321 relations: Abitur, Administrative divisions of East Germany, Afghanistan, Alliance 90/The Greens, Altenburg, Altenburger Land, Anabaptism, Arnstadt, Artern, Austria, Autobahn, Bad Salzungen, Bad Sulza, Battle of Jena–Auerstedt, Bauhaus, Bauhaus University, Weimar, Bavaria, Berlin, Berlin Brandenburg Airport, Biomass, Birth rate, Bischofferode, BMW, Bodo Ramelow, Brandenburg, Buchenwald concentration camp, Bundesautobahn 38, Bundesautobahn 4, Bundesautobahn 71, Bundesautobahn 73, Bundesautobahn 9, Bundesstraße, Carl Zeiss, Carl Zeiss AG, Catholic Church, Centroid, Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord, Chemnitz, Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland, Coat of arms of Hesse, Coat of arms of Thuringia, Cogeneration, Confederation of the Rhine, Congress of Vienna, County, Dün, Districts of Germany, Dresden, Duchy of Thuringia, East Germany, ..., Eichsfeld, Eichsfeld (district), Eisenach, Elbe, Electorate of Mainz, Electorate of Saxony, Erfurt, Erfurt Cathedral, Erfurt Hauptbahnhof, Erfurt–Leipzig/Halle high-speed railway, Erfurt–Weimar Airport, Ernestine duchies, Ernst Abbe, Ernst Haeckel, European Union, Evangelical Church in Central Germany, Evangelical Church in Germany, Evangelical Church of Hesse Electorate-Waldeck, Fachhochschule, Fagus sylvatica, Finne (hills), Flag of Germany, Flag of Hesse, Flag of Thuringia, Franconian Forest, Frankfurt, Frankfurt Airport, Franks, Franz Liszt, Free church, Friedrich Fröbel, Friedrich Nietzsche, Friedrich Schiller, Galicia (Eastern Europe), Göttingen, Geisa, Georg Böhm, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Gera, German Confederation, German Empire, German mediatization, German Peasants' War, German reunification, Germany, Goldene Aue, Goldisthal Pumped Storage Station, Gotha, Gotha (district), Gotha–Leinefelde railway, Gottlob Frege, Grabfeld, Greiz (district), Großer Beerberg, Großheringen–Saalfeld railway, Gymnasium (Germany), Hainich, Hainich National Park, Hainleite, Halle (Saale), Halle–Bebra railway, Halle–Hann. 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Abitur is a qualification granted by university-preparatory schools in Germany, Lithuania, and Estonia.
The administrative divisions of the German Democratic Republic (commonly referred to as East Germany) were constituted in two different forms during the country's history.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Alliance 90/The Greens, often simply Greens (Bündnis 90/Die Grünen or Grüne), is a green political party in Germany that was formed from the merger of the German Green Party (founded in West Germany in 1980 and merged with the East Greens in 1990) and Alliance 90 (founded during the Revolution of 1989–1990 in East Germany) in 1993.
Altenburg is a city in Thuringia, Germany, located south of Leipzig, west of Dresden and east of Erfurt.
Altenburger Land is a district in Thuringia, Germany.
Anabaptism (from Neo-Latin anabaptista, from the Greek ἀναβαπτισμός: ἀνά- "re-" and βαπτισμός "baptism", Täufer, earlier also WiedertäuferSince the middle of the 20th century, the German-speaking world no longer uses the term "Wiedertäufer" (translation: "Re-baptizers"), considering it biased. The term Täufer (translation: "Baptizers") is now used, which is considered more impartial. From the perspective of their persecutors, the "Baptizers" baptized for the second time those "who as infants had already been baptized". The denigrative term Anabaptist signifies rebaptizing and is considered a polemical term, so it has been dropped from use in modern German. However, in the English-speaking world, it is still used to distinguish the Baptizers more clearly from the Baptists, a Protestant sect that developed later in England. Cf. their self-designation as "Brethren in Christ" or "Church of God":.) is a Christian movement which traces its origins to the Radical Reformation.
Arnstadt is a town in Ilm-Kreis, Thuringia, Germany, on the river Gera about 20 kilometres south of Erfurt, the capital of Thuringia.
Artern is a town in the Kyffhäuserkreis district, Thuringia, Germany.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
The Autobahn (plural) is the federal controlled-access highway system in Germany.
Bad Salzungen is a town in Thuringia, Germany.
