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Index Thorium

Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90. [1]

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ABC News (Australia)

ABC News is a national news service in Australia produced by the News and Current Affairs division of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation.

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The actinide or actinoid (IUPAC nomenclature) series encompasses the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers from 89 to 103, actinium through lawrencium.

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Actinium is a chemical element with symbol Ac and atomic number 89.

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An actinocene is a type of metallocene compound that contains an element from the actinide series.

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Addison-Wesley is a publisher of textbooks and computer literature.

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An adduct (from the Latin adductus, "drawn toward" alternatively, a contraction of "addition product") is a product of a direct addition of two or more distinct molecules, resulting in a single reaction product containing all atoms of all components.

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Age of the Earth

The age of the Earth is 4.54 ± 0.05 billion years This age may represent the age of the Earth’s accretion, of core formation, or of the material from which the Earth formed.

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Age of the universe

In physical cosmology, the age of the universe is the time elapsed since the Big Bang.

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Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry

The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) is a federal public health agency within the United States Department of Health and Human Services.

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Alexandre-Émile Béguyer de Chancourtois

Alexandre-Émile Béguyer de Chancourtois (20 January 1820 – 14 November 1886) was a French geologist and mineralogist who was the first to arrange the chemical elements in order of atomic weights, doing so in 1862.

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Alkaline earth metal

The alkaline earth metals are six chemical elements in group 2 of the periodic table.

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In organic chemistry, an alkyl substituent is an alkane missing one hydrogen.

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Allanite (also called orthite) is a sorosilicate group of minerals within the broader epidote group that contain a significant amount of rare-earth elements.

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An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.

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Alpha decay

Alpha decay or α-decay is a type of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus emits an alpha particle (helium nucleus) and thereby transforms or 'decays' into an atom with a mass number that is reduced by four and an atomic number that is reduced by two.

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Alpha particle

Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium-4 nucleus.

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Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.

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Alvin Radkowsky

Alvin Radkowsky (30 June 1915 – 17 February 2002) was a nuclear physicist and chief scientist at U.S. Navy nuclear propulsion division.

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American Astronomical Society

The American Astronomical Society (AAS, sometimes spoken as "double-A-S") is an American society of professional astronomers and other interested individuals, headquartered in Washington, DC.

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American Chemical Society

The American Chemical Society (ACS) is a scientific society based in the United States that supports scientific inquiry in the field of chemistry.

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American Scientist

American Scientist (informally abbreviated AmSci) is an American bimonthly science and technology magazine published since 1913 by Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society.

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Americium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Am and atomic number 95.

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Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.

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Antimony is a chemical element with symbol Sb (from stibium) and atomic number 51.

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Argonne National Laboratory

Argonne National Laboratory is a science and engineering research national laboratory operated by the University of Chicago Argonne LLC for the United States Department of Energy located near Lemont, Illinois, outside Chicago.

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Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.

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In the context of organic molecules, aryl is any functional group or substituent derived from an aromatic ring, usually an aromatic hydrocarbon, such as phenyl and naphthyl.

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Associated Press

The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.

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Atomic number

The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.

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Atomic orbital

In quantum mechanics, an atomic orbital is a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom.

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Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency

The Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) is an Australian body that monitors and identifies solar radiation and nuclear radiation risks to the population of Australia.

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Barium is a chemical element with symbol Ba and atomic number 56.

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Battelle Memorial Institute

Battelle Memorial Institute (more widely known as simply Battelle) is a private nonprofit applied science and technology development company headquartered in Columbus, Ohio.

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Beta decay

In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.

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Bismuth is a chemical element with symbol Bi and atomic number 83.

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Block (periodic table)

A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups.

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Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.

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Bohr model

In atomic physics, the Rutherford–Bohr model or Bohr model or Bohr diagram, introduced by Niels Bohr and Ernest Rutherford in 1913, depicts the atom as a small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons that travel in circular orbits around the nucleus—similar to the structure of the Solar System, but with attraction provided by electrostatic forces rather than gravity.

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Breeder reactor

A breeder reactor is a nuclear reactor that generates more fissile material than it consumes.

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Brookhaven National Laboratory

Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory located in Upton, New York, on Long Island, and was formally established in 1947 at the site of Camp Upton, a former U.S. Army base.

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Bulk modulus

The bulk modulus (K or B) of a substance is a measure of how resistant to compressibility that substance is.

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A burn is a type of injury to skin, or other tissues, caused by heat, cold, electricity, chemicals, friction, or radiation.

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Butterworth–Heinemann is a British publishing company specialized in professional information and learning materials for higher education and professional training, in printed and electronic forms.

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Calcium carbonate

Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.

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Californium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Cf and atomic number 98.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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Carbon group

The carbon group is a periodic table group consisting of carbon (C), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), tin (Sn), lead (Pb), and flerovium (Fl).

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Carl Auer von Welsbach

Carl Auer von Welsbach, also known as Carl Auer, Freiherr von Welsbach (1 September 1858 – 4 August 1929) was an Austrian scientist and inventor, who had a talent not only for discovering advances, but also for turning them into commercially successful products.

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Cengage is an educational content, technology, and services company for the higher education, K-12, professional, and library markets worldwide.

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Cerium is a chemical element with symbol Ce and atomic number 58.

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Cerium(IV) oxide

Cerium(IV) oxide, also known as ceric oxide, ceric dioxide, ceria, cerium oxide or cerium dioxide, is an oxide of the rare-earth metal cerium.

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The chalcogens are the chemical elements in group 16 of the periodic table.

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Chemical element

A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).

