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Thunderstorm

Index Thunderstorm

A thunderstorm, also known as an electrical storm, lightning storm, or thundershower, is a storm characterized by the presence of lightning and its acoustic effect on the Earth's atmosphere, known as thunder. [1]

210 relations: Acoustics, Advection, Air-mass thunderstorm, American Geophysical Union, American Meteorological Society, American Red Cross, Ancient Greece, Antimatter, Anvil, Aristotle, Asia, Atmosphere of Earth, Atmospheric convection, Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Aurora, Nebraska, Autumn, Beach, Bogor, Boscastle, Bow echo, Burlington, Vermont, California, Car, Caracas, Carbonic acid, Chemical polarity, Cheyenne, Wyoming, Christianity, Cloud, Coalescence (physics), Cold front, Colorado, Colorado State University, Columbia, South Carolina, Condensation, Continuous gusts, Convective available potential energy, Convective storm detection, Cordless telephone, Corfu, Croatia, Crop, Cumulonimbus cloud, Cumulonimbus incus, Cumulus cloud, Darwin, Northern Territory, Debris, Density, Denver, Derecho, ..., Dew point, Distilled water, Doppler on Wheels, Dordrecht, Downburst, Dry thunderstorm, Dust, Electricity, Energy, Enhanced Fujita scale, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Equator, Europe, Extratropical cyclone, Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, Flash flood, Florida, Fujita scale, Funnel cloud, Gamma ray, God, Great Plains, Great Spirit, Hail, Heat burst, Hector (cloud), Hephaestus, Hinduism, Hot air balloon, Ice pellets, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indra, Inflow (meteorology), Intertropical Convergence Zone, Java, Jötunn, Joule, Jupiter, Kampala, Kilogram, Lake-effect snow, Landslide, Latent heat, Lifted index, Lightning, Lightning strike, Line echo wave pattern, Livestock, Low-pressure area, Manila, Martin Luther, Mesocyclone, Mesoscale convective complex, Mesoscale convective system, Mesovortices, Meteorology (Aristotle), Middle latitudes, Minneapolis, Mjölnir, Monsoon, Monsoon trough, Multicellular thunderstorm, Mumbai, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Weather Service, Nebraska, Neptune, Netherlands, Nitric oxide, Norsemen, North America, North American Monsoon, Northeastern United States, Northern Hemisphere, Orographic lift, Outflow boundary, PH, Phoenix, Arizona, Photogrammetry, Polar low, Polar regions of Earth, Positron, Precipitable water, Precipitation, Pulse-Doppler radar, Rain, Rainband, Rainforest, Rapid City, South Dakota, Riverton, Wyoming, Rocky Mountains, Roopkund, Sacramento Valley, San Joaquin Valley, Saturn, Severe thunderstorm warning, Severe thunderstorm watch, Severe weather, Singapore, Skyscraper, Soil, Solar irradiance, Southern United States, Spring (season), Squall line, Storm, Storm chasing, Storm Prediction Center, Stratosphere, Subtropics, Summer, Supercell, Syracuse University, Tellus A, Terrestrial gamma-ray flash, Thermal, Thor, Thunder, Thunderbird (mythology), Thundersnow, Thunderstorm, Tornado, Tornado warning, Tornado watch, Tororo, TORRO scale, Training (meteorology), Tropical cyclone, Tropics, Tropopause, Troposphere, Turbulence, Uganda, United States Department of Commerce, United States Environmental Protection Agency, United States rainfall climatology, University of Florida, University of Maryland, College Park, University of Wyoming, Uttarakhand, Venus, Vertical draft, VORTEX projects, Wake low, Water vapor, Waterspout, Weather and Forecasting, Weather balloon, Weather front, Weather Prediction Center, Weather radar, Weather station, West Coast of the United States, Wildfire, Wind, Wind shear, Wyoming, Zeus, 18th century, 1972 Black Hills flood. Expand index (160 more) »

Acoustics

Acoustics is the branch of physics that deals with the study of all mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids including topics such as vibration, sound, ultrasound and infrasound.

