133 relations: Abductor pollicis brevis muscle, Abductor pollicis longus muscle, Adductor pollicis muscle, Anatomical snuffbox, Anatomical terms of motion, Ankle, Anterior interosseous nerve, Ape, Apposition, Arboreal locomotion, Baboon, Bambiraptor, Bipedalism, Bird, Black-and-white colobus, Brushtail possum, Capitate bone, Carpal bones, Carpal tunnel, Carpometacarpal joint, Catarrhini, Cebidae, CENTG2, Chimpanzee, Chimpanzee–human last common ancestor, Coelurosauria, Contrahens, Dactyly, Darwinius, Deep branch of radial nerve, Deltopectoral lymph nodes, Digit (anatomy), Dominance (genetics), Dorsal digital nerves of radial nerve, Dorsal interossei of the hand, Dorsal venous network of hand, Enhancer (genetics), Eocene, Extensor pollicis brevis muscle, Extensor pollicis longus muscle, Fea's tree-rat, Fingerprint, First metacarpal bone, Flexor pollicis brevis muscle, Flexor pollicis longus muscle, Flexor retinaculum of the hand, Foot, Genome, Gerbil, Giant panda, ..., Gibbon, Glossary of entomology terms, Guy-wire, Hand, Hapalomys, Hominidae, Homo erectus, Homo habilis, Homo sapiens, Hopping mouse, Human accelerated regions, Human evolution, Indo-European languages, Interosseous membrane of forearm, Interphalangeal joints of the hand, Jack Iverson, John R. Napier, Koala, Lever, Little finger, Maned rat, Marmoset, Marsupial, Median nerve, Metacarpal bones, Metacarpophalangeal joint, Microbiotheria, Monito del monte, Multimodal distribution, Muridae, National Center for Biotechnology Information, Nqwebasaurus, Old World monkey, Opossum, Opponens digiti minimi muscle of hand, Opponens pollicis muscle, Orthograde posture, Pencil-tailed tree mouse, Phalangeridae, Phalangeriformes, Phalanx bone, Phyllomedusa, Polydactyl cat, Polydactyly, Prehensility, Primate, Princeps pollicis artery, Proper palmar digital nerves of median nerve, Prosimian, Proto-Indo-European language, Prudence Hero Napier, Quadrupedalism, Radial tuberosity, Radius (bone), Scaly-tailed possum, Scaphoid bone, Sesamoid bone, Simian, Spider monkey, Standard anatomical position, Strepsirrhini, Sulawesi bear cuscus, Tarsier, Tendon sheath, Thenar eminence, Thumb, Thumb signal, Thumb twiddling, Thumb war, Toe, Transitional fossil, Trapezium (bone), Trapezoid bone, Triphalangeal thumb, Troodon, Tufted capuchin, Ulna, Ulnar nerve, Vandeleuria, Walking, Water opossum, Year, Zygosity. Expand index (83 more) » « Shrink index
The abductor pollicis brevis is a muscle in the hand that functions as an abductor of the thumb.
In human anatomy, the abductor pollicis longus (APL) is one of the extrinsic muscles of the hand.
In human anatomy, the adductor pollicis muscle is a muscle in the hand that functions to adduct the thumb.
The anatomical snuff box or snuffbox is a triangular deepening on the radial, dorsal aspect of the hand—at the level of the carpal bones, specifically, the scaphoid and trapezium bones forming the floor.
Motion, the process of movement, is described using specific anatomical terms.
The ankle, or the talocrural region, is the region where the foot and the leg meet.
The anterior interosseous nerve (volar interosseous nerve) is a branch of the median nerve that supplies the deep muscles on the anterior of the forearm, except the ulnar (medial) half of the flexor digitorum profundus.
Apes (Hominoidea) are a branch of Old World tailless anthropoid primates native to Africa and Southeast Asia.
Apposition is a grammatical construction in which two elements, normally noun phrases, are placed side by side, with one element serving to identify the other in a different way; the two elements are said to be in apposition.
Arboreal locomotion is the locomotion of animals in trees.