Bad Sulza is a town in the Weimarer Land district, in Thuringia, Germany.
The twin battles of Jena and Auerstedt (older name: Auerstädt) were fought on 14 October 1806 on the plateau west of the River Saale in today's Germany, between the forces of Napoleon I of France and Frederick William III of Prussia.
Staatliches Bauhaus, commonly known simply as Bauhaus, was a German art school operational from 1919 to 1933 that combined crafts and the fine arts, and was famous for the approach to design that it publicized and taught.
The Bauhaus-Universität Weimar is a university located in Weimar, Germany and specializes in the artistic and technical fields.
Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
Berlin Brandenburg Airport (Flughafen Berlin Brandenburg „Willy Brandt") is an international airport under construction near the capital of Germany, Berlin.
Biomass is an industry term for getting energy by burning wood, and other organic matter.
The birth rate (technically, births/population rate) is the total number of live births per 1,000 in a population in a year or period.
Bischofferode is a village and a former municipality in the Eichsfeld district, in Thuringia, Germany.
BMW (Bayerische Motoren Werke in German, or Bavarian Motor Works in English) is a German multinational company which currently produces luxury automobiles and motorcycles, and also produced aircraft engines until 1945.
Bodo Ramelow (born 16 February 1956 in Osterholz-Scharmbeck) is a German politician of the Left Party who has been Minister President of Thuringia since 2014.
Brandenburg (Brannenborg, Lower Sorbian: Bramborska, Braniborsko) is one of the sixteen federated states of Germany.
Buchenwald concentration camp (German: Konzentrationslager (KZ) Buchenwald,; literally, in English: beech forest) was a German Nazi concentration camp established on Ettersberg hill near Weimar, Germany, in July 1937, one of the first and the largest of the concentration camps on German soil, following Dachau's opening just over four years earlier.
is an autobahn in Germany.
is an autobahn that crosses Germany in a west-east direction.
is an Autobahn in Germany.
is a motorway in Germany.
is an autobahn in Germany, connecting Berlin and Munich via Leipzig and Nuremberg.
Bundesstraße (German for "federal highway"), abbreviated B, is the denotation for German and Austrian national highways.
Carl Zeiss (11 September 1816 – 3 December 1888) was a German scientific instrument maker, optician and businessman who founded the workshop of Carl Zeiss in 1846 which is still in business today as Carl Zeiss AG.
Carl Zeiss, branded as ZEISS, is a German manufacturer of optical systems, industrial measurements and medical devices, founded in Jena, Germany in 1846 by optician Carl Zeiss.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
In mathematics and physics, the centroid or geometric center of a plane figure is the arithmetic mean position of all the points in the shape.
Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord (2 February 1754 – 17 May 1838), 1st Prince of Benevento, then 1st Prince of Talleyrand, was a laicized French bishop, politician, and diplomat.
Chemnitz, known from 1953 to 1990 as Karl-Marx-Stadt, is the third-largest city in the Free State of Saxony, Germany.
Christoph Wilhelm Friedrich Hufeland (12 August 1762, Langensalza – 25 August 1836, Berlin) was a German physician.
The coat of arms of the German state of Hesse was introduced in 1949.
The coat of arms German state Thuringia was introduced in 1990.
Cogeneration or combined heat and power (CHP) is the use of a heat engine or power station to generate electricity and useful heat at the same time.
The Confederation of the Rhine (Rheinbund; French: officially États confédérés du Rhin, but in practice Confédération du Rhin) was a confederation of client states of the First French Empire.
The Congress of Vienna (Wiener Kongress) also called Vienna Congress, was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814.
A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposes,Chambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations.
The Dün is a hill chain in northwestern Thuringia, Germany.
In most German states, the primary administrative subdivision is a Landkreis ("rural district"); the exceptions are the states of North Rhine-Westphalia and Schleswig-Holstein, where the term is simply Kreis.
Dresden (Upper and Lower Sorbian: Drježdźany, Drážďany, Drezno) is the capital city and, after Leipzig, the second-largest city of the Free State of Saxony in Germany.
The Duchy of Thuringia was an eastern frontier march of the Merovingian kingdom of Austrasia, established about 631 by King Dagobert I after his troops had been defeated by the forces of the Slavic confederation of Samo at the Battle of Wogastisburg.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
The Eichsfeld (English: Oaksfield) is a historical region in the southeast of Lower Saxony (which is called "Untereichsfeld".