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Advection

In the field of physics, engineering, and earth sciences, advection is the transport of a substance by bulk motion.

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Air-mass thunderstorm

An air-mass thunderstorm, also called an "ordinary", "single cell", or "garden variety" thunderstorm, is a thunderstorm that is generally weak and usually not severe.

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American Geophysical Union

The American Geophysical Union (AGU) is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization of geophysicists, consisting of over 62,000 members from 144 countries.

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American Meteorological Society

The American Meteorological Society (AMS) is the premier scientific and professional organization in the United States promoting and disseminating information about the atmospheric, oceanic, and hydrologic sciences. Its mission is to advance the atmospheric and related sciences, technologies, applications, and services for the benefit of society.

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American Red Cross

The American Red Cross (ARC), also known as the American National Red Cross, is a humanitarian organization that provides emergency assistance, disaster relief, and disaster preparedness education in the United States.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

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Antimatter

In modern physics, antimatter is defined as a material composed of the antiparticle (or "partners") to the corresponding particles of ordinary matter.

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Anvil

An anvil is a metalworking tool consisting of a large block of metal (usually forged or cast steel), with a flattened top surface, upon which another object is struck (or "worked").

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Aristotle

Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.

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Asia

Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.

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Atmosphere of Earth

The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.

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Atmospheric convection

Atmospheric convection is the result of a parcel-environment instability, or temperature difference, layer in the atmosphere.

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Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

During the final stage of World War II, the United States detonated two nuclear weapons over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9, 1945, respectively.

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Aurora, Nebraska

Aurora is a city in Hamilton County, Nebraska, United States.

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Autumn

Autumn, also known as fall in American and Canadian English, is one of the four temperate seasons.

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Beach

A beach is a landform alongside a body of water which consists of loose particles.

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Bogor

Bogor (Sundanese: ᮘᮧᮌᮧᮁ, Dutch: Buitenzorg) is a city in the West Java province, Indonesia.

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Boscastle

Boscastle (Kastel Boterel) is a village and fishing port on the north coast of Cornwall, England, UK, in the civil parish of Forrabury and Minster (where the 2011 Census population was included).

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Bow echo

A bow echo is the characteristic radar return from a mesoscale convective system that is shaped like an archer’s bow.

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Burlington, Vermont

Burlington is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Vermont and the seat of Chittenden County.

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California

California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.

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Car

A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation.

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Caracas

Caracas, officially Santiago de León de Caracas, is the capital and centre of the Greater Caracas Area, and the largest city of Venezuela.

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Carbonic acid

Carbonic acid is a chemical compound with the chemical formula H2CO3 (equivalently OC(OH)2).

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Chemical polarity

In chemistry, polarity is a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole or multipole moment.

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Cheyenne, Wyoming

Cheyenne is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Wyoming and the county seat of Laramie County.

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Christianity

ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Cloud

In meteorology, a cloud is an aerosol consisting of a visible mass of minute liquid droplets, frozen crystals, or other particles suspended in the atmosphere of a planetary body.

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Coalescence (physics)

Coalescence is the process by which two or more droplets, bubbles or particles merge during contact to form a single daughter droplet, bubble or particle.

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Cold front

A cold front is the leading edge of a cooler mass of air, replacing at ground level a warmer mass of air, which lies within a fairly sharp surface trough of low pressure.

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Colorado

Colorado is a state of the United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains.

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Colorado State University

Colorado State University (also referred to as Colorado State, State, and CSU) is a public research university located in Fort Collins, in the U.S. state of Colorado.

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Columbia, South Carolina

Columbia is the capital and second largest city of the U.S. state of South Carolina, with a population estimate of 134,309 as of 2016.

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Condensation

Condensation is the change of the physical state of matter from gas phase into liquid phase, and is the reverse of vapourisation.

