of the Mississippi River, the Red River is now a tributary of the Atchafalaya River, a distributary of the Mississippi that flows separately into the Gulf of Mexico. It is connected to the Mississippi River by the Old River Control Structure. The south bank of the Red River formed part of the US–Mexico border from the Adams–Onís Treaty (in force 1821) until the Texas Annexation and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. The Red River is the second-largest river basin in the southern Great Plains. It rises in two branches in the Texas Panhandle and flows east, where it acts as the border between the states of Texas and Oklahoma. It forms a short border between Texas and Arkansas before entering Arkansas, turning south near Fulton, Arkansas, and flowing into Louisiana, where it flows into the Atchafalaya River. The total length of the river is, with a mean flow of over at the mouth.
The Reign of Terror, or The Terror (la Terreur), is the label given by some historians to a period during the French Revolution after the First French Republic was established.
Rembrandt Peale (February 22, 1778 – October 3, 1860) was an American artist and museum keeper.
Republicanism is an ideology centered on citizenship in a state organized as a republic under which the people hold popular sovereignty.
Modern republicanism is a guiding political philosophy of the United States that has been a major part of American civic thought since its founding.
Richard Bland (May 6, 1710 – October 26, 1776), sometimes referred to as Richard Bland II or Richard Bland of Jordan's Point, was an American planter and statesman from Virginia and a cousin of Thomas Jefferson.
Richard Dale (November 6, 1756 – February 26, 1826) was an American naval officer who fought in the Continental Navy under John Barry and was first lieutenant for John Paul Jones during the naval battle off of Flamborough Head, England against in the celebrated engagement of September 23, 1779.
Richard Henry Lee (January 20, 1732June 19, 1794) was an American statesman from Virginia best known for the Lee Resolution, the motion in the Second Continental Congress calling for the colonies' independence from Great Britain.
Richmond is the capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States.
Robert Robert Livingston (November 27, 1746 (Old Style November 16) – February 26, 1813) was an American lawyer, politician, diplomat from New York, and a Founding Father of the United States.
Robert Smith (November 3, 1757 – November 26, 1842) was the second United States Secretary of the Navy from 1801 to 1809 and the sixth United States Secretary of State from 1809 to 1811.
Ronald "Ron" Chernow (born March 3, 1949) is an American writer, journalist, historian, and biographer.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in California.
Sarah "Sally" Hemings (1773 – 1835) was an enslaved woman of mixed race owned by President Thomas Jefferson of the United States.
Samuel Chase (April 17, 1741 – June 19, 1811) was an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court and a signatory to the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of Maryland.
Samuel Dexter (May 14, 1761May 4, 1816) was an early American statesman who served both in Congress and in the Presidential Cabinets of John Adams and Thomas Jefferson.
The history of science during the Age of Enlightenment traces developments in science and technology during the Age of Reason, when Enlightenment ideas and ideals were being disseminated across Europe and North America.
The Second Continental Congress was a convention of delegates from the Thirteen Colonies that started meeting in the spring of 1775 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
In the British Empire, a self-governing colony was a colony with an elected government in which elected rulers were able to make most decisions without referring to the colonial power with nominal control of the colony.
The separation of church and state is a philosophic and jurisprudential concept for defining political distance in the relationship between religious organizations and the nation state.
"Separation of church and state" is paraphrased from Thomas Jefferson and used by others in expressing an understanding of the intent and function of the Establishment Clause and Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment to the Constitution of the United States which reads: "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof..." The phrase "separation between church & state" is generally traced to a January 1, 1802, letter by Thomas Jefferson, addressed to the Danbury Baptist Association in Connecticut, and published in a Massachusetts newspaper.
Shadwell is a census-designated place (CDP) in Albemarle County, Virginia, United States, located by the Rivanna River near Charlottesville.
The Shawnee (Shaawanwaki, Ša˙wano˙ki and Shaawanowi lenaweeki) are an Algonquian-speaking ethnic group indigenous to North America. In colonial times they were a semi-migratory Native American nation, primarily inhabiting areas of the Ohio Valley, extending from what became Ohio and Kentucky eastward to West Virginia, Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Western Maryland; south to Alabama and South Carolina; and westward to Indiana, and Illinois. Pushed west by European-American pressure, the Shawnee migrated to Missouri and Kansas, with some removed to Indian Territory (Oklahoma) west of the Mississippi River in the 1830s. Other Shawnee did not remove to Oklahoma until after the Civil War. Made up of different historical and kinship groups, today there are three federally recognized Shawnee tribes, all headquartered in Oklahoma: the Absentee-Shawnee Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma, Eastern Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma, and Shawnee Tribe.
Siena Research Institute (SRI) is an affiliate of Siena College, located originally in Friars Hall and now in Hines Hall on the college's campus, in Loudonville, New York, in suburban Albany.