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Chemical Science (journal)

Chemical Science is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering all aspects of chemistry.

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Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.

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Chromate and dichromate

Chromate salts contain the chromate anion,.

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Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.

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Citric acid

Citric acid is a weak organic acid that has the chemical formula.

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Close-packing of equal spheres

In geometry, close-packing of equal spheres is a dense arrangement of congruent spheres in an infinite, regular arrangement (or lattice).

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Cold War

The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).

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Colorado School of Mines

Colorado School of Mines, also referred to as "Mines", is a public teaching and research university in Golden, Colorado, devoted to engineering and applied science, with special expertise in the development and stewardship of the Earth's natural resources.

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Congener (chemistry)

In chemistry, congeners are related chemical substances "related to each other by origin, structure, or function".

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Coordination complex

In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.

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Corals are marine invertebrates in the class Anthozoa of phylum Cnidaria.

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Coulomb barrier

The Coulomb barrier, named after Coulomb's law, which is in turn named after physicist Charles-Augustin de Coulomb, is the energy barrier due to electrostatic interaction that two nuclei need to overcome so they can get close enough to undergo a nuclear reaction.

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CRC Press

The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.

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Critical mass

A critical mass is the smallest amount of fissile material needed for a sustained nuclear chain reaction.

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Cross section (physics)

When two particles interact, their mutual cross section is the area transverse to their relative motion within which they must meet in order to scatter from each other.

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A crucible is a container that can withstand very high temperatures and is used for metal, glass, and pigment production as well as a number of modern laboratory processes.

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Cubic crystal system

In crystallography, the cubic (or isometric) crystal system is a crystal system where the unit cell is in the shape of a cube.

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Curium is a transuranic radioactive chemical element with symbol Cm and atomic number 96.

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Cyclooctatetraenide anion

In chemistry, the cyclooctatetraenide anion or cyclooctatetraenide is an aromatic species with a formula of 2− and abbreviated as COT2−.

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Cyclopentadienyl complex

A cyclopentadienyl complex is a metal complex with one or more cyclopentadienyl groups (abbreviated as Cp−).

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Decay chain

In nuclear science, the decay chain refers to a series of radioactive decays of different radioactive decay products as a sequential series of transformations.

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Decay product

In nuclear physics, a decay product (also known as a daughter product, daughter isotope, radio-daughter, or daughter nuclide) is the remaining nuclide left over from radioactive decay.

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Department of Atomic Energy

The Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) (IAST: Paramāṇu Ūrjā Vibhāga) is a department directly under the Prime Minister of India with headquarters in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

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Dermatitis, also known as eczema, is a group of diseases that results in inflammation of the skin.

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Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.

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Diamagnetic materials are repelled by a magnetic field; an applied magnetic field creates an induced magnetic field in them in the opposite direction, causing a repulsive force.

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Dipotassium cyclooctatetraenide

Dipotassium cyclooctatetraenide, sometimes abbreviated K2COT, is an organopotassium compound with the formula K2C8H8.

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Dispersion (optics)

In optics, dispersion is the phenomenon in which the phase velocity of a wave depends on its frequency.

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Dmitri Mendeleev

Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev (a; 8 February 18342 February 1907 O.S. 27 January 183420 January 1907) was a Russian chemist and inventor.

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Drawing (manufacturing)

Drawing is a metalworking process which uses tensile forces to stretch metal or glass.

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Dry ice

Dry ice, sometimes referred to as "cardice" (chiefly by British chemists), is the solid form of carbon dioxide.

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Ductility is a measure of a material's ability to undergo significant plastic deformation before rupture, which may be expressed as percent elongation or percent area reduction from a tensile test.

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Einsteinium is a synthetic element with symbol Es and atomic number 99.

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Ekanite is an uncommon silicate mineral with chemical formula: Ca2ThSi8O20 or (Ca,Fe,Pb)2(Th,U)Si8O20.

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An electride is a ionic compound in which an electron is the anion.

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Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.

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Erectile dysfunction

Erectile dysfunction (ED), also known as impotence, is a type of sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis during sexual activity.

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Ernest Rutherford

Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, HFRSE LLD (30 August 1871 – 19 October 1937) was a New Zealand-born British physicist who came to be known as the father of nuclear physics.

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Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), also known by several other names, is a chemical originating in multiseasonal plants with dormancy stages as a lipidopreservative which helps to develop the stem, currently used for both industrial and medical purposes.

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Eutectic system

A eutectic system from the Greek "ευ" (eu.

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Even and odd atomic nuclei

In nuclear physics, properties of a nucleus depend on evenness or oddness of its atomic number Z, neutron number N and, consequently, of their sum, the mass number A. Most notably, oddness of both Z and N tends to lower the nuclear binding energy, making odd nuclei, generally, less stable.

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Exponential decay

A quantity is subject to exponential decay if it decreases at a rate proportional to its current value.

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Extinct radionuclide

An extinct radionuclide is a radionuclide that was formed by nucleosynthesis before the formation of the Solar System, about 4.6 billion years ago, and incorporated into it, but has since decayed to virtually zero abundance, due to having a half-life shorter than about 100 million years.

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Falun is a city and the seat of Falun Municipality in Dalarna County, Sweden, with 37,291 inhabitants in 2010.

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Fermi level

The Fermi level chemical potential for electrons (or electrochemical potential for electrons), usually denoted by µ or EF, of a body is a thermodynamic quantity, whose significance is the thermodynamic work required to add one electron to the body (not counting the work required to remove the electron from wherever it came from).

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Fertile material

Fertile material is a material that, although not itself fissionable by thermal neutrons, can be converted into a fissile material by neutron absorption and subsequent nuclei conversions.