Eichsfeld is a district in Thuringia, Germany, and part of the historical region of Eichsfeld.
Eisenach is a town in Thuringia, Germany with 42,000 inhabitants, located west of Erfurt, southeast of Kassel and northeast of Frankfurt.
The Elbe (Elbe; Low German: Elv) is one of the major rivers of Central Europe.
The Electorate of Mainz (Kurfürstentum Mainz or Kurmainz, Electoratus Moguntinus), also known in English by its French name, Mayence, was among most prestigious and the most influential states of the Holy Roman Empire from its creation to the dissolution of the HRE in the early years of the 19th century.
The Electorate of Saxony (Kurfürstentum Sachsen, also Kursachsen) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire established when Emperor Charles IV raised the Ascanian duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg to the status of an Electorate by the Golden Bull of 1356.
Erfurt is the capital and largest city in the state of Thuringia, central Germany.
Erfurt Cathedral (Erfurter Dom, officially Hohe Domkirche St. Marien zu Erfurt, English: Cathedral Church of St Mary at Erfurt), also known as St Mary's Cathedral, is the largest and oldest church building in the Thuringian city of Erfurt, central Germany.
Erfurt Hauptbahnhof (Erfurt Hbf) or Erfurt Central Station is the central railway station at Erfurt in Germany.
The Erfurt–Leipzig/ Halle high-speed railway is a 123 km-long German high-speed line between Erfurt and Leipzig and Halle.
Erfurt–Weimar Airport (Flughafen Erfurt–Weimar, formerly Erfurt Airport) serves Erfurt, the capital of the German state of Thuringia, and the nearby city of Weimar, both of which form the largest part of the state's central metropolitan area.
The Ernestine duchies, also known as the Saxon duchies (although the Albertine appanage duchies of Weissenfels, Merseburg and Zeitz were also "Saxon duchies" and adjacent to several Ernestine ones), were a changing number of small states that were largely located in the present-day German state of Thuringia and governed by dukes of the Ernestine line of the House of Wettin.
Ernst Karl Abbe HonFRMS (23 January 1840 – 14 January 1905) was a German physicist, optical scientist, entrepreneur, and social reformer.
Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel (16 February 1834 – 9 August 1919) was a German biologist, naturalist, philosopher, physician, professor, marine biologist, and artist who discovered, described and named thousands of new species, mapped a genealogical tree relating all life forms, and coined many terms in biology, including anthropogeny, ecology, phylum, phylogeny, and Protista. Haeckel promoted and popularised Charles Darwin's work in Germany and developed the influential but no longer widely held recapitulation theory ("ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny") claiming that an individual organism's biological development, or ontogeny, parallels and summarises its species' evolutionary development, or phylogeny.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The Evangelical Church in Central Germany (German:Evangelische Kirche in Mitteldeutschland) is a United church body covering most of the German states of Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia and some adjacent areas in Brandenburg and Saxony.
The Evangelical Church in Germany (Evangelische Kirche in Deutschland, abbreviated EKD) is a federation of twenty Lutheran, Reformed (Calvinist) and United (Prussian Union) Protestant regional churches and denominations in Germany, which collectively encompasses the vast majority of Protestants in that country.
The Evangelical Church of Hesse Electorate-Waldeck (Evangelische Kirche von Kurhessen-Waldeck; EKKW) is a United Protestant church body in former Hesse-Cassel and the Waldeck part of the former Free State of Waldeck-Pyrmont.
A Fachhochschule (plural Fachhochschulen), abbreviated FH, or University of Applied Sciences (UAS) is a German tertiary education institution, specializing in topical areas (e.g. engineering, technology or business).
Fagus sylvatica, the European beech or common beech, is a deciduous tree belonging to the beech family Fagaceae.
The Finne is a ridge of hills in the German states of Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia up to and 23 km long.
The flag of Germany or German Flag (Flagge Deutschlands) is a tricolour consisting of three equal horizontal bands displaying the national colours of Germany: black, red, and gold (Schwarz-Rot-Gold).
The civil flag of Hesse consists of a bicolor of a red top and a bottom white stripe, in the proportion 3:5.
Both the civil and state flag of the German state of Thuringia feature a bicolour of white over red.
View to Döbraberg The Franconian Forest (Frankenwald), is a mid-altitude mountain range in Northern Bavaria, Germany.
Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.
Frankfurt Airport (Flughafen Frankfurt am Main, also known as Rhein-Main-Flughafen) is a major international airport located in Frankfurt, the fifth-largest city of Germany and one of the world's leading financial centres.
The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.
Franz Liszt (Liszt Ferencz, in modern usage Liszt Ferenc;Liszt's Hungarian passport spelt his given name as "Ferencz". An orthographic reform of the Hungarian language in 1922 (which was 36 years after Liszt's death) changed the letter "cz" to simply "c" in all words except surnames; this has led to Liszt's given name being rendered in modern Hungarian usage as "Ferenc". From 1859 to 1867 he was officially Franz Ritter von Liszt; he was created a Ritter (knight) by Emperor Francis Joseph I in 1859, but never used this title of nobility in public. The title was necessary to marry the Princess Carolyne zu Sayn-Wittgenstein without her losing her privileges, but after the marriage fell through, Liszt transferred the title to his uncle Eduard in 1867. Eduard's son was Franz von Liszt. 22 October 181131 July 1886) was a prolific 19th-century Hungarian composer, virtuoso pianist, conductor, music teacher, arranger, organist, philanthropist, author, nationalist and a Franciscan tertiary during the Romantic era.
A "free church" is a Christian denomination or independent church that is intrinsically separate from government (as opposed to a theocracy, or an "established" or state church).
Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel or Froebel (21 April 1782 – 21 June 1852) was a German pedagogue, a student of Pestalozzi who laid the foundation for modern education based on the recognition that children have unique needs and capabilities.
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist and a Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.
Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (10 November 17599 May 1805) was a German poet, philosopher, physician, historian, and playwright.
Galicia (Ukrainian and Галичина, Halyčyna; Galicja; Czech and Halič; Galizien; Galícia/Kaliz/Gácsország/Halics; Galiția/Halici; Галиция, Galicija; גאַליציע Galitsiye) is a historical and geographic region in Central Europe once a small Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia and later a crown land of Austria-Hungary, the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, that straddled the modern-day border between Poland and Ukraine.
Göttingen (Low German: Chöttingen) is a university city in Lower Saxony, Germany.
Geisa is a town in the Wartburgkreis district, in Thuringia, Germany.
Georg Böhm (2 September 1661 – 18 May 1733) was a German Baroque organist and composer.
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and the most important figure of German idealism.
Gera is the third-largest city in Thuringia, Germany, with 96,000 inhabitants, located south of Leipzig, east of Erfurt and west of Dresden.
The German Confederation (Deutscher Bund) was an association of 39 German-speaking states in Central Europe, created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to coordinate the economies of separate German-speaking countries and to replace the former Holy Roman Empire, which had been dissolved in 1806.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
German mediatization (deutsche Mediatisierung) was the major territorial restructuring that took place between 1802 and 1814 in Germany and the surrounding region by means of the mass mediatization and secularization of a large number of Imperial Estates.
The German Peasants' War, Great Peasants' War or Great Peasants' Revolt (Deutscher Bauernkrieg) was a widespread popular revolt in some German-speaking areas in Central Europe from 1524 to 1525.
The German reunification (Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) was the process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic (GDR, colloquially East Germany; German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik/DDR) became part of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, colloquially West Germany; German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland/BRD) to form the reunited nation of Germany, and when Berlin reunited into a single city, as provided by its then Grundgesetz (constitution) Article 23.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The Goldene Aue (German: "golden shire") is a valley in eastern Germany, in the states Thuringia and Saxony-Anhalt.
The Goldisthal Pumped Storage Station is a pumped-storage power station in the Thüringer Mountains at the upper run of the river Schwarza in Goldisthal, Germany.
Gotha is the fifth-largest city in Thuringia, Germany, located west of Erfurt and east of Eisenach with a population of 44,000.
Gotha (German: Landkreis Gotha) is a Kreis (district) in the middle of Thuringia, Germany.
The Gotha–Leinefelde railway connects Gotha and Leinefelde in the German state of Thuringia.
Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege (8 November 1848 – 26 July 1925) was a German philosopher, logician, and mathematician.
The Grabfeld is a region in Germany, on the border between Bavaria and Thuringia.
Greiz is a Kreis (district) in the east of Thuringia, Germany.
The Großer Beerberg is a mountain located in the Thuringian Forest, Germany, and the highest point in the state of Thuringia.