Sierra Leone, officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, is a country in West Africa.
Historically, many rulers have assumed titles such as son of God, son of a god or son of heaven.
South Carolina is a U.S. state in the southeastern region of the United States.
The State of the Union Address is an annual message presented by the President of the United States to a joint session of the United States Congress, except in the first year of a new president's term.
In American political discourse, states' rights are political powers held for the state governments rather than the federal government according to the United States Constitution, reflecting especially the enumerated powers of Congress and the Tenth Amendment.
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
Tecumseh (March 1768 – October 5, 1813) was a Native American Shawnee warrior and chief, who became the primary leader of a large, multi-tribal confederacy in the early 19th century.
The Tenth Amendment (Amendment X) to the United States Constitution, which is part of the Bill of Rights, was ratified on December 15, 1791.
The tertium quids (sometimes shortened to quids) refers to various factions of the American Democratic-Republican Party during the period 1804–1812.
The Lawn, a part of Thomas Jefferson's Academical Village, is a large, terraced grassy court at the historic center of Jefferson's academic community at the University of Virginia.
The Thomas Jefferson Hour is a syndicated public radio program and podcast produced in Bismarck, North Dakota.
Theism is broadly defined as the belief in the existence of the Supreme Being or deities.
Theodore Roosevelt Jr. (October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919) was an American statesman and writer who served as the 26th President of the United States from 1901 to 1909.
The Third Treaty of San Ildefonso was a treaty between France and Spain in which Spain returned the colonial territory of Louisiana to France in exchange for Tuscany.
The Thirteen Colonies were a group of British colonies on the east coast of North America founded in the 17th and 18th centuries that declared independence in 1776 and formed the United States of America.
The Thomas Jefferson Foundation, originally known as the Thomas Jefferson Memorial Foundation, is a private, nonprofit 501(c)3 corporation founded in 1923 to purchase and maintain Monticello, the primary plantation of Thomas Jefferson, the third President of the United States.
Thomas Jefferson Randolph (September 12, 1792 – October 8, 1875) of Albemarle County was a planter and politician who served in the Virginia House of Delegates, was rector of the University of Virginia, and was a colonel in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War.
Thomas Todd (January 23, 1765 – February 7, 1826) was an American attorney and Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court.
The Three-Fifths Compromise was a compromise reached among state delegates during the 1787 United States Constitutional Convention.
Timothy Pickering (July 17, 1745January 29, 1829) was a politician from Massachusetts who served in a variety of roles, most notably as the third United States Secretary of State under Presidents George Washington and John Adams.
The Treaty of Paris, signed in Paris by representatives of King George III of Great Britain and representatives of the United States of America on September 3, 1783, ended the American Revolutionary War.
The Christian doctrine of the Trinity (from Greek τριάς and τριάδα, from "threefold") holds that God is one but three coeternal consubstantial persons or hypostases—the Father, the Son (Jesus Christ), and the Holy Spirit—as "one God in three Divine Persons".
Tripoli (طرابلس,; Berber: Oea, or Wy't) is the capital city and the largest city of Libya, with a population of about 1.1 million people in 2015.
Tuckahoe, also known as Tuckahoe Plantation, is located in Tuckahoe, Virginia on Route 650 near Manakin, Virginia overlapping both Goochland and Henrico counties, six miles from the town of the same name.
Tuckahoe is a census-designated place in Henrico County, Virginia, United States.
Tunis (تونس) is the capital and the largest city of Tunisia.
The Twelfth Amendment (Amendment XII) to the United States Constitution provides the procedure for electing the President and Vice President.
Tyranny of the majority (or tyranny of the masses) refers to an inherent weakness of direct democracy and majority rule in which the majority of an electorate can and does place its own interests above, and at the expense of, those in the minority.
Between 1793 and 1815, the Great Britain was the most constant of Napoleon's enemies.
The United States Declaration of Independence is the statement adopted by the Second Continental Congress meeting at the Pennsylvania State House (now known as Independence Hall) in Philadelphia on July 4, 1776.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
The United States Military Academy (USMA), also known as West Point, Army, Army West Point, The Academy or simply The Point, is a four-year coeducational federal service academy located in West Point, New York, in Orange County.
The United States presidential election of 1796 was the third quadrennial presidential election.
The United States presidential election of 1800 was the fourth United States presidential election.
The United States presidential election of 1804 was the fifth quadrennial presidential election, held from Friday, November 2, to Wednesday, December 5, 1804.
The United States Secretary of Foreign Affairs was a position that existed in the United States government from January 10, 1781, to September 15, 1789.
The Secretary of State is a senior official of the federal government of the United States of America, and as head of the U.S. Department of State, is principally concerned with foreign policy and is considered to be the U.S. government's equivalent of a Minister for Foreign Affairs.
The Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the U.S. Department of the Treasury which is concerned with financial and monetary matters, and, until 2003, also included several federal law enforcement agencies.
The University of Virginia (U.Va. or UVA), frequently referred to simply as Virginia, is a public research university and the flagship for the Commonwealth of Virginia.
Chesapeake was a 38-gun wooden-hulled, three-masted heavy frigate of the United States Navy.
USS Philadelphia, a 1240-ton, 36-gun sailing frigate, was the second vessel of the United States Navy to be named for the city of Philadelphia.
The third Revenge was a schooner in the United States Navy during the years preceding the War of 1812.
Vermont is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
The Vice President of the United States (informally referred to as VPOTUS, or Veep) is a constitutional officer in the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States as the President of the Senate under Article I, Section 3, Clause 4, of the United States Constitution, as well as the second highest executive branch officer, after the President of the United States.
Virginia (officially the Commonwealth of Virginia) is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains.
The Virginia Declaration of Rights is a document drafted in 1776 to proclaim the inherent rights of men, including the right to reform or abolish "inadequate" government.
The Virginia House of Delegates is one of two parts in the Virginia General Assembly, the other being the Senate of Virginia.
The Virginia militia is an armed force composed of all citizens of the Commonwealth of Virginia capable of bearing arms.
The Virginia State Capitol is the seat of state government of the Commonwealth of Virginia, located in Richmond, the third capital city of the U.S. state of Virginia.
The Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom was drafted in 1777 (however it was not first introduced into the Virginia General Assembly until 1779) by Thomas Jefferson in the city of Fredericksburg, Virginia.
François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on Christianity as a whole, especially the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
The Whigs were a political faction and then a political party in the parliaments of England, Scotland, Great Britain, Ireland and the United Kingdom.
William Armisted Burwell (March 15, 1780 – February 16, 1821) was a nineteenth-century congressman and presidential secretary from Virginia.
Sir William Blackstone (10 July 1723 – 14 February 1780) was an English jurist, judge and Tory politician of the eighteenth century.
William Clark (August 1, 1770 – September 1, 1838) was an American explorer, soldier, Indian agent, and territorial governor.
William Dunbar (1750–1810) was a Scottish and American merchant, plantation owner, naturalist, astronomer and explorer.
William Eaton (23 February 1764Prentiss, p. 10 – 1 June 1811Macleod, Julia H., Wright, Louise B. William Eaton's Relationship with Aaron Burr. The Mississippi Valley Historical Review, Vol. 31, No. 4. 1945) was a United States Army officer and the diplomatic officer Consul General to Tunis (1797–1803).
Colonel William Fleming (February 18, 1727August 5, 1795) was an American physician, soldier, politician and planter who served as a local justice of the peace in the mountains of southwestern Virginia and Kentucky, as well as in the Senate of Virginia and briefly acted as the Governor of Virginia during the American Revolutionary War.
William Johnson Jr. (December 27, 1771 – August 4, 1834) was a state legislator and judge in South Carolina, and an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court from 1804 to his death in 1834.
William Pinkney (March 17, 1764February 25, 1822) was an American statesman and diplomat, and was appointed the seventh U.S. Attorney General by President James Madison.
William Randolph I (bapt. 7 November 1650 – 11 April 1711) was an American colonist, landowner, planter, merchant, and politician who played an important role in the history and government of the English colony of Virginia.
Rev William Robertson FRSE FSA Scot DD (19 September 1721 – 11 June 1793) was a Scottish historian, minister in the Church of Scotland, and Principal of the University of Edinburgh.
William Short (1759–1849) was an American diplomat during the early years of the United States.
William Small (13 October 1734 – 25 February 1775) was born in Carmyllie, Angus, Scotland, the son of a Presbyterian minister, James Small and his wife Lillias Scott, and younger brother to Dr Robert Small.
William Stephens Smith (November 8, 1755 – June 10, 1816) was a United States Representative from New York.
Williamsburg is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia.
Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was an American statesman and academic who served as the 28th President of the United States from 1913 to 1921.
The World Digital Library (WDL) is an international digital library operated by UNESCO and the United States Library of Congress.
The XYZ Affair was a political and diplomatic episode in 1797 and 1798, early in the administration of John Adams, involving a confrontation between the United States and Republican France that led to an undeclared war called the Quasi-War.
The Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes (allosomes) in mammals, including humans, and many other animals.
Yusuf (ibn Ali) Karamanli, Caramanli or Qaramanli or al-Qaramanli (most commonly Yusuf Karamanli), (1766 – 1838) was the best-known Pasha (reigned 1795-1832) of the Karamanli dynasty (1711–1835) of Tripolitania (in present-day Libya).
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