Baboons are Old World monkeys belonging to the genus Papio, part of the subfamily Cercopithecinae which are found natively in very specific areas of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula.
Bambiraptor is a Late Cretaceous, 72-million-year-old, bird-like dromaeosaurid theropod dinosaur described by scientists at the University of Kansas, Yale University, and the University of New Orleans.
Bipedalism is a form of terrestrial locomotion where an organism moves by means of its two rear limbs or legs.
Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.
Black-and-white colobuses (or colobi) are Old World monkeys of the genus Colobus, native to Africa.
The brushtail possums are the members of the genus Trichosurus in the Phalangeridae, a family of marsupials.
The capitate bone is found in the center of the carpal bone region, colloquially known as the wrist, which is at the distal end of the radius and ulna bones.
The carpal bones are the eight small bones that make up the wrist (or carpus) that connects the hand to the forearm.
In the human body, the carpal tunnel or carpal canal is the passageway on the palmar side of the wrist that connects the forearm to the hand.
The carpometacarpal (CMC) joints are five joints in the wrist that articulate the distal row of carpal bones and the proximal bases of the five metacarpal bones.
Catarrhini is one of the two subdivisions of the simians, the other being the plathyrrhine (New World monkeys).
The Cebidae are one of the five families of New World monkeys now recognised.
Arf-GAP with GTPase, ANK repeat and PH domain-containing protein 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AGAP1 gene.
The taxonomical genus Pan (often referred to as chimpanzees or chimps) consists of two extant species: the common chimpanzee and the bonobo.
The chimpanzee–human last common ancestor, or CHLCA, is the last common ancestor shared by the extant Homo (human) and Pan (chimpanzee) genera of Hominini.
Coelurosauria (from Greek, meaning "hollow tailed lizards") is the clade containing all theropod dinosaurs more closely related to birds than to carnosaurs. Coelurosauria is a subgroup of theropod dinosaurs that includes compsognathids, tyrannosaurs, ornithomimosaurs, and maniraptorans; Maniraptora includes birds, the only dinosaur group alive today. Most feathered dinosaurs discovered so far have been coelurosaurs. Philip J. Currie considers it probable that all coelurosaurs were feathered. In the past, Coelurosauria was used to refer to all small theropods, this classification has since been abolished.
The contrahentes (singular contrahens) are muscles widely present in the hands of mammals, including monkeys.
In biology, dactyly is the arrangement of digits (fingers and toes) on the hands, feet, or sometimes wings of a tetrapod animal.
Darwinius is a genus within the infraorder Adapiformes, a group of basal strepsirrhine primates from the middle Eocene epoch.
The radial nerve divides into a superficial (sensory) and deep (motor) branch at the cubital fossa.
One or two deltopectoral lymph nodes (or infraclavicular nodes) are found beside the cephalic vein, between the pectoralis major and deltoideus, immediately below the clavicle.
A digit is one of several most distal parts of a limb, such as fingers or toes, present in many vertebrates.
Dominance in genetics is a relationship between alleles of one gene, in which the effect on phenotype of one allele masks the contribution of a second allele at the same locus.
Dorsal digital nerves of radial nerve are branches on the dorsum of the hand.
In human anatomy, the dorsal interossei (DI) are four muscles in the back of the hand that act to abduct (spread) the index, middle, and ring fingers away from hand's midline (ray of middle finger) and assist in flexion at the metacarpophalangeal joints and extension at the interphalangeal joints of the index, middle and ring fingers.
The dorsal venous network of the hand is a network of veins in the superficial fascia on the dorsum of hand formed by the dorsal metacarpal veins.
In genetics, an enhancer is a short (50–1500 bp) region of DNA that can be bound by proteins (activators) to increase the likelihood that transcription of a particular gene will occur.
The Eocene Epoch, lasting from, is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic Era.
In human anatomy, the extensor pollicis brevis is a skeletal muscle on the dorsal side of the forearm.
In human anatomy, the extensor pollicis longus muscle (EPL) is a skeletal muscle located dorsally on the forearm.