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Continuous gusts

Continuous gusts or stochastic gusts are winds that vary randomly in space and time.

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Convective available potential energy

In meteorology, convective available potential energy (CAPE), is the amount of energy a parcel of air would have if lifted a certain distance vertically through the atmosphere.

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Convective storm detection

Convective storm detection is the meteorological observation of deep, moist convection (DMC) and consists of detection, monitoring, and short-term prediction.

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Cordless telephone

A cordless telephone or portable telephone is a telephone in which the handset is portable and communicates with the body of the phone by radio, instead of being attached by a cord.

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Corfu

Corfu or Kerkyra (translit,; translit,; Corcyra; Corfù) is a Greek island in the Ionian Sea.

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Croatia

Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.

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Crop

A crop is a plant or animal product that can be grown and harvested extensively for profit or subsistence.

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Cumulonimbus cloud

Cumulonimbus, from the Latin cumulus ("heaped") and nimbus ("rainstorm"), is a dense, towering vertical cloud, forming from water vapor carried by powerful upward air currents.

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Cumulonimbus incus

A cumulonimbus incus (Latin incus, "anvil") also known as an anvil cloud is a cumulonimbus cloud which has reached the level of stratospheric stability and has formed the characteristic flat, anvil-top shape.

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Cumulus cloud

Cumulus clouds are clouds which have flat bases and are often described as "puffy", "cotton-like" or "fluffy" in appearance.

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Darwin, Northern Territory

Darwin is the capital city of the Northern Territory of Australia.

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Debris

Debris or débris is rubble, wreckage, ruins, litter and discarded garbage/refuse/trash, scattered remains of something destroyed, discarded, or as in geology, large rock fragments left by a melting glacier etc.

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Density

The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.

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Denver

Denver, officially the City and County of Denver, is the capital and most populous municipality of the U.S. state of Colorado.

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Derecho

A derecho (from derecho, "straight") is a widespread, long-lived, straight-line wind storm that is associated with a land-based, fast-moving group of severe thunderstorms.

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Dew point

The dew point is the temperature to which air must be cooled to become saturated with water vapor.

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Distilled water

Distilled water is water that has been boiled into steam and condensed back into liquid in a separate container.

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Doppler on Wheels

Doppler on Wheels (or DOW) is a fleet of X-band radar trucks maintained by the Center for Severe Weather Research (CSWR) in Boulder, Colorado, led by principal investigator Joshua Wurman, with the funding largely provided by the National Science Foundation (NSF).

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Dordrecht

Dordrecht, colloquially Dordt, historically in English named Dort, is a city and municipality in the Western Netherlands, located in the province of South Holland.

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Downburst

A downburst is a strong ground-level wind system that emanates from a point source above and blows radially, that is, in straight lines in all directions from the point of contact at ground level.

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Dry thunderstorm

A dry thunderstorm or heat storm, is a thunderstorm that produces thunder and lightning, but most or all of its precipitation evaporates before reaching the ground, and dry lightning is the term which is used to refer to lightning strikes occurring in this situation.

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Dust

Dust are fine particles of matter.

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Electricity

Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.

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Energy

In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.

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Enhanced Fujita scale

The Enhanced Fujita scale (EF-Scale) rates the intensity of tornadoes in the United States and Canada based on the damage they cause.

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Environment and Climate Change Canada

Environment and Climate Change Canada (or simply its former name, Environment Canada, or EC) (Environnement et Changement climatique Canada), legally incorporated as the Department of the Environment under the Department of the Environment Act (R.S., 1985, c. E-10), is the department of the Government of Canada with responsibility for coordinating environmental policies and programs as well as preserving and enhancing the natural environment and renewable resources.

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Equator

An equator of a rotating spheroid (such as a planet) is its zeroth circle of latitude (parallel).