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Fissile material

In nuclear engineering, fissile material is material capable of sustaining a nuclear fission chain reaction.

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Not to be confused with Fluoride. Fluorite (also called fluorspar) is the mineral form of calcium fluoride, CaF2.

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Francium is a chemical element with symbol Fr and atomic number 87.

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Frederick Soddy

Frederick Soddy FRS (2 September 1877 – 22 September 1956) was an English radiochemist who explained, with Ernest Rutherford, that radioactivity is due to the transmutation of elements, now known to involve nuclear reactions.

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Froth flotation

Froth flotation is a process for selectively separating hydrophobic materials from hydrophilic.

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Gadolinite, sometimes known as ytterbite, is a silicate mineral consisting principally of the silicates of cerium, lanthanum, neodymium, yttrium, beryllium, and iron with the formula (Ce,La,Nd,Y)2FeBe2Si2O10.

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Gadolinium is a chemical element with symbol Gd and atomic number 64.

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Gamma ray

A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.

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Gas mantle

An incandescent gas mantle, gas mantle or Welsbach mantle is a device for generating bright white light when heated by a flame.

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Gas tungsten arc welding

Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), also known as tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding, is an arc welding process that uses a non-consumable tungsten electrode to produce the weld.

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Gerhard Carl Schmidt

Gerhard Carl Schmidt (5 July 1865 – 16 October 1949) was a German chemist.

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Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.

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Glenn T. Seaborg

Glenn Theodore Seaborg (April 19, 1912February 25, 1999) was an American chemist whose involvement in the synthesis, discovery and investigation of ten transuranium elements earned him a share of the 1951 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

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Goldschmidt classification

The Goldschmidt classification, developed by Victor Goldschmidt (1888-1947), is a geochemical classification which groups the chemical elements within the Earth according to their preferred host phases into lithophile (rock-loving), siderophile (iron-loving), chalcophile (ore-loving or chalcogen-loving), and atmophile (gas-loving) or volatile (the element, or a compound in which it occurs, is liquid or gaseous at ambient surface conditions).

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Group 4 element

Group 4 is a group of elements in the periodic table.

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Guarapari is a coastal town of Espírito Santo, Brazil, a popular tourist destination.

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Gustav Hinrichs

Gustav Ludwig Wilhelm HinrichsNot to be confused with Gustav Dethlef Hinrichs, a noted scientist of the 19th century, or Gustav Hinrichs, of Berlin, a German historian and classicist who collaborated with the Brothers Grimm in addition to many of his own writings.

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Hafnium is a chemical element with symbol Hf and atomic number 72.

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Hafnium tetrafluoride

Hafnium tetrafluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula HfF4.

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Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.

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Hardness is a measure of the resistance to localized plastic deformation induced by either mechanical indentation or abrasion.

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Henri Becquerel

Antoine Henri Becquerel (15 December 1852 – 25 August 1908) was a French physicist, Nobel laureate, and the first person to discover evidence of radioactivity.

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Hexafluorosilicic acid

Hexafluorosilicic acid is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula (also written as). It is a colorless liquid rarely encountered undiluted.

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Hot cathode

In vacuum tubes and gas-filled tubes, a hot cathode or thermionic cathode is a cathode electrode which is heated to make it emit electrons due to thermionic emission.

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HSAB theory

HSAB concept is an initialism for "hard and soft (Lewis) acids and bases".

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Hubble's law

Hubble's law is the name for the observation in physical cosmology that.

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Hydrochloric acid

Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.

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Hydrofluoric acid

Hydrofluoric acid is a solution of hydrogen fluoride (HF) in water.

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Hydrogen chloride

The compound hydrogen chloride has the chemical formula and as such is a hydrogen halide.

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Hygroscopy is the phenomenon of attracting and holding water molecules from the surrounding environment, which is usually at normal or room temperature.

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Incandescence is the emission of electromagnetic radiation (including visible light) from a hot body as a result of its temperature.

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India's three-stage nuclear power programme

India's three-stage nuclear power programme was formulated by Homi Bhabha in the 1950s to secure the country’s long term energy independence, through the use of uranium and thorium reserves found in the monazite sands of coastal regions of South India.

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Indian Point Energy Center

Indian Point Energy Center (IPEC) is a three-unit nuclear power plant station located in Buchanan, New York, just south of Peekskill.

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Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.

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Institut de radioprotection et de sûreté nucléaire

The French Institut de radioprotection et de sûreté nucléaire (IRSN) ("Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety Institute") located in Fontenay-aux-Roses is a public official establishment with an industrial and commercial aspect (EPIC) created by the AFSSE Act (- French Agency of Sanitary Environmental Security) and by February 22, 2002 decreed n°2002-254.

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International Atomic Energy Agency

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.

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International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry

The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.

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Ionic radius

Ionic radius, rion, is the radius of an atom's ion in ionic crystals structure.

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Ionizing radiation

Ionizing radiation (ionising radiation) is radiation that carries enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them.

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Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

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Iron-56 (56Fe) is the most common isotope of iron.

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Isostructural chemical compounds have similar chemical structures.

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Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.

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Isotopes of americium

Americium (95Am) is an artificial element, and thus a standard atomic weight cannot be given.

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Isotopes of californium

Californium (98Cf) is an artificial element, and thus a standard atomic weight cannot be given.

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Isotopes of curium

Curium (96Cm) is an artificial element with an atomic number of 96.

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Isotopes of einsteinium

Einsteinium (99Es) is a synthetic element, and thus a standard atomic weight cannot be given.