The Großheringen–Saalfeld railway, also known as the Saalbahn ("Saale Railway"), is a 153 kilometre-long double-track main line in the German state of Thuringia.
Gymnasium (German plural: Gymnasien), in the German education system, is the most advanced of the three types of German secondary schools, the others being Realschule and Hauptschule. Gymnasium strongly emphasizes academic learning, comparable to the British grammar school system or with prep schools in the United States.
Hainich is a forested hill chain in the state of Thuringia in Germany, between the towns of Eisenach, Mühlhausen and Bad Langensalza.
Hainich National Park (Nationalpark Hainich), founded on December 31, 1997, is the 13th national park in Germany and the only one in Thuringia.
The Hainleite is a Muschelkalk ridge of hills up to in northern Thuringia, Germany.
Halle (Saale) is a city in the southern part of the German state Saxony-Anhalt.
The Halle–Bebra railway, also known in German as the Thüringer Bahn ("Thuringian Railway"), is a 210 kilometre-long railway line from Halle (Saale) via Erfurt and Gerstungen to Bebra, mainly in Thuringia.
The Harz is a Mittelgebirge that has the highest elevations in Northern Germany and its rugged terrain extends across parts of Lower Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, and Thuringia.
A Hauptschule ("general school") is a secondary school in Germany, starting after four years of elementary schooling, which offers Lower Secondary Education (Level 2) according to the International Standard Classification of Education.
Heilbad Heiligenstadt is a spa town in Thuringia, Germany.
The Helme is river in central Germany that is about long and which forms a left-hand, western tributary of the Unstrut in the states of Thuringia and Saxony-Anhalt.
Henry Clemens Van de Velde (3 April 1863 – 25 October 1957) was a Belgian painter, architect and interior designer.
Herbert Kroemer (born August 25, 1928), a professor of electrical and computer engineering at the University of California, Santa Barbara, received his Ph.D. in theoretical physics in 1952 from the University of Göttingen, Germany, with a dissertation on hot electron effects in the then-new transistor, setting the stage for a career in research on the physics of semiconductor devices.
Hermsdorf is a town in the Saale-Holzland district of the state of Thuringia in eastern Germany.
The Hermunduri, Hermanduri, Hermunduli, Hermonduri, or Hermonduli were an ancient Germanic tribe, who occupied an area near the Elbe river, around what is now Thuringia, Bohemia, Saxony (in East Germany), and Franconia in northern Bavaria, from the first to the third century.
Hesse or Hessia (Hessen, Hessian dialect: Hesse), officially the State of Hesse (German: Land Hessen) is a federal state (''Land'') of the Federal Republic of Germany, with just over six million inhabitants.
Hiking is the preferred term, in Canada and the United States, for a long, vigorous walk, usually on trails (footpaths), in the countryside, while the word walking is used for shorter, particularly urban walks.
Hildburghausen is a district in Thuringia, Germany.
The University of Music FRANZ LISZT Weimar (in German: Hochschule für Musik Franz Liszt Weimar) is an institution of music in Weimar, Germany.
Hof is a town located on the banks of the Saale in the northeastern corner of the German state of Bavaria, in the Franconian region, at the Czech border and the forested Fichtelgebirge and Frankenwald upland regions.
The Hohe Schrecke is a ridge of hills in central Germany.
Hohenkirchen is a municipality in the north of district Nordwestmecklenburg in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (Germany).
The House of Wettin is a dynasty of German counts, dukes, prince-electors and kings that once ruled territories in the present-day German states of Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia.
The Huns were a nomadic people who lived in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Eastern Europe, between the 4th and 6th century AD.
Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower.
The Ilm is a river long in Thuringia, Germany.
Ilm-Kreis is a district in Thuringia, Germany.
Ilmenau is a town in Thuringia, Germany.
Intercity is the second-highest train classification in Germany, after the ICE.
The Intercity-Express (written as InterCityExpress in Austria, Denmark, Switzerland and, formerly, in Germany) or ICE is a system of high-speed trains predominantly running in Germany and its surrounding countries.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
Jean Arp or Hans Arp (16 September 1886 – 7 June 1966) was a German-French sculptor, painter, poet, and abstract artist in other media such as torn and pasted paper.
Jena is a German university city and the second largest city in Thuringia.
