159 relations: Abdominal pain, Acute limb ischaemia, Ancient Greek, Anticoagulant, Antiphospholipid syndrome, Antiplatelet drug, Antithrombin III deficiency, Arterial embolism, Artery, Ascites, Aspirin, Atheroma, Atherosclerosis, Atrial fibrillation, Atrium (heart), Autoimmune disease, Axillary vein, Bleeding, Blood, Blood vessel, Cancer, Catheter, Cavernous sinus, Cavernous sinus thrombosis, Central retinal vein occlusion, Central venous catheter, Chief Medical Officer (United Kingdom), Cholangiocarcinoma, Circle of Willis, Circulatory system, Cirrhosis, Coagulation testing, Compression stockings, Coronary arteries, CT scan, Cyanosis, Danger triangle of the face, Deep vein, Deep vein thrombosis, Dehydration, Dialysis, Diplopia, Direct thrombin inhibitor, Direct Xa inhibitor, Diverticulitis, Downregulation and upregulation, Dural venous sinuses, Embolism, Embolus, Endothelium, ..., Epileptic seizure, Erythropoiesis, Factor IX, Factor V Leiden, Factor VIII, Factor XI, Femoral vein, Fibrin, Fibrinolysis, Gene expression, Genetic disorder, Headache, Health Select Committee, Heart arrhythmia, Heart failure, Hemodynamics, Hepatic artery proper, Hepatic veins, Hepatomegaly, Hormone replacement therapy, Hypercholesterolemia, Hyperhomocysteinemia, Hypertension, Infarction, Inferior ophthalmic vein, Inferior vena cava, Inferior vena cava filter, Inflammation, Inflammatory bowel disease, Internal carotid artery, Internal medicine, Ischemia, Leukemia, Liver transplantation, Low molecular weight heparin, Lumen (anatomy), Macular edema, Magnetic resonance imaging, Major trauma, Medical guideline, Meningitis, Mortality rate, Myofibroblast, National Blood Clot Alliance, Necrosis, Obesity, Oral contraceptive pill, Orthopedic surgery, Pancreatitis, Papilledema, Paraneoplastic syndrome, Plasmin, Platelet, Platelet-derived growth factor, Polycythemia, Portal vein, Pregnancy, Protein C, Protein S, Prothrombin G20210A, Prothrombin time, Pulmonary embolism, Pulmonology, Renal vein, Repetitive strain injury, Scar, Sepsis, Shock (circulatory), Shunt (medical), Smooth muscle tissue, Spinal cord injury, Staphylococcus aureus, Strabismus, Streptococcus, Stroke, Subclavian vein, Superior ophthalmic vein, Superior orbital fissure, Surgery, Swelling (medical), Thrombin, Thrombolysis, Thrombomodulin, Thrombophilia, Thrombophlebitis, Thrombotic microangiopathy, Thromboxane, Thrombus, Tissue factor, Tissue plasminogen activator, Transvenous pacing, United Kingdom, University of Pittsburgh, Upper limb, Varicose veins, Vasa vasorum, Vascular surgery, Vasoconstriction, Vein, Venous stasis, Venous thrombosis, Vertebral artery, Virchow's triad, Visual acuity, Visual impairment, Vitamin K antagonist, Warfarin, Warfarin necrosis, Wound healing. Expand index (109 more) » « Shrink index
Abdominal pain, also known as a stomach ache, is a symptom associated with both non-serious and serious medical issues.
Acute limb ischaemia (ALI) occurs when there is a sudden lack of blood flow to a limb.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Anticoagulants, commonly referred to as blood thinners, are chemical substances that prevent or reduce coagulation of blood, prolonging the clotting time.
Antiphospholipid syndrome or antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS or APLS), is an autoimmune, hypercoagulable state caused by antiphospholipid antibodies.
An antiplatelet drug (antiaggregant) is a member of a class of pharmaceuticals that decrease platelet aggregation and inhibit thrombus formation.
Antithrombin III deficiency (abbreviated ATIII deficiency) is a deficiency of antithrombin III.
Arterial embolism is a sudden interruption of blood flow to an organ or body part due to an embolus adhering to the wall of an artery blocking the flow of blood, the major type of embolus being a blood clot (thromboembolism).