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Europe

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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Extratropical cyclone

Extratropical cyclones, sometimes called mid-latitude cyclones or wave cyclones, are low-pressure areas which, along with the anticyclones of high-pressure areas, drive the weather over much of the Earth.

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Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope

The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (FGST), formerly called the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), is a space observatory being used to perform gamma-ray astronomy observations from low Earth orbit.

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Flash flood

A flash flood is a rapid flooding of geomorphic low-lying areas: washes, rivers, dry lakes and basins.

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Florida

Florida (Spanish for "land of flowers") is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States.

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Fujita scale

The Fujita scale (F-Scale), or Fujita–Pearson scale (FPP scale), is a scale for rating tornado intensity, based primarily on the damage tornadoes inflict on human-built structures and vegetation.

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Funnel cloud

A funnel cloud is a funnel-shaped cloud of condensed water droplets, associated with a rotating column of wind and extending from the base of a cloud (usually a cumulonimbus or towering cumulus cloud) but not reaching the ground or a water surface.

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Gamma ray

A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.

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God

In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and the principal object of faith.

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Great Plains

The Great Plains (sometimes simply "the Plains") is the broad expanse of flat land (a plain), much of it covered in prairie, steppe, and grassland, that lies west of the Mississippi River tallgrass prairie in the United States and east of the Rocky Mountains in the U.S. and Canada.

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Great Spirit

The Great Spirit, known as Wakan Tanka among the Sioux,Ostler, Jeffry.

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Hail

Hail is a form of solid precipitation.

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Heat burst

In meteorology, a heat burst is a rare atmospheric phenomenon characterized by gusty winds along with a rapid increase in temperature and decrease in dew point (moisture).

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Hector (cloud)

Hector is the name given to a cumulonimbus, or thundercloud, that forms regularly nearly every afternoon on the Tiwi Islands, Northern Territory, Australia, from approximately September to March each year.

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Hephaestus

Hephaestus (eight spellings; Ἥφαιστος Hēphaistos) is the Greek god of blacksmiths, metalworking, carpenters, craftsmen, artisans, sculptors, metallurgy, fire, and volcanoes.

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Hinduism

Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.

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Hot air balloon

A hot air balloon is a lighter-than-air aircraft consisting of a bag, called an envelope, which contains heated air.

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Ice pellets

Ice pellets are a form of precipitation consisting of small, translucent balls of ice.

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Indigenous peoples of the Americas

The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.

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Indra

(Sanskrit: इन्द्र), also known as Devendra, is a Vedic deity in Hinduism, a guardian deity in Buddhism, and the king of the highest heaven called Saudharmakalpa in Jainism.

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Inflow (meteorology)

Inflow is the flow of a fluid into a large collection of that fluid.

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Intertropical Convergence Zone

The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), known by sailors as the doldrums, is the area encircling Earth near the Equator, where the northeast and southeast trade winds converge.

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Java

Java (Indonesian: Jawa; Javanese: ꦗꦮ; Sundanese) is an island of Indonesia.

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Jötunn

In Norse mythology, a jötunn (plural jötnar) is a type of entity contrasted with gods and other figures, such as dwarfs and elves.

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Joule

The joule (symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.

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Jupiter

Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.

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Kampala

Kampala is the capital and largest city of Uganda.

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Kilogram

The kilogram or kilogramme (symbol: kg) is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI), and is defined as being equal to the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilogram (IPK, also known as "Le Grand K" or "Big K"), a cylinder of platinum-iridium alloy stored by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures at Saint-Cloud, France.

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Lake-effect snow

Lake-effect snow is produced during cooler atmospheric conditions when a cold air mass moves across long expanses of warmer lake water, warming the lower layer of air which picks up water vapor from the lake, rises up through the colder air above, freezes and is deposited on the leeward (downwind) shores.

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Landslide

The term landslide or, less frequently, landslip, refers to several forms of mass wasting that include a wide range of ground movements, such as rockfalls, deep-seated slope failures, mudflows and debris flows.