Fea's tree rat (Chiromyscus chiropus) is a species of rodent in the family Muridae.
A fingerprint in its narrow sense is an impression left by the friction ridges of a human finger.
The first metacarpal bone or the metacarpal bone of the thumb is the first bone proximal to the thumb.
The flexor pollicis brevis is a muscle in the hand that flexes the thumb.
The flexor pollicis longus (FPL, Latin flexor, bender; pollicis, of the thumb; longus, long) is a muscle in the forearm and hand that flexes the thumb.
The flexor retinaculum (transverse carpal ligament, or anterior annular ligament) is a fibrous band on the palmar side of the hand near the wrist.
The foot (plural feet) is an anatomical structure found in many vertebrates.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
A gerbil is a small mammal of the subfamily Gerbillinae in the order Rodentia.
The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca, literally "black and white cat-foot";, literally "big bear cat"), also known as panda bear or simply panda, is a bear native to south central China.
Gibbons are apes in the family Hylobatidae.
This glossary of entomology describes terms used in the formal study of insect species by entomologists.
A guy-wire, guy-line, or guy-rope, also known as simply a guy, is a tensioned cable designed to add stability to a free-standing structure.
A hand is a prehensile, multi-fingered appendage located at the end of the forearm or forelimb of primates such as humans, chimpanzees, monkeys, and lemurs.
Hapalomys is a genus of rodent in the family Muridae endemic to Southeast Asia.
The Hominidae, whose members are known as great apes or hominids, are a taxonomic family of primates that includes eight extant species in four genera: Pongo, the Bornean, Sumatran and Tapanuli orangutan; Gorilla, the eastern and western gorilla; Pan, the common chimpanzee and the bonobo; and Homo, which includes modern humans and its extinct relatives (e.g., the Neanderthal), and ancestors, such as Homo erectus.
Homo erectus (meaning "upright man") is an extinct species of archaic humans that lived throughout most of the Pleistocene geological epoch.
Homo habilis was a species of early humans, who lived between roughly 2.1 and 1.5 million years ago.
Homo sapiens is the systematic name used in taxonomy (also known as binomial nomenclature) for the only extant human species.
A hopping mouse is any of about ten different Australian native mice in the genus Notomys.
Human accelerated regions (HARs), first described in August 2006, are a set of 49 segments of the human genome that are conserved throughout vertebrate evolution but are strikingly different in humans.
Human evolution is the evolutionary process that led to the emergence of anatomically modern humans, beginning with the evolutionary history of primates – in particular genus Homo – and leading to the emergence of Homo sapiens as a distinct species of the hominid family, the great apes.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
The interosseous membrane of the forearm (rarely middle or intermediate radioulnar joint) is a fibrous sheet that connects the interosseous margins of the radius and the ulna.
The interphalangeal joints of the hand are the hinge joints between the phalanges of the fingers that provide flexion towards the palm of the hand.
John Brian "Jack" Iverson (27 July 1915 – 23 October 1973) was an Australian cricketer who played in five Tests from 1950 to 1951.
John Russell Napier, MRCS, LRCP, D.Sc. (1917 – 29 August 1987) was a British primatologist, paleoanthropologist, and physician, who is notable for his work with Homo habilis and OH 7, as well as on human and primate hands/feet.
The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus, or, inaccurately, koala bear) is an arboreal herbivorous marsupial native to Australia.
A lever is a simple machine consisting of a beam or rigid rod pivoted at a fixed hinge, or fulcrum.
The little finger or pinky finger, also known as the fourth digit or just pinky, is the most ulnar and smallest finger of the human hand, opposite the thumb, and next to the ring finger.
The maned rat or crested rat (Lophiomys imhausi) is a nocturnal, long-haired and bushy-tailed East African rodent that superficially resembles a porcupine.
The marmosets,, also known as zaris, are twenty-two New World monkey species of the genera Callithrix, Cebuella, Callibella and Mico.
Marsupials are any members of the mammalian infraclass Marsupialia.
The median nerve is a nerve in humans and other animals in the upper limb.