An artery (plural arteries) is a blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart to all parts of the body (tissues, lungs, etc).
Ascites is the abnormal buildup of fluid in the abdomen.
Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.
An atheroma is a reversible accumulation of degenerative material in the inner layer of an artery wall.
Atherosclerosis is a disease in which the inside of an artery narrows due to the build up of plaque.
Atrial fibrillation (AF or A-fib) is an abnormal heart rhythm characterized by rapid and irregular beating of the atria.
The atrium is the upper chamber in which blood enters the heart.
An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part.
In human anatomy, the axillary vein is a large blood vessel that conveys blood from the lateral aspect of the thorax, axilla (armpit) and upper limb toward the heart.
Bleeding, also known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging, is blood escaping from the circulatory system.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
In medicine, a catheter is a thin tube made from medical grade materials serving a broad range of functions.
The cavernous sinus within the human head, is a true dural venous sinus (not a venous plexus) creating a cavity called the lateral sellar compartment bordered by the temporal bone of the skull and the sphenoid bone, lateral to the sella turcica.
Cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) is the formation of a blood clot within the cavernous sinus, a cavity at the base of the brain which drains deoxygenated blood from the brain back to the heart.
The central retinal vein is the venous equivalent of the central retinal artery and, like that blood vessel, it can suffer from occlusion (central retinal vein occlusion, also CRVO), similar to that seen in ocular ischemic syndrome.
A central venous catheter (CVC), also known as a central line, central venous line, or central venous access catheter, is a catheter placed into a large vein.
The Chief Medical Officer (CMO) is the most senior advisor on health matters in a government.
Cholangiocarcinoma, also known as bile duct cancer or "sneaky Pete", is a form of cancer that is composed of mutated epithelial cells (or cells showing characteristics of epithelial differentiation) that originate in the bile ducts which drain bile from the liver into the small intestine.
The circle of Willis (also called Willis' circle, loop of Willis, cerebral arterial circle, and Willis polygon) is a circulatory anastomosis that supplies blood to the brain and surrounding structures.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Cirrhosis is a condition in which the liver does not function properly due to long-term damage.
Blood clotting tests are the tests used for diagnostics of the hemostasis system.
Compression stockings are a specialized hosiery designed to help prevent the occurrence of, and guard against further progression of, venous disorders such as edema, phlebitis and thrombosis.
The coronary arteries are the arteries of the coronary circulation that transport blood into and out of the cardiac muscle.
A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.
Cyanosis is defined as the bluish or purplish discolouration of the skin or mucous membranes due to the tissues near the skin surface having low oxygen saturation.
The danger triangle of the face consists of the area from the corners of the mouth to the bridge of the nose, including the nose and maxilla.
A deep vein is a vein that is deep in the body.
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT), is the formation of a blood clot in a deep vein, most commonly the legs.
In physiology, dehydration is a deficit of total body water, with an accompanying disruption of metabolic processes.
In medicine, dialysis (from Greek διάλυσις, diàlysis, "dissolution"; from διά, dià, "through", and λύσις, lỳsis, "loosening or splitting") is the process of removing excess water, solutes and toxins from the blood in those whose native kidneys have lost the ability to perform these functions in a natural way.
Diplopia, commonly known as double vision, is the simultaneous perception of two images of a single object that may be displaced horizontally, vertically, diagonally (i.e., both vertically and horizontally), or rotationally in relation to each other.
Direct thrombin inhibitors (DTIs) are a class of medication that act as anticoagulants (delaying blood clotting) by directly inhibiting the enzyme thrombin (factor IIa).
Direct factor Xa inhibitors ('xabans') are a class of anticoagulant drugs which act directly upon Factor X in the coagulation cascade, without using antithrombin as a mediator.
Diverticulitis, specifically colonic diverticulitis, is a gastrointestinal disease characterized by inflammation of abnormal pouches - diverticuli - which can develop in the wall of the large intestine.
In the biological context of organisms' production of gene products, downregulation is the process by which a cell decreases the quantity of a cellular component, such as RNA or protein, in response to an external stimulus.