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Isotopes of neptunium

Neptunium (93Np) is usually considered an artificial element, although trace quantities are found in nature, so thus a standard atomic weight cannot be given.

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Isotopes of protactinium

Protactinium (91Pa) has no stable isotopes.

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Jöns Jacob Berzelius

Baron Jöns Jacob Berzelius (20 August 1779 – 7 August 1848), named by himself and contemporary society as Jacob Berzelius, was a Swedish chemist.

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Jens Esmark

Jens Esmark (31 January 1763 – 26 January 1839) was a Danish-Norwegian professor of mineralogy who contributed to many of the initial discoveries and conceptual analyses of glaciers, specifically the concept that glaciers had covered larger areas in the past.

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John Newlands (chemist)

John Alexander Reina Newlands (26 November 1837 – 29 July 1898) was a British chemist who did work concerning the periodicity of elements.

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John Wiley & Sons

John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.

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The joule (symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.

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Julius Lothar Meyer

Julius Lothar Meyer (19 August 1830 – 11 April 1895) was a German chemist.

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The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.

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Kerosene, also known as paraffin, lamp oil, and coal oil (an obsolete term), is a combustible hydrocarbon liquid which is derived from petroleum.

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Kunnskapsforlaget is a Norwegian publishing company based in Oslo that concentrates on encyclopedias, encyclopedic books, textbooks, and dictionaries.

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Kurchatov Institute

The Kurchatov Institute (Hациональный исследовательский центр "Курчатовский Институт" (since 2010) i.e. (Russia's) National Research Centre "Kurchatov Institute"; 1991-2010: Роcсийский научный центр "Курчатовский Институт". — Russian Scientific Centre "Kurchatov Institute") is Russia's leading research and development institution in the field of nuclear energy.

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Lanthanum is a chemical element with symbol La and atomic number 57.

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Lars Fredrik Nilson

Lars Fredrik Nilson (27 May 1840 – 14 May 1899) was a Swedish chemist who discovered scandium in 1879.

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Lattice constant

The lattice constant, or lattice parameter, refers to the physical dimension of unit cells in a crystal lattice.

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Løvøya, Telemark

Løvøya is an island in Ormefjorden in Porsgrunn municipality, Norway.

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Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.

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Lens (optics)

A lens is a transmissive optical device that focuses or disperses a light beam by means of refraction.

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Limiting reagent

The limiting reagent (or limiting reactant, LR) in a chemical reaction is the substance that is totally consumed when the chemical reaction is complete.

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Liquid–liquid extraction

Liquid–liquid extraction (LLE), also known as solvent extraction and partitioning, is a method to separate compounds or metal complexes, based on their relative solubilities in two different immiscible liquids, usually water (polar) and an organic solvent (non-polar).

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List of Germanic deities

In Germanic paganism, the indigenous religion of the ancient Germanic peoples that inhabited Germanic Europe, there were a number of different gods and goddesses.

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The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.

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The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.

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Lutetium is a chemical element with symbol Lu and atomic number 71.

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Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.

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Main-group element

In chemistry and atomic physics, the main group is the group of elements whose lightest members are represented by helium, lithium, beryllium, boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine as arranged in the periodic table of the elements.

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Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.

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Mammography (also called mastography) is the process of using low-energy X-rays (usually around 30 kVp) to examine the human breast for diagnosis and screening.

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Manhattan Project

The Manhattan Project was a research and development undertaking during World War II that produced the first nuclear weapons.

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Marie Curie

Marie Skłodowska Curie (born Maria Salomea Skłodowska; 7 November 18674 July 1934) was a Polish and naturalized-French physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity.

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Mass number

The mass number (symbol A, from the German word Atomgewichte (atomic weight), also called atomic mass number or nucleon number, is the total number of protons and neutrons (together known as nucleons) in an atomic nucleus. It determines the atomic mass of atoms. Because protons and neutrons both are baryons, the mass number A is identical with the baryon number B as of the nucleus as of the whole atom or ion. The mass number is different for each different isotope of a chemical element. This is not the same as the atomic number (Z) which denotes the number of protons in a nucleus, and thus uniquely identifies an element. Hence, the difference between the mass number and the atomic number gives the number of neutrons (N) in a given nucleus:. The mass number is written either after the element name or as a superscript to the left of an element's symbol. For example, the most common isotope of carbon is carbon-12, or, which has 6 protons and 6 neutrons. The full isotope symbol would also have the atomic number (Z) as a subscript to the left of the element symbol directly below the mass number:. This is technically redundant, as each element is defined by its atomic number, so it is often omitted.

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McGraw-Hill Education

McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.

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Melting point

The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.

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Metal ions in aqueous solution

A metal ion in aqueous solution (aqua ion) is a cation, dissolved in water, of chemical formula z+.

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Metamictization (sometimes called metamiction) is a natural process resulting in the gradual and ultimately complete destruction of a mineral's crystal structure, leaving the mineral amorphous.

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In the metric system, a microgram or microgramme (μg; the recommended symbol in the United States when communicating medical information is mcg) is a unit of mass equal to one millionth of a gram.

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Mineralogy is a subject of geology specializing in the scientific study of chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals and mineralized artifacts.

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Miscibility is the property of substances to mix in all proportions (that is, to fully dissolve in each other at any concentration), forming a homogeneous solution.

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Molten salt reactor

A molten salt reactor (MSR) is a class of generation IV nuclear fission reactor in which the primary nuclear reactor coolant, or even the fuel itself, is a molten salt mixture.

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In chemistry a molybdate is a compound containing an oxoanion with molybdenum in its highest oxidation state of 6.