In human anatomy, the metacarpal bones or metacarpus, form the intermediate part of the skeletal hand located between the phalanges of the fingers and the carpal bones of the wrist which forms the connection to the forearm.
The metacarpophalangeal joints (MCP) are situated between the metacarpal bones and the proximal phalanges of the digits.
Microbiotheria is an australidelphian marsupial order that encompasses two families, Microbiotheriidae and Woodburnodontidae, and is represented by only one extant species, the monito del monte, and a number of extinct species known from fossils in South America, Western Antarctica, and northeastern Australia.
The monito del monte (Spanish for "little monkey of the mountain") or colocolo opossum, Dromiciops gliroides, also called chumaihuén in Mapudungun, is a diminutive marsupial native only to southwestern South America (Argentina and Chile).
In statistics, a bimodal distribution is a continuous probability distribution with two different modes.
The Muridae, or murids, are the largest family of rodents and of mammals, containing over 700 species found naturally throughout Eurasia, Africa, and Australia.
The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is part of the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), a branch of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
Nqwebasaurus (anglicized as) is a basal coelurosaur and is the basal-most member of the coelurosaurian clade Ornithomimosauria from the Early Cretaceous of South Africa.
The Old World monkeys or Cercopithecidae are a family of catarrhines, the only family in the superfamily Cercopithecoidea in the clade (or parvorder) of Catarrhini.
The opossum is a marsupial of the order Didelphimorphia endemic to the Americas.
The opponens digiti minimi (opponens digiti quinti in older texts) is a muscle in the hand.
The opponens pollicis is a small, triangular muscle in the hand, which functions to oppose the thumb.
Orthograde is a term derived from (Greek ὀρθός, orthos ("right", "true", "straight") + Latin gradi (to walk) that describes a manner of walking which is upright, with the independent motion of limbs. Both New and Old World monkeys are primarily arboreal, and they have a tendency to walk with their limbs swinging in parallel to one another. This differs from the manner of walking demonstrated by the apes. Chimpanzees, gorillas, and humans, when walking, walk upright, and their limbs swing in opposition to one another for balance (unlike monkeys, apes lack a tail to use for balance). Disadvantages related to upright walking do exist for primates, since their primary mode of locomotion is quadrupedalism. This upright locomotion is called "orthograde posture". Orthograde posture in humans was made possible through millions of years of evolution. In order to walk upright with maximum efficiency, the skull, spine, pelvis, lower limbs, and feet all underwent evolutionary changes.
Chiropodomys (or pencil-tailed tree mice) is a genus of Old World rats and mice native to Southeast Asia and northeast India.
The Phalangeridae are a family of nocturnal marsupials native to Australia, New Guinea and Eastern Indonesia, including the cuscuses, brushtail possums, and their close relatives.
Phalangeriformes is a suborder of any of about 70 small- to medium-sized arboreal marsupial species native to Australia, New Guinea, and Sulawesi (and introduced to New Zealand and China).
The phalanges (singular: phalanx) are digital bones in the hands and feet of most vertebrates.
Phyllomedusa is a genus of frog from family Hylidae which inhabits Central and South America.
A polydactyl cat is a cat with a congenital physical anomaly called polydactyly (or polydactylism, also known as hyperdactyly), that causes the cat to be born with more than the usual number of toes on one or more of its paws.
Polydactyly or polydactylism, also known as hyperdactyly, is a congenital physical anomaly in humans and animals resulting in supernumerary fingers and/or toes.
Prehensility is the quality of an appendage or organ that has adapted for grasping or holding.
A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").
The princeps pollicis artery, or principal artery of the thumb, arises from the radial artery just as it turns medially towards the deep part of the hand; it descends between the first dorsal interosseous muscle and the oblique head of the adductor pollicis, along the medial side of the first metacarpal bone to the base of the proximal phalanx, where it lies beneath the tendon of the flexor pollicis longus muscle and divides into two branches.
In the palm of the hand the median nerve is covered by the skin and the palmar aponeurosis, and rests on the tendons of the Flexor muscles.