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Latent heat

Latent heat is thermal energy released or absorbed, by a body or a thermodynamic system, during a constant-temperature process — usually a first-order phase transition.

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Lifted index

The lifted index (LI) is the temperature difference between the environment Te(p) and an air parcel lifted adiabatically Tp(p) at a given pressure height in the troposphere (lowest layer where most weather occurs) of the atmosphere, usually 500 hPa (mb).

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Lightning

Lightning is a sudden electrostatic discharge that occurs typically during a thunderstorm.

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Lightning strike

A lightning strike or lightning bolt is an electric discharge between the atmosphere and an Earth-bound object.

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Line echo wave pattern

A line echo wave pattern (LEWP) is a weather radar formation in which a single line of thunderstorms presenting multiple bow echoes forms south (or equatorward) of a mesoscale low-pressure area with a rotating "head".

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Livestock

Livestock are domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce labor and commodities such as meat, eggs, milk, fur, leather, and wool.

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Low-pressure area

A low-pressure area, low, or depression, is a region on the topographic map where the atmospheric pressure is lower than that of surrounding locations.

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Manila

Manila (Maynilà, or), officially the City of Manila (Lungsod ng Maynilà), is the capital of the Philippines and the most densely populated city proper in the world.

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Martin Luther

Martin Luther, (10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German professor of theology, composer, priest, monk, and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation.

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Mesocyclone

A mesocyclone is a vortex of air within a convective storm.

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Mesoscale convective complex

A mesoscale convective complex (MCC) is a unique kind of mesoscale convective system which is defined by characteristics observed in infrared satellite imagery.

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Mesoscale convective system

A mesoscale convective system (MCS) is a complex of thunderstorms that becomes organized on a scale larger than the individual thunderstorms but smaller than extratropical cyclones, and normally persists for several hours or more.

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Mesovortices

Mesovortices are small scale rotational features found in convective storms, such as those found in bow echos, supercell thunderstorms, and the eyewall of tropical cyclones.

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Meteorology (Aristotle)

Meteorology (Greek: Μετεωρολογικά; Latin: Meteorologica or Meteora) is a treatise by Aristotle.

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Middle latitudes

The middle latitudes (also called the mid-latitudes, sometimes midlatitudes, or moderate latitudes) of Earth lie between 23°26'22" and 66°33'39" north, and between 23°26'22" and 66°33'39" south.

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Minneapolis

Minneapolis is the county seat of Hennepin County, and the larger of the Twin Cities, the 16th-largest metropolitan area in the United States.

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Mjölnir

In Norse mythology, Mjölnir (Mjǫllnir) is the hammer of Thor, the Norse god associated with thunder.

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Monsoon

Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.

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Monsoon trough

The monsoon trough is a portion of the Intertropical Convergence Zone,Bin Wang.

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Multicellular thunderstorm

A multicellular thunderstorm cluster is a thunderstorm that is composed of multiple cells, each being at a different stage in the life cycle of a thunderstorm.

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Mumbai

Mumbai (also known as Bombay, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra.

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National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; pronounced, like "Noah") is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.

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National Weather Service

The National Weather Service (NWS) is an agency of the United States Federal Government that is tasked with providing weather forecasts, warnings of hazardous weather, and other weather-related products to organizations and the public for the purposes of protection, safety, and general information.

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Nebraska

Nebraska is a state that lies in both the Great Plains and the Midwestern United States.

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Neptune

Neptune is the eighth and farthest known planet from the Sun in the Solar System.

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Netherlands

The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.

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Nitric oxide

Nitric oxide (nitrogen oxide or nitrogen monoxide) is a colorless gas with the formula NO.

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Norsemen

Norsemen are a group of Germanic people who inhabited Scandinavia and spoke what is now called the Old Norse language between 800 AD and c. 1300 AD.

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North America

North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.