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Monazite is a reddish-brown phosphate mineral containing rare-earth metals.

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Monoclinic crystal system

In crystallography, the monoclinic crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems.

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Mononuclidic element

A mononuclidic element or monotopic element is one of the 22 chemical elements that is found naturally on Earth essentially as a single nuclide (which may, or may not, be a stable nuclide).

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Morten Thrane Esmark

Hans Morten Thrane Esmark (21 August 1801 – 24 April 1882) was a Norwegian priest and mineralogist.

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MOX fuel

Mixed oxide fuel, commonly referred to as MOX fuel, is nuclear fuel that contains more than one oxide of fissile material, usually consisting of plutonium blended with natural uranium, reprocessed uranium, or depleted uranium.

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National Academy of Sciences

The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization.

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National Radiological Protection Board

The National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) was a public authority in the UK created by the Radiological Protection Act 1970.

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Natural abundance

In physics, natural abundance (NA) refers to the abundance of isotopes of a chemical element as naturally found on a planet.

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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Neptunium is a chemical element with symbol Np and atomic number 93.

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Neutron activation

Neutron activation is the process in which neutron radiation induces radioactivity in materials, and occurs when atomic nuclei capture free neutrons, becoming heavier and entering excited states.

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Neutron capture

Neutron capture is a nuclear reaction in which an atomic nucleus and one or more neutrons collide and merge to form a heavier nucleus.

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Neutron economy

Neutron economy is defined as the ratio of an adjoint weighted average of the excess neutron production divided by an adjoint weighted average of the fission production.

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Neutron poison

In applications such as nuclear reactors, a neutron poison (also called a neutron absorber or a nuclear poison) is a substance with a large neutron absorption cross-section.

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Neutron star merger

A neutron star merger is a type of stellar collision.

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Neutron temperature

The neutron detection temperature, also called the neutron energy, indicates a free neutron's kinetic energy, usually given in electron volts.

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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Newsday is an American daily newspaper that primarily serves Nassau and Suffolk counties and the New York City borough of Queens on Long Island, although it is sold throughout the New York metropolitan area.

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Niels Bohr

Niels Henrik David Bohr (7 October 1885 – 18 November 1962) was a Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922.

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Nitric acid

Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.

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Nobel Prize

The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.

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Nuclear chain reaction

A nuclear chain reaction occurs when one single nuclear reaction causes an average of one or more subsequent nuclear reactions, thus leading to the possibility of a self-propagating series of these reactions.

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Nuclear drip line

The nuclear drip line is the boundary delimiting the zone beyond which atomic nuclei decay by the emission of a proton or neutron.

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Nuclear Energy Agency

The Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is an intergovernmental agency that is organized under the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

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Nuclear fuel

Nuclear fuel is a substance that is used in nuclear power stations to produce heat to power turbines.

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Nuclear isomer

A nuclear isomer is a metastable state of an atomic nucleus caused by the excitation of one or more of its nucleons (protons or neutrons).

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Nuclear medicine

Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty involving the application of radioactive substances in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.

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Nuclear Physics (journal)

Nuclear Physics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Elsevier.

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Nuclear proliferation

Nuclear proliferation is the spread of nuclear weapons, fissionable material, and weapons-applicable nuclear technology and information to nations not recognized as "Nuclear Weapon States" by the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT.

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Nuclear reactor

A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.

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Nuclear reactor core

A nuclear reactor core is the portion of a nuclear reactor containing the nuclear fuel components where the nuclear reactions take place and the heat is generated.

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Nuclear safety and security

Nuclear safety is defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as "The achievement of proper operating conditions, prevention of accidents or mitigation of accident consequences, resulting in protection of workers, the public and the environment from undue radiation hazards".

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Nuclear shell model

In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, the nuclear shell model is a model of the atomic nucleus which uses the Pauli exclusion principle to describe the structure of the nucleus in terms of energy levels.

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Nuclear weapon

A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).

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Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is an American multiprogram science and technology national laboratory sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and administered, managed, and operated by UT-Battelle as a federally funded research and development center (FFRDC) under a contract with the DOE.

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Orano (previously Areva) is a French multinational group specializing in nuclear power and renewable energy headquartered in Paris La Défense.

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Oslo (rarely) is the capital and most populous city of Norway.

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Osmium (from Greek ὀσμή osme, "smell") is a chemical element with symbol Os and atomic number 76.

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Oxalate (IUPAC: ethanedioate) is the dianion with the formula, also written.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Oxidation state

The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.

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An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.

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The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.

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Paramagnetism is a form of magnetism whereby certain materials are weakly attracted by an externally applied magnetic field, and form internal, induced magnetic fields in the direction of the applied magnetic field.

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Parts-per notation

In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.

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Pascal (unit)

The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength.

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Passivation (chemistry)

Passivation, in physical chemistry and engineering, refers to a material becoming "passive," that is, less affected or corroded by the environment of future use.

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A perchlorate is the name for a chemical compound containing the perchlorate ion,.

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Period 7 element

A period 7 element is one of the chemical elements in the seventh row (or period) of the periodic table of the chemical elements.

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Periodic table

The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, whose structure shows periodic trends.

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A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.

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Phosphine (IUPAC name: phosphane) is the compound with the chemical formula PH3.

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Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.

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Physical Review

Physical Review is an American peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1893 by Edward Nichols.

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Physical Review Letters

Physical Review Letters (PRL), established in 1958, is a peer-reviewed, scientific journal that is published 52 times per year by the American Physical Society.

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Physics Today

Physics Today is the membership magazine of the American Institute of Physics that was established in 1948.