Prosimians are a group of primates that includes all living and extinct strepsirrhines (lemurs, lorisoids, and adapiforms), as well as the haplorhine tarsiers and their extinct relatives, the omomyiforms, i.e. all primates excluding the simians.
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.
Prudence Hero Napier (née Rutherford) (1916 – 6, June 1997) was one of Britain's most eminent primatologists, and the world's leading expert on the taxonomy of primates.
Quadrupedalism or pronograde posture is a form of terrestrial locomotion in animals using four limbs or legs.
Beneath the neck of the radius, on the medial side, is an eminence, the radial tuberosity; its surface is divided into.
The radius or radial bone is one of the two large bones of the forearm, the other being the ulna.
The scaly-tailed possum or the Ilangnalya (Wyulda squamicaudata) is found in northwestern Australia.
The scaphoid bone is one of the carpal bones of the wrist.
In anatomy, a sesamoid bone is a bone embedded within a tendon or a muscle.
The simians (infraorder Simiiformes) are monkeys and apes, cladistically including: the New World monkeys or platyrrhines, and the catarrhine clade consisting of the Old World monkeys and apes (including humans).
Spider monkeys are New World monkeys belonging to the genus Ateles, part of the subfamily Atelinae, family Atelidae.
Because animals can change orientation with respect to their environment, and because appendages (arms, legs, tentacles, etc.) can change position with respect to the main body, it is important that anatomical terms of location refer to the organism when it is in its standard anatomical position.
Strepsirrhini or Strepsirhini is a suborder of primates that includes the lemuriform primates, which consist of the lemurs of Madagascar, galagos, ("bushbabies") and pottos from Africa, and the lorises from India and southeast Asia.
The Sulawesi bear cuscus or Sulawesi bear phalanger (Ailurops ursinus) is a species of arboreal marsupial in the family Phalangeridae endemic to Sulawesi and nearby islands in Indonesia.
Tarsiers are any haplorrhine primates of the family Tarsiidae, which is itself the lone extant family within the infraorder Tarsiiformes.
A tendon sheath is a layer of synovial membrane around a tendon.
The thenar eminence refers to the group of muscles on the palm of the human hand at the base of the thumb.
The thumb is the first digit of the hand.
A thumb signal, usually described as a thumbs-up or thumbs-down, is a common hand gesture achieved by a closed fist held with the thumb extended upward or downward in approval or disapproval, respectively.
Thumb twiddling is an activity that is done with the hands of an individual whereby the fingers are interlocked and the thumbs circle around a common focal point, usually in the middle of the distance between the two thumbs.
A thumb war (pea-knuckle or pea-knuckle war in New Zealand, and a "Guerre des pouces" in France) is a game played by two players in a tournament called a thumb-a-war (or thumb war) using the thumbs to simulate fighting.
Toes are the digits of the foot of a tetrapod.
A transitional fossil is any fossilized remains of a life form that exhibits traits common to both an ancestral group and its derived descendant group.
The trapezium bone (greater multangular bone) is a carpal bone in the hand.
The trapezoid bone (lesser multangular bone) is a carpal bone in tetrapods, including humans.
Triphalangeal thumb (TPT) is a congenital malformation where the thumb has three phalanges instead of two.
Troodon (Troödon in older sources) is a dubious genus of relatively small, bird-like dinosaurs known definitively from the Campanian age of the Cretaceous period (about 77 mya).
The tufted capuchin (Sapajus apella), also known as brown capuchin, black-capped capuchin, or pin monkey is a New World primate from South America.
The ulna is a long bone found in the forearm that stretches from the elbow to the smallest finger, and when in anatomical position, is found on the medial side of the forearm.
In human anatomy, the ulnar nerve is a nerve that runs near the ulna bone.
Vandeleuria is a small genus of rodent from Asia with only three species.
Walking (also known as ambulation) is one of the main gaits of locomotion among legged animals.
The water opossum (Chironectes minimus), also locally known as the yapok, is a marsupial of the family Didelphidae.
A year is the orbital period of the Earth moving in its orbit around the Sun.
Zygosity is the degree of similarity of the alleles for a trait in an organism.