The dural venous sinuses (also called dural sinuses, cerebral sinuses, or cranial sinuses) are venous channels found between the endosteal and meningeal layers of dura mater in the brain.
An embolism is the lodging of an embolus, a blockage-causing piece of material, inside a blood vessel.
An embolus (plural emboli; from the Greek ἔμβολος "wedge", "plug") is an unattached mass that travels through the bloodstream and is capable of clogging arterial capillary beds (create an arterial occlusion) at a site distant from its point of origin.
Endothelium refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.
An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Erythropoiesis (from Greek 'erythro' meaning "red" and 'poiesis' meaning "to make") is the process which produces red blood cells (erythrocytes).
Factor IX (or Christmas factor) is one of the serine proteases of the coagulation system; it belongs to peptidase family S1.
Factor V Leiden (rs6025) is a variant (mutated form) of human factor V (one of several substances that helps blood clot), which causes an increase in blood clotting (hypercoagulability).
Factor VIII (FVIII) is an essential blood-clotting protein, also known as anti-hemophilic factor (AHF).
Factor XI or plasma thromboplastin antecedent is the zymogen form of factor XIa, one of the enzymes of the coagulation cascade.
In the human body, the femoral vein is a blood vessel that accompanies the femoral artery in the femoral sheath.
Fibrin (also called Factor Ia) is a fibrous, non-globular protein involved in the clotting of blood.
Fibrinolysis is a process that prevents blood clots from growing and becoming problematic.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome.
Headache is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.
The Health Select Committee is one of the Select Committees of the British House of Commons.
Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.
Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.
Hemodynamics or hæmodynamics is the dynamics of blood flow.
The hepatic artery proper (also proper hepatic artery), arises from the common hepatic artery and runs alongside the portal vein and the common bile duct to form the portal triad.
In human anatomy, the hepatic veins are the veins that drain de-oxygenated blood from the liver into the inferior vena cava.
Hepatomegaly is the condition of having an enlarged liver.
Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is any form of hormone therapy wherein the patient, in the course of medical treatment, receives hormones, either to supplement a lack of naturally occurring hormones or to substitute other hormones for naturally occurring hormones.
Hypercholesterolemia, also called high cholesterol, is the presence of high levels of cholesterol in the blood.
Hyperhomocysteinemia or hyperhomocysteinaemia is a medical condition characterized by an abnormally high level of homocysteine in the blood, conventionally described as above 15 µmol/L.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Infarction is tissue death (necrosis) due to inadequate blood supply to the affected area.
The inferior ophthalmic vein begins in a venous network at the forepart of the floor and medial wall of the orbit; it receives some vorticose veins and other veins from the inferior rectus muscle, inferior oblique muscle, lacrimal sac and eyelids, runs backward in the lower part of the orbit lying above the inferior rectus and divides into two branches.
The inferior vena cava (or IVC) is a large vein that carries deoxygenated blood from the lower and middle body into the right atrium of the heart.
An inferior vena cava filter (IVC filter) is a type of vascular filter, a medical device that is implanted by interventional radiologists or vascular surgeons into the inferior vena cava to presumably prevent life-threatening pulmonary emboli (PEs).
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine.
The internal carotid artery is a major paired artery, one on each side of the head and neck, in human anatomy.
Internal medicine or general medicine (in Commonwealth nations) is the medical specialty dealing with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of adult diseases.
Ischemia or ischaemia is a restriction in blood supply to tissues, causing a shortage of oxygen that is needed for cellular metabolism (to keep tissue alive).
Leukemia, also spelled leukaemia, is a group of cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal white blood cells.
Liver transplantation or hepatic transplantation is the replacement of a diseased liver with the healthy liver from another person (allograft).
Low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) is a class of anticoagulant medications.
In biology, a lumen (plural lumina) is the inside space of a tubular structure, such as an artery or intestine.
Macular edema occurs when fluid and protein deposits collect on or under the macula of the eye (a yellow central area of the retina) and causes it to thicken and swell (edema).
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.
Major trauma is any injury that has the potential to cause prolonged disability or death.
A medical guideline (also called a clinical guideline or clinical practice line) is a document with the aim of guiding decisions and criteria regarding diagnosis, management, and treatment in specific areas of healthcare.
Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges.
Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.
A myofibroblast is a cell that is in between a fibroblast and a smooth muscle cell in phenotype.
The National Blood Clot Alliance or NBCA for short (Formerly known as the National Alliance for Thrombosis and Thrombophilia or NATT) is a United States nationwide not for profit alliance of patients and medical professionals committed to raising awareness about thrombosis and thrombophilia and is dedicated to preventing and treating health problems caused by blood clots and blood clotting disorders.
Necrosis (from the Greek νέκρωσις "death, the stage of dying, the act of killing" from νεκρός "dead") is a form of cell injury which results in the premature death of cells in living tissue by autolysis.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
Oral contraceptives, abbreviated OCPs, also known as birth control pills, are medications taken by mouth for the purpose of birth control.
Orthopedic surgery or orthopedics, also spelled orthopaedic, is the branch of surgery concerned with conditions involving the musculoskeletal system.
Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas.
Papilledema (or papilloedema) is optic disc swelling that is caused by increased intracranial pressure due to any cause.
A paraneoplastic syndrome is a syndrome (a set of signs and symptoms) that is the consequence of cancer in the body, but unlike mass effect, is not due to the local presence of cancer cells.
Plasmin is an important enzyme present in blood that degrades many blood plasma proteins, including fibrin clots.
Platelets, also called thrombocytes (from Greek θρόμβος, "clot" and κύτος, "cell"), are a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to react to bleeding from blood vessel injury by clumping, thereby initiating a blood clot.
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is one of numerous growth factors that regulate cell growth and division.
Polycythemia (also known as polycythaemia or polyglobulia) is a disease state in which the hematocrit (the volume percentage of red blood cells in the blood) is elevated.
The portal vein or hepatic portal vein is a blood vessel that carries blood from the gastrointestinal tract, gallbladder, pancreas and spleen to the liver.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
Protein C, also known as autoprothrombin IIA and blood coagulation factor XIV, is a zymogen, the activated form of which plays an important role in regulating anticoagulation, inflammation, cell death, and maintaining the permeability of blood vessel walls in humans and other animals.
Protein S (also known as S-Protein) is a vitamin K-dependent plasma glycoprotein synthesized in the liver.
Prothrombin G20210A is a genetic condition that increases the risk of blood clots including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.
The prothrombin time (PT)—along with its derived measures of prothrombin ratio (PR) and international normalized ratio (INR)—are assays evaluating the extrinsic pathway of coagulation.
Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blockage of an artery in the lungs by a substance that has moved from elsewhere in the body through the bloodstream (embolism).
Pulmonology is a medical speciality that deals with diseases involving the respiratory tract.
The renal veins are veins that drain the kidney.
A repetitive strain injury (RSI, also known as work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs), is an "injury to the musculoskeletal and nervous systems that may be caused by repetitive tasks, forceful exertions, vibrations, mechanical compression, or sustained or awkward positions".
A scar is an area of fibrous tissue that replaces normal skin after an injury.
Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to infection causes injury to its own tissues and organs.
Shock is the state of low blood perfusion to tissues resulting in cellular injury and inadequate tissue function.
In medicine, a shunt is a hole or a small passage which moves, or allows movement of, fluid from one part of the body to another.
Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle.
A spinal cord injury (SCI) is damage to the spinal cord that causes temporary or permanent changes in its function.
Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive, round-shaped bacterium that is a member of the Firmicutes, and it is a member of the normal flora of the body, frequently found in the nose, respiratory tract, and on the skin.
Strabismus, also known as crossed eyes, is a condition in which the eyes do not properly align with each other when looking at an object.
Streptococcus (term coined by Viennese surgeon Albert Theodor Billroth (1829-1894) from strepto- "twisted" + Modern Latin coccus "spherical bacterium," from Greek kokkos meaning "berry") is a genus of coccus (spherical) Gram-positive bacteria belonging to the phylum Firmicutes and the order Lactobacillales (lactic acid bacteria).
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
The subclavian vein is a paired large vein, one on either side of the body.
The superior ophthalmic vein begins at the inner angle of the orbit in a vein named the nasofrontal which communicates anteriorly with the angular vein; it pursues the same course as the ophthalmic artery, and receives tributaries corresponding to the branches of that vessel.