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Pittsburgh Post-Gazette

The Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, also known simply as the "PG", is the largest daily newspaper serving metropolitan Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States.

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Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.

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Plutonium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94.

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Plutonium-239 is an isotope of plutonium.

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Plutonium-241 (Pu-241) is an isotope of plutonium formed when plutonium-240 captures a neutron.

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A pnictogen is one of the chemical elements in group 15 of the periodic table.

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Polonium is a chemical element with symbol Po and atomic number 84.

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Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.

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Potassium fluoride

Potassium fluoride is the chemical compound with the formula KF.

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A priest or priestess (feminine) is a religious leader authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities.

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Primordial nuclide

In geochemistry, geophysics and geonuclear physics, primordial nuclides, also known as primordial isotopes, are nuclides found on Earth that have existed in their current form since before Earth was formed.

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Promethium is a chemical element with symbol Pm and atomic number 61.

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Protactinium (formerly protoactinium) is a chemical element with symbol Pa and atomic number 91.

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A pyrophoric substance (from Greek πυροφόρος, pyrophoros, "fire-bearing") ignites spontaneously in air at or below 55 °C (130 °F).

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The rapid neutron-capture process, or so-called r-process, is a set of nuclear reactions that in nuclear astrophysics is responsible for the creation (nucleosynthesis) of approximately half the abundances of the atomic nuclei heavier than iron, usually synthesizing the entire abundance of the two most neutron-rich stable isotopes of each heavy element.

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Radioactive decay

Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.

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Radioactive waste

Radioactive waste is waste that contains radioactive material.

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A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.

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Radium is a chemical element with symbol Ra and atomic number 88.

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Radon is a chemical element with symbol Rn and atomic number 86.

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Rare-earth element

A rare-earth element (REE) or rare-earth metal (REM), as defined by IUPAC, is one of a set of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the fifteen lanthanides, as well as scandium and yttrium.

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The Raytheon Company is a major U.S. defense contractor and industrial corporation with core manufacturing concentrations in weapons and military and commercial electronics.

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Reactivity (chemistry)

In chemistry, reactivity is the impetus for which a chemical substance undergoes a chemical reaction, either by itself or with other materials, with an overall release of energy.

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Recrystallization (chemistry)

In chemistry, recrystallization is a technique used to purify chemicals.

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Reduction potential

Reduction potential (also known as redox potential, oxidation / reduction potential, ORP, pE, ε, or E_) is a measure of the tendency of a chemical species to acquire electrons and thereby be reduced.

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Refraction (metallurgy)

In metallurgy, refraction is a property of metals that indicates their ability to withstand heat.

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Refractive index

In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.

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A refractory mineral is a mineral that is resistant to decomposition by heat, pressure, or chemical attack.

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Relative atomic mass

Relative atomic mass (symbol: A) or atomic weight is a dimensionless physical quantity defined as the ratio of the average mass of atoms of a chemical element in a given sample to one unified atomic mass unit.

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Relativistic quantum chemistry

Relativistic quantum chemistry combines relativistic mechanics with quantum chemistry to explain elemental properties and structure, especially for the heavier elements of the periodic table.

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Respiratory tract

In humans, the respiratory tract is the part of the anatomy of the respiratory system involved with the process of respiration.

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Reviews of Modern Physics

Reviews of Modern Physics is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Physical Society.

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Rhenium is a chemical element with symbol Re and atomic number 75.

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Rheumatism or rheumatic disorder is an umbrella term for conditions causing chronic, often intermittent pain affecting the joints and/or connective tissue.

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Rhodium is a chemical element with symbol Rh and atomic number 45.

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Robert Bowie Owens

Robert "Bobby" Bowie Owens (October 29, 1870 – November 3, 1940) was a U.S. electrical engineer.

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Rosen Publishing

The Rosen Publishing Group is an American publisher for educational books for readers from ages pre-Kindergarten through grade 12.

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Routledge is a British multinational publisher.

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Rutherfordium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Rf and atomic number 104, named after physicist Ernest Rutherford.

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Scandium is a chemical element with symbol Sc and atomic number 21.

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Science of the Total Environment

Science of the Total Environment is a leading international peer-reviewed scientific journal covering environmental science.

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Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean.

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Secular equilibrium

In nuclear physics, secular equilibrium is a situation in which the quantity of a radioactive isotope remains constant because its production rate (e.g., due to decay of a parent isotope) is equal to its decay rate.

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Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently transported by the action of wind, water, or ice, and/or by the force of gravity acting on the particles.

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Selenium is a chemical element with symbol Se and atomic number 34.

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Shippingport Atomic Power Station

The Shippingport Atomic Power Station was (according to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission) the world’s first full-scale atomic electric power plant devoted exclusively to peacetime uses.

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The sievert (symbol: SvNot be confused with the sverdrup or the svedberg, two non-SI units that sometimes use the same symbol.) is a derived unit of ionizing radiation dose in the International System of Units (SI) and is a measure of the health effect of low levels of ionizing radiation on the human body.

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Sigma bond

In chemistry, sigma bonds (σ bonds) are the strongest type of covalent chemical bond.

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Silicon dioxide

Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.

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Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.

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Simon & Schuster

Simon & Schuster, Inc., a subsidiary of CBS Corporation, is an American publishing company founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard Simon and Max Schuster.

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Clinker nodules produced by sintering Sintering is the process of compacting and forming a solid mass of material by heat or pressure without melting it to the point of liquefaction.

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The skeleton is the body part that forms the supporting structure of an organism.