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North American Monsoon

The North American monsoon, variously known as the Southwest monsoon, the Mexican monsoon, the New Mexican monsoon, or the Arizona monsoon, is a pattern of pronounced increase in thunderstorms and rainfall over large areas of the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico, typically occurring between July and mid September.

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Northeastern United States

The Northeastern United States, also referred to as the American Northeast or simply the Northeast, is a geographical region of the United States bordered to the north by Canada, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Southern United States, and to the west by the Midwestern United States.

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Northern Hemisphere

The Northern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is north of the Equator.

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Orographic lift

Orographic lift occurs when an air mass is forced from a low elevation to a higher elevation as it moves over rising terrain.

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Outflow boundary

An outflow boundary, also known as a gust front, is a storm-scale or mesoscale boundary separating thunderstorm-cooled air (outflow) from the surrounding air; similar in effect to a cold front, with passage marked by a wind shift and usually a drop in temperature and a related pressure jump.

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PH

In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.

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Phoenix, Arizona

Phoenix is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Arizona.

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Photogrammetry

Photogrammetry is the science of making measurements from photographs, especially for recovering the exact positions of surface points.

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Polar low

A polar low is a small-scale, short-lived atmospheric low pressure system (depression) that is found over the ocean areas poleward of the main polar front in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, as well as the Sea of Japan.

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Polar regions of Earth

The polar regions, also called the frigid zones, of Earth are the regions of the planet that surround its geographical poles (the North and South Poles), lying within the polar circles.

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Positron

The positron or antielectron is the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron.

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Precipitable water

Precipitable water is the depth of water in a column of the atmosphere, if all the water in that column were precipitated as rain.

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Precipitation

In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.

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Pulse-Doppler radar

A pulse-Doppler radar is a radar system that determines the range to a target using pulse-timing techniques, and uses the Doppler effect of the returned signal to determine the target object's velocity.

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Rain

Rain is liquid water in the form of droplets that have condensed from atmospheric water vapor and then becomes heavy enough to fall under gravity.

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Rainband

A rainband is a cloud and precipitation structure associated with an area of rainfall which is significantly elongated.

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Rainforest

Rainforests are forests characterized by high rainfall, with annual rainfall in the case of tropical rainforests between, and definitions varying by region for temperate rainforests.

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Rapid City, South Dakota

Rapid City (Mni Lúzahaŋ Otȟúŋwahe; "Swift Water City") is the second most populous city in South Dakota and the county seat of Pennington County.

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Riverton, Wyoming

Riverton is a city in Fremont County, Wyoming, United States.

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Rocky Mountains

The Rocky Mountains, also known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range in western North America.

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Roopkund

Roopkund (locally known as Mystery Lake, Skeletons Lake) is a high altitude glacial lake in the Uttarakhand state of India.

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Sacramento Valley

The Sacramento Valley is the area of the Central Valley of the U.S. state of California that lies north of the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta and is drained by the Sacramento River.

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San Joaquin Valley

The San Joaquin Valley is the area of the Central Valley of the U.S. state of California that lies south of the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta and is drained by the San Joaquin River.

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Saturn

Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter.

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Severe thunderstorm warning

A severe thunderstorm warning (SAME code: SVR) is an alert issued when trained storm spotters or a Doppler weather radar indicate that a thunderstorm is producing or will soon produce dangerously large hail or high winds, capable of causing significant damage.

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Severe thunderstorm watch

A Severe Thunderstorm Watch (SAME code: SVA) is issued when weather conditions are favorable for the development of severe thunderstorms.

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Severe weather

Severe weather refers to any dangerous meteorological phenomena with the potential to cause damage, serious social disruption, or loss of human life.

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Singapore

Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.

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Skyscraper

A skyscraper is a continuously habitable high-rise building that has over 40 floors and is taller than approximately.

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Soil

Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.

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Solar irradiance

Solar irradiance is the power per unit area received from the Sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range of the measuring instrument.

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Southern United States

The Southern United States, also known as the American South, Dixie, Dixieland, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America.