As an integrated photonics group, Jenoptik divides its activities into three segments: Optics & Life Science, Mobility and Defense & Civil Systems.
Johann Gottfried (after 1802, von) Herder (25 August 174418 December 1803) was a German philosopher, theologian, poet, and literary critic.
Johann Sebastian Bach (28 July 1750) was a composer and musician of the Baroque period, born in the Duchy of Saxe-Eisenach.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman.
Johannes Brahms (7 May 1833 – 3 April 1897) was a German composer and pianist of the Romantic period.
Jorge Semprún Maura (10 December 1923 – 7 June 2011) was a Spanish writer and politician who lived in France most of his life and wrote primarily in French.
K+S AG (formerly Kali und Salz GmbH) is a German chemical company headquartered in Kassel.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
Kassel (spelled Cassel until 1928) is a city located at the Fulda River in northern Hesse, Germany.
Kindergarten (from German, literally meaning 'garden for the children') is a preschool educational approach based on playing, singing, practical activities such as drawing, and social interaction as part of the transition from home to school.
The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.
The Kingdom of Saxony (Königreich Sachsen), lasting between 1806 and 1918, was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in Napoleonic through post-Napoleonic Germany.
Kosovo (Kosova or Kosovë; Косово) is a partially recognised state and disputed territory in Southeastern Europe that declared independence from Serbia in February 2008 as the Republic of Kosovo (Republika e Kosovës; Република Косово / Republika Kosovo).
The Kyffhäuser, sometimes also referred to as Kyffhäusergebirge, is a hill range in Central Germany, located on the border of the state of Thuringia with Saxony-Anhalt, southeast of the Harz mountains.
The Kyffhäuserkreis is a district in the northern part of Thuringia, Germany.
Landgrave (landgraaf, Landgraf; lantgreve, landgrave; comes magnus, comes patriae, comes provinciae, comes terrae, comes principalis, lantgravius) was a noble title used in the Holy Roman Empire, and later on in its former territories.
The Landtag of Thuringia is the parliament of the German federal state of Thuringia.
The German expression Landwirtschaftliche Produktionsgenossenschaft (English: Agricultural Production Cooperative), or — more commonly — its acronym LPG was the official designation for large, collectivised farms in East Germany, corresponding to Soviet kolkhoz.
André Léon Blum (9 April 1872 – 30 March 1950) was a French politician, identified with the moderate left, and three times Prime Minister of France.
The Leibis-Lichte Dam (Talsperre Leibis –Lichte) is a dam in the German state of Thuringia in the Thuringian Highland.
The Leine (Old Saxon Lagina) is a river in Thuringia and Lower Saxony, Germany.
Leinefelde-Worbis is a town in the district of Eichsfeld, in northwestern Thuringia, Germany.
Leipzig is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany.
Leipzig–Altenburg Airport; (known as Altenburg–Nobitz Airport until February 2008) is a German regional airport in Nobitz, southeast of Altenburg and south of Leipzig in the state of Thuringia.
The Leipzig–Hof railway is a two-track main line in the German states of Saxony, Thuringia and Bavaria, originally built and operated by the Saxon-Bavarian Railway Company.
Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, is a soft, brown, combustible, sedimentary rock formed from naturally compressed peat.
The Loquitz is a river in Bavaria and Thuringia, Germany.
Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen, Neddersassen) is a German state (Land) situated in northwestern Germany.
Lucas Cranach the Elder (Lucas Cranach der Ältere, c. 1472 – 16 October 1553) was a German Renaissance painter and printmaker in woodcut and engraving.
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (born Maria Ludwig Michael Mies; March 27, 1886 – August 17, 1969) was a German-American architect.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
The Lutherhaus in Eisenach is one of the oldest surviving half-timbered houses in Thuringia.
Lyonel Charles Feininger (July 17, 1871January 13, 1956) was a German-American painter, and a leading exponent of Expressionism.
Magdeburg (Low Saxon: Meideborg) is the capital city and the second largest city of the state of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.
The Main (is a river in Germany. With a length of (including its 52 km long source river White Main), it is the longest right tributary of the Rhine. It is also the longest river lying entirely in Germany (if the Weser and the Werra are considered as two separate rivers; together they are longer). The largest cities along the Main are Frankfurt am Main and Würzburg.
The Margravate of Meissen (Markgrafschaft Meißen) was a medieval principality in the area of the modern German state of Saxony.
Martin Luther, (