The superior orbital fissure is a foramen in the skull, although strictly it is more of a cleft, lying between the lesser and greater wings of the sphenoid bone.
Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.
In medical parlance, swelling, turgescence or tumefaction is a transient abnormal enlargement of a body part or area not caused by proliferation of cells.
Thrombin (fibrinogenase, thrombase, thrombofort, topical, thrombin-C, tropostasin, activated blood-coagulation factor II, blood-coagulation factor IIa, factor IIa, E thrombin, beta-thrombin, gamma-thrombin) is a serine protease, an enzyme that, in humans, is encoded by the F2 gene.
Thrombolysis is the breakdown (lysis) of blood clots formed in blood vessels, using medication.
Thrombomodulin (TM), CD141 or BDCA-3 is an integral membrane protein expressed on the surface of endothelial cells and serves as a cofactor for thrombin.
Thrombophilia (sometimes hypercoagulability or a prothrombotic state) is an abnormality of blood coagulation that increases the risk of thrombosis (blood clots in blood vessels).
Thrombophlebitis is a phlebitis (inflammation of a vein) related to a thrombus (blood clot).
Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is a pathology that results in thrombosis in capillaries and arterioles, due to an endothelial injury.
Thromboxane is a member of the family of lipids known as eicosanoids.
A thrombus, colloquially called a blood clot, is the final product of the blood coagulation step in hemostasis.
Tissue factor, also called platelet tissue factor, factor III, or CD142 is a protein encoded by the F3 gene, present in subendothelial tissue and leukocytes.
Tissue plasminogen activator (abbreviated tPA or PLAT) is a protein involved in the breakdown of blood clots.
Transvenous cardiac pacing, also called endocardial pacing, is a potentially life saving intervention used primarily to correct profound bradycardia.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The University of Pittsburgh (commonly referred to as Pitt) is a state-related research university located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
The upper limb or upper extremity is the region in a vertebrate animal extending from the deltoid region up to and including the hand, including the arm, axilla and shoulder.
Varicose veins are veins that have become enlarged and twisted.
The vasa vasorum is a network of small blood vessels that supply the walls of large blood vessels, such as elastic arteries (aorta) and large veins (venae cavae).
Vascular surgery is a surgical subspecialty in which diseases of the vascular system, or arteries, veins and lymphatic circulation, are managed by medical therapy, minimally-invasive catheter procedures, and surgical reconstruction.
Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, in particular the large arteries and small arterioles.
Veins are blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart.
Venous stasis, or venostasis, is a condition of slow blood flow in the veins, usually of the legs.
A venous thrombus is a blood clot (thrombus) that forms within a vein.
The vertebral arteries are major (main) arteries of the neck.
Virchow's triad or the triad of Virchow describes the three broad categories of factors that are thought to contribute to thrombosis.
Visual acuity (VA) commonly refers to the clarity of vision.
Visual impairment, also known as vision impairment or vision loss, is a decreased ability to see to a degree that causes problems not fixable by usual means, such as glasses.
Vitamin K antagonists (VKA) are a group of substances that reduce blood clotting by reducing the action of vitamin K. They are used as anticoagulant medications in the prevention of thrombosis, and in pest control, as rodenticides.
Warfarin, sold under the brand name Coumadin among others, is a medication that is used as an anticoagulant (blood thinner).
Warfarin-induced skin necrosis (or, more generally, Anticoagulant-induced skin necrosis) is a condition in which skin and subcutaneous tissue necrosis (tissue death) occurs due to acquired protein C deficiency following treatment with anti-vitamin K anticoagulants (4-hydroxycoumarins, such as warfarin).
Wound healing is an intricate process in which the skin repairs itself after injury.
Arterial thrombosis, Atherothrombosis, Axillary vein thrombosis, Chronic thromboembolic disease, Iliac vein thrombosis, Intracranial thrombosis, Obstruction (blood vessel), Obstruction of a blood vessel, Prothrombotic risk factors, Thrombo-embolic disease, Thromboembolic stroke, Thrombos, Thrombosed, Thrombotic, Thrombotic disease, Trombosis, Vascular thrombosis, Venous occlusive disease.