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Sodium diuranate

Sodium diuranate or yellow uranium oxide, Na2U2O7·6H2O, is a uranium salt also known as the yellow oxide of uranium.

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Sodium hydroxide

Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations and hydroxide anions. Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. It is highly soluble in water, and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. It forms a series of hydrates NaOH·n. The monohydrate NaOH· crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. The commercially available "sodium hydroxide" is often this monohydrate, and published data may refer to it instead of the anhydrous compound. As one of the simplest hydroxides, it is frequently utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students. Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, and as a drain cleaner. Worldwide production in 2004 was approximately 60 million tonnes, while demand was 51 million tonnes.

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Speleothems (Ancient Greek: "cave deposit"), commonly known as cave formations, are secondary mineral deposits formed in a cave.

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SPIE is an international not-for-profit professional society for optics and photonics technology, founded in 1955.

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Spin–orbit interaction

In quantum physics, the spin–orbit interaction (also called spin–orbit effect or spin–orbit coupling) is a relativistic interaction of a particle's spin with its motion inside a potential.

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Spontaneous fission

Spontaneous fission (SF) is a form of radioactive decay that is found only in very heavy chemical elements.

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Springer Science+Business Media

Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

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Square antiprism

In geometry, the square antiprism is the second in an infinite set of antiprisms formed by an even-numbered sequence of triangle sides closed by two polygon caps.

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Standard atomic weight

The standard atomic weight (Ar, standard, a relative atomic mass) is the atomic weight (Ar) of a chemical element, as appearing and met in the earthly environment.

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Standard conditions for temperature and pressure

Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data.

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State of matter

In physics, a state of matter is one of the distinct forms in which matter can exist.

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Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.

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Store norske leksikon

Store norske leksikon, abbreviated SNL, is a Norwegian language (bokmål) encyclopedia.

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The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.

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Sulfites or sulphites are compounds that contain the sulfite ion (or the sulfate(IV) ion, from its correct systematic name),.

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Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.

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Sulfuric acid

Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.

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Sulfurous acid

Sulfurous acid (also sulphurous acid) is the chemical compound with the formula H2SO3.

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Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic flux fields occurring in certain materials, called superconductors, when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.

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A supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas, abbreviations: SN and SNe) is a transient astronomical event that occurs during the last stellar evolutionary stages of a star's life, either a massive star or a white dwarf, whose destruction is marked by one final, titanic explosion.

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Swaging is a forging process in which the dimensions of an item are altered using dies into which the item is forced.

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Swarf, also known as chips or by other process-specific names (such as turnings, filings, or shavings), are pieces of metal, wood, or plastic that are the debris or waste resulting from machining, woodworking, or similar subtractive (material-removing) manufacturing processes.

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Sylvania Electric Products explosion

On the morning of July 2, 1956, an explosion involving scrap thorium occurred at the Sylvania Electric Products' Metallurgical Laboratory in Bayside, Queens, New York.

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Tamil Nadu

Tamil Nadu (• tamiḻ nāḍu ? literally 'The Land of Tamils' or 'Tamil Country') is one of the 29 states of India.

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Tampa Bay Times

The Tampa Bay Times, previously named the St.

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Tantalum is a chemical element with symbol Ta and atomic number 73.

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Tarnish is a thin layer of corrosion that forms over copper, brass, silver, aluminum, magnesium, neodymium and other similar metals as their outermost layer undergoes a chemical reaction.

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Technetium is a chemical element with symbol Tc and atomic number 43.

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Tel Aviv University

Tel Aviv University (TAU) (אוּנִיבֶרְסִיטַת תֵּל-אָבִיב Universitat Tel Aviv) is a public research university in the neighborhood of Ramat Aviv in Tel Aviv, Israel.

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Telemark is a county in Norway, bordering Vestfold, Buskerud, Hordaland, Rogaland and Aust-Agder.

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Tellurium is a chemical element with symbol Te and atomic number 52.

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Tetragonal crystal system

In crystallography, the tetragonal crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems.

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Tetrahydrofuran (THF) is an organic compound with the formula (CH2)4O.

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Thallium is a chemical element with symbol Tl and atomic number 81.

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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.

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Thermal conductivity

Thermal conductivity (often denoted k, λ, or κ) is the property of a material to conduct heat.

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Thermal expansion

Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in shape, area, and volume in response to a change in temperature.

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Thickening agent

A thickening agent or thickener is a substance which can increase the viscosity of a liquid without substantially changing its other properties.

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In Norse mythology, Thor (from Þórr) is the hammer-wielding god of thunder, lightning, storms, oak trees, strength, the protection of mankind, in addition to hallowing, and fertility.

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Thorianite is a rare thorium oxide mineral, ThO2.

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Thorite, (Th,U)SiO4, is a rare nesosilicate of thorium that crystallizes in the tetragonal system and is isomorphous with zircon and hafnon.

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Thorium dioxide

Thorium dioxide (ThO2), also called thorium(IV) oxide, is a crystalline solid, often white or yellow in color.

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Thulium is a chemical element with symbol Tm and atomic number 69.

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Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.

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Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.

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The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.

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Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.

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Trace radioisotope

A trace radioisotope is a radioisotope that occurs naturally in trace amounts (i.e. extremely small).

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Transition metal

In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.

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Transuranium element

The transuranium elements (also known as transuranic elements) are the chemical elements with atomic numbers greater than 92 (the atomic number of uranium).

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Tributyl phosphate

Tributyl phosphate, known commonly as TBP, is an organophosphorus compound with the chemical formula (CH3CH2CH2CH2O)3PO.