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Spring (season)

Spring is one of the four conventional temperate seasons, following winter and preceding summer.

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Squall line

A squall line (also known as a quasi-linear convective system or QLCS) is a line of thunderstorms forming along or ahead of a cold front.

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Storm

A storm is any disturbed state of an environment or in an astronomical body's atmosphere especially affecting its surface, and strongly implying severe weather.

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Storm chasing

Storm chasing is broadly defined as the pursuit of any severe weather condition, regardless of motive, which can be curiosity, adventure, scientific investigation, or for news or media coverage.

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Storm Prediction Center

The Storm Prediction Center (SPC) is a government agency that is part of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), operating under the control of the National Weather Service (NWS), which in turn is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of the United States Department of Commerce (DoC).

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Stratosphere

The stratosphere is the second major layer of Earth's atmosphere, just above the troposphere, and below the mesosphere.

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Subtropics

The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropics at latitude 23.5° (the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn) and temperate zones (normally referring to latitudes 35–66.5°) north and south of the Equator.

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Summer

Summer is the hottest of the four temperate seasons, falling after spring and before autumn.

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Supercell

A supercell is a thunderstorm characterized by the presence of a mesocyclone: a deep, persistently rotating updraft.

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Syracuse University

Syracuse University (commonly referred to as Syracuse, 'Cuse, or SU) is a private research university in Syracuse, New York, United States.

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Tellus A

Tellus Series A: Dynamic Meteorology and Oceanography is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that is published by Co-action Publishing on behalf of the International Meteorological Institute in Stockholm, Sweden.

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Terrestrial gamma-ray flash

A terrestrial gamma-ray flash (TGF) is a burst of gamma rays produced in Earth's atmosphere.

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Thermal

A thermal column (or thermal) is a column of rising air in the lower altitudes of Earth's atmosphere, a form of atmospheric updraft.

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Thor

In Norse mythology, Thor (from Þórr) is the hammer-wielding god of thunder, lightning, storms, oak trees, strength, the protection of mankind, in addition to hallowing, and fertility.

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Thunder

Thunder is the sound caused by lightning.

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Thunderbird (mythology)

The thunderbird is a legendary creature in certain North American indigenous peoples' history and culture.

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Thundersnow

Thundersnow, also known as a winter thunderstorm or a thundersnowstorm, is an unusual kind of thunderstorm with snow falling as the primary precipitation instead of rain.

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Thunderstorm

A thunderstorm, also known as an electrical storm, lightning storm, or thundershower, is a storm characterized by the presence of lightning and its acoustic effect on the Earth's atmosphere, known as thunder.

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Tornado

A tornado is a rapidly rotating column of air that is in contact with both the surface of the Earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud.

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Tornado warning

A tornado warning (SAME code: TOR) is an alert issued by national weather forecasting agencies to warn the public that severe thunderstorms with tornadoes are imminent or occurring.

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Tornado watch

A tornado watch (SAME code: TOA) is issued when weather conditions are favorable for the development of severe thunderstorms called a supercell that are capable of producing tornadoes.

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Tororo

Tororo is a town in the Eastern Region of Uganda.

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TORRO scale

The TORRO tornado intensity scale (or T-Scale) is a scale measuring tornado intensity between T0 and T11.

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Training (meteorology)

In meteorology, training denotes repeated areas of rain, typically associated with thunderstorms, that move over the same region in a relatively short period of time.

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Tropical cyclone

A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain.

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Tropics

The tropics are a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator.

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Tropopause

The tropopause is the boundary in the Earth's atmosphere between the troposphere and the stratosphere.

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Troposphere

The troposphere is the lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere, and is also where nearly all weather conditions take place.

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Turbulence

In fluid dynamics, turbulence or turbulent flow is any pattern of fluid motion characterized by chaotic changes in pressure and flow velocity.

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Uganda

Uganda, officially the Republic of Uganda (Jamhuri ya Uganda), is a landlocked country in East Africa.

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United States Department of Commerce

The United States Department of Commerce is the Cabinet department of the United States government concerned with promoting economic growth.

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United States Environmental Protection Agency

The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.

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United States rainfall climatology

The characteristics of United States rainfall climatology differ significantly across the United States and those under United States sovereignty.

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University of Florida

The University of Florida (commonly referred to as Florida or UF) is an American public land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant research university on a campus in Gainesville, Florida.

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University of Maryland, College Park

The University of Maryland, College Park (commonly referred to as the University of Maryland, UMD, or simply Maryland) is a public research university located in the city of College Park in Prince George's County, Maryland, approximately from the northeast border of Washington, D.C. Founded in 1856, the university is the flagship institution of the University System of Maryland.

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University of Wyoming

The University of Wyoming is a land-grant university located in Laramie, Wyoming, situated on Wyoming's high Laramie Plains, at an elevation of 7,220 feet (2194 m), between the Laramie and Snowy Range mountains.

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Uttarakhand

Uttarakhand, officially the State of Uttarakhand (Uttarākhaṇḍ Rājya), formerly known as Uttaranchal, is a state in the northern part of India.

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Venus

Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.

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Vertical draft

An updraft is a small‐scale current of rising air, often within a cloud.

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VORTEX projects

The Verification of the Origins of Rotation in Tornadoes Experiment or VORTEX are field projects that study tornadoes.

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Wake low

A wake low, or wake depression, is a mesoscale low-pressure area which trails the mesoscale high following a squall line.

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Water vapor

No description.

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Waterspout

A waterspout is an intense columnar vortex (usually appearing as a funnel-shaped cloud) that occurs over a body of water.

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Weather and Forecasting

Weather and Forecasting is a scientific journal published by the American Meteorological Society.

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Weather balloon

A weather or sounding balloon is a balloon (specifically a type of high-altitude balloon) that carries instruments aloft to send back information on atmospheric pressure, temperature, humidity and wind speed by means of a small, expendable measuring device called a radiosonde.

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Weather front

A weather front is a boundary separating two masses of air of different densities, and is the principal cause of meteorological phenomena outside the tropics.

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Weather Prediction Center

The Weather Prediction Center (WPC), located in College Park, Maryland, is one of nine service centers under the umbrella of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), a part of the National Weather Service (NWS), which in turn is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of the U.S. government.

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Weather radar

Weather radar, also called weather surveillance radar (WSR) and Doppler weather radar, is a type of radar used to locate precipitation, calculate its motion, and estimate its type (rain, snow, hail etc.). Modern weather radars are mostly pulse-Doppler radars, capable of detecting the motion of rain droplets in addition to the intensity of the precipitation.

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Weather station

A weather station is a facility, either on land or sea, with instruments and equipment for measuring atmospheric conditions to provide information for weather forecasts and to study the weather and climate.

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West Coast of the United States

The West Coast or Pacific Coast is the coastline along which the contiguous Western United States meets the North Pacific Ocean.

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Wildfire

A wildfire or wildland fire is a fire in an area of combustible vegetation that occurs in the countryside or rural area.

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Wind

Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale.

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Wind shear

Wind shear (or windshear), sometimes referred to as wind gradient, is a difference in wind speed and/or direction over a relatively short distance in the atmosphere.

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Wyoming

Wyoming is a state in the mountain region of the western United States.

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Zeus

Zeus (Ζεύς, Zeús) is the sky and thunder god in ancient Greek religion, who rules as king of the gods of Mount Olympus.

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18th century

The 18th century lasted from January 1, 1701 to December 31, 1800 in the Gregorian calendar.

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1972 Black Hills flood

The Black Hills Flood of 1972, also known as the Rapid City Flood, was the most detrimental flood in South Dakota history, and one of the deadliest floods in U.S. history.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thunderstorm

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