46 relations: Balhae, Cao Pi, Cao Wei, Censorate, Department of State Affairs, Emperor of China, Emperor Wu of Han, Goryeo, Government of the Republic of China, Grand Secretariat, Han dynasty, Harvard–Yenching Institute, Hongwu Emperor, Hu Weiyong, Imperial examination, Jin dynasty (1115–1234), Jin dynasty (265–420), Külüg Khan, Lý dynasty, Liao dynasty, Menxia Sheng, Ming dynasty, Ministries of the People's Republic of China, Ministry of Justice (imperial China), Ministry of Personnel, Ministry of Revenue (imperial China), Ministry of Rites, Ministry of War (imperial China), Ministry of Works (imperial China), Nine Ministers, Northern and Southern dynasties, Qin dynasty, Qing dynasty, Secretariat-Chancellery, Simplified Chinese characters, Six Ministries of Joseon, Song dynasty, Sui dynasty, Tang dynasty, Three Ducal Ministers, Three Lords and Nine Ministers, Traditional Chinese characters, Trần dynasty, Yuan dynasty, Zhongshu Sheng, Zongli Yamen.
Balhae (698–926), also known as Parhae or Bohai was a multi-ethnic kingdom in Manchuria and the Korean peninsula.
Cao Pi (– 29 June 226), courtesy name Zihuan, was the first emperor of the state of Cao Wei in the Three Kingdoms period of China.
Wei (220–266), also known as Cao Wei, was one of the three major states that competed for supremacy over China in the Three Kingdoms period (220–280).
The Censorate was a high-level supervisory agency in ancient China, first established during the Qin dynasty (221–207 BCE).
The Department of State Affairs was one department in the Three Departments and Six Ministries government structure officially established since the Sui dynasty in the history of China.
The Emperor or Huangdi was the secular imperial title of the Chinese sovereign reigning between the founding of the Qin dynasty that unified China in 221 BC, until the abdication of Puyi in 1912 following the Xinhai Revolution and the establishment of the Republic of China, although it was later restored twice in two failed revolutions in 1916 and 1917.
Emperor Wu of Han (30 July 157BC29 March 87BC), born Liu Che, courtesy name Tong, was the seventh emperor of the Han dynasty of China, ruling from 141–87 BC.
Goryeo (918–1392), also spelled as Koryŏ, was a Korean kingdom established in 918 by King Taejo.
The Government of the Republic of China was formally established in 1912 in Nanking, with Sun Yat-sen as President of the Provisional Government of the Republic of China under the Provisional Constitution of the Republic of China.
The Grand Secretariat was nominally a coordinating agency but de facto the highest institution in the imperial government of the Chinese Ming dynasty.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
The Harvard–Yenching Institute is an independent foundation dedicated to advancing higher education in Asia in the humanities and social sciences, with special attention to the study of Asian culture.
The Hongwu Emperor (21 October 1328 – 24 June 1398), personal name Zhu Yuanzhang (Chu Yuan-chang in Wade-Giles), was the founding emperor of China's Ming dynasty.
Hu Weiyong (? - 1380) was the first chancellor of the Ming dynasty, from 1373 to 1380.
The Chinese imperial examinations were a civil service examination system in Imperial China to select candidates for the state bureaucracy.
The Jin dynasty, officially known as the Great Jin, lasted from 1115 to 1234 as one of the last dynasties in Chinese history to predate the Mongol invasion of China.
The Jin dynasty or the Jin Empire (sometimes distinguished as the or) was a Chinese dynasty traditionally dated from 266 to 420.
Külüg Khan (Mongolian: Хөлөг хаан, Hülüg Khaan, Külüg qaγan), born Khayishan (also spelled Khayisan, Хайсан, meaning "wall"), also known by the temple name Wuzong (Emperor Wuzong of Yuan) (August 4, 1281 – January 27, 1311), Prince of Huai-ning (懷寧王) in 1304-7,was an emperor of the Yuan dynasty.
The Lý dynasty (Nhà Lý, Hán Nôm: 家李), sometimes known as the Later Lý dynasty, was a Vietnamese dynasty that began in 1009 when emperor Lý Thái Tổ overthrew the Early Lê dynasty and ended in 1225, when the empress Lý Chiêu Hoàng (then 8 years old) was forced to abdicate the throne in favor of her husband, Trần Cảnh.
The Liao dynasty (Khitan: Mos Jælud), also known as the Liao Empire, officially the Great Liao, or the Khitan (Qidan) State (Khitan: Mos diau-d kitai huldʒi gur), was an empire in East Asia that ruled from 907 to 1125 over present-day Mongolia and portions of the Russian Far East, northern China, and northeastern Korea.
The Department of Chancellery, or simply Chancellery, was one of the Three Departments of imperial Chinese governments between the Jin dynasty (265–420) and the Jin dynasty (1115–1234).
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
There are currently 26 cabinet-level Departments Constituting the State Council (国务院组成部门) of the People's Republic of China: 21 ministries, 3 commissions, the central bank, and the National Audit Office.
The Ministry or was one of the Six Ministries under the Department of State Affairs in imperial China.
The Ministry of Personnel was one of the Six Ministries under the Department of State Affairs in imperial China.
The Ministry or Board of Revenue was one of the Six Ministries under the Department of State Affairs in imperial China.
The Ministry or Board of Rites was one of the Six Ministries of government in late imperial China.
The Ministry of War was one of the Six Ministries under the Department of State Affairs in imperial China.
The Ministry of Works or was one of the Six Ministries under the Department of State Affairs in imperial China.
The Nine Ministers was the collective name for nine high officials in the imperial government of the Han dynasty (206 BC–220 AD), who each headed a specialised ministry and were subordinates to the Three Councillors of State.
The Northern and Southern dynasties was a period in the history of China that lasted from 420 to 589, following the tumultuous era of the Sixteen Kingdoms and the Wu Hu states.
The Qin dynasty was the first dynasty of Imperial China, lasting from 221 to 206 BC.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
Secretariat-Chancellery was a central government department in several dynasties in imperial China and Korea.
Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China.
The Six Ministries of Joseon were the major executive bodies of the Korean Joseon Dynasty.
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
The Sui Dynasty was a short-lived imperial dynasty of China of pivotal significance.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
The Three Ducal Ministers, also translated as the Three Dukes, Three Excellencies, or the Three Lords, was the collective name for the three highest officials in ancient China.
The Three Lords and Nine Ministers system was a central administrative system adopted in ancient China that was officially instituted in Qin Dynasty (221 BC - 206 BC) and was replaced by the Three Departments and Six Ministries system since Sui Dynasty (589-618 AD).
Traditional Chinese characters (Pinyin) are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946.
The Trần dynasty (Nhà Trần, 陳朝, Trần triều,.) ruled in Vietnam (then known as Đại Việt) from 1225 to 1400.
The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.
Zhongshu Sheng, commonly translated as the Secretariat, Central Secretariat or Imperial Secretariat, was one department in the Three Departments and Six Ministries government structure officially established beginning in the Sui dynasty in the history of China.
The Zongli Yamen was the government body in charge of foreign policy in imperial China during the late Qing dynasty.
San sheng, Six Ministries, Six Ministries and Three Departments, Three Departments, Three Departments Six Ministries, Three Departments and Six Boards, Three central ministries, Three central ministries and the six boards, Three ministries and six departments.