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Tricapped trigonal prismatic molecular geometry

In chemistry, the tricapped trigonal prismatic molecular geometry describes the shape of compounds where nine atoms, groups of atoms, or ligands are arranged around a central atom, defining the vertices of a triaugmented triangular prism (a trigonal prism with an extra atom attached to each of its three rectangular faces).

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Trisodium phosphate

Trisodium phosphate (TSP) is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula Na3PO4.

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Triuranium octoxide

Triuranium octoxide (U3O8) is a compound of uranium.

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Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.

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Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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Unified atomic mass unit

The unified atomic mass unit or dalton (symbol: u, or Da) is a standard unit of mass that quantifies mass on an atomic or molecular scale (atomic mass).

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United States Atomic Energy Commission

The United States Atomic Energy Commission, commonly known as the AEC, was an agency of the United States government established after World War II by U.S. Congress to foster and control the peacetime development of atomic science and technology.

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United States Department of Energy

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material.

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United States Department of the Interior

The United States Department of the Interior (DOI) is the United States federal executive department of the U.S. government responsible for the management and conservation of most federal lands and natural resources, and the administration of programs relating to Native Americans, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians, territorial affairs, and insular areas of the United States.

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United States Geological Survey

The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.

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University of Arizona

The University of Arizona (also referred to as U of A, UA, or Arizona) is a public research university in Tucson, Arizona.

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University of Notre Dame

The University of Notre Dame du Lac (or simply Notre Dame or ND) is a private, non-profit Catholic research university in the community of Notre Dame, Indiana, near the city of South Bend, in the United States.

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University of Oslo

The University of Oslo (Universitetet i Oslo), until 1939 named the Royal Frederick University (Det Kongelige Frederiks Universitet), is the oldest university in Norway, located in the Norwegian capital of Oslo.

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Uraninite, formerly pitchblende, is a radioactive, uranium-rich mineral and ore with a chemical composition that is largely UO2, but due to oxidation the mineral typically contains variable proportions of U3O8.

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Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.

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Uranium dioxide

Uranium dioxide or uranium(IV) oxide (2), also known as urania or uranous oxide, is an oxide of uranium, and is a black, radioactive, crystalline powder that naturally occurs in the mineral uraninite.

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Uranium-232 (U-232) is an isotope of uranium.

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Uranium-233 is a fissile isotope of uranium that is bred from thorium-232 as part of the thorium fuel cycle.

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Uranium-234 is an isotope of uranium.

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Uranium-235 (235U) is an isotope of uranium making up about 0.72% of natural uranium.

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Uranium-238 (238U or U-238) is the most common isotope of uranium found in nature, with a relative abundance of 99%.

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Uranium–thorium dating

Uranium–thorium dating, also called thorium-230 dating, uranium-series disequilibrium dating or uranium-series dating, is a radiometric dating technique established in the 1960s which has been used since the 1970s to determine the age of calcium carbonate materials such as speleothem or coral.

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Uranocene, U(C8H8)2, is an organouranium compound composed of a uranium atom sandwiched between two cyclooctatetraenide rings.

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Valence electron

In chemistry, a valence electron is an outer shell electron that is associated with an atom, and that can participate in the formation of a chemical bond if the outer shell is not closed; in a single covalent bond, both atoms in the bond contribute one valence electron in order to form a shared pair.

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In chemistry, a vanadate is a compound containing an oxoanion of vanadium generally in its highest oxidation state of +5.

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Vest-Agder (West Agder) is a county in Norway, bordering Rogaland to the West and Aust-Agder to the East.

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A vicar (Latin: vicarius) is a representative, deputy or substitute; anyone acting "in the person of" or agent for a superior (compare "vicarious" in the sense of "at second hand").

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Visible spectrum

The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.

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W. W. Norton & Company


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Wiley-VCH is a German publisher owned by John Wiley & Sons.

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William Blackwood

William Blackwood (20 November 1776 – 16 September 1834) was a Scottish publisher who founded the firm of William Blackwood and Sons.

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William Odling

William Odling, FRS (5 September 1829 in Southwark, London – 17 February 1921 in Oxford) was an English chemist who contributed to the development of the periodic table.

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Wired (magazine)

Wired is a monthly American magazine, published in print and online editions, that focuses on how emerging technologies affect culture, the economy, and politics.

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Work function

In solid-state physics, the work setting (sometimes spelled workfunction) is the minimum thermodynamic work (i.e. energy) needed to remove an electron from a solid to a point in the vacuum immediately outside the solid surface.

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World Nuclear Association

The World Nuclear Association (WNA) is the international organization that promotes nuclear power and supports the companies that comprise the global nuclear industry.

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Xenon is a chemical element with symbol Xe and atomic number 54.

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Xenotime is a rare-earth phosphate mineral, the major component of which is yttrium orthophosphate (YPO4).

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Yttrium is a chemical element with symbol Y and atomic number 39.

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Yttrium(III) phosphate

Yttrium phosphate, YPO4, is a phosphate of yttrium.

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Zinc oxide

Zinc oxide is an inorganic compound with the formula ZnO.

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Zircon is a mineral belonging to the group of nesosilicates.

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Zirconium is a chemical element with symbol Zr and atomic number 40.

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Zirconium dioxide

Zirconium dioxide, sometimes known as zirconia (not to be confused with zircon), is a white crystalline oxide of zirconium.

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Zirconium tetrafluoride

Zirconium(IV) fluoride (ZrF4) is an inorganic chemical compound.

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Zirconium(IV) silicate

Zirconium silicate, also zirconium orthosilicate, (Zr Si O4) is a chemical compound, a silicate of zirconium.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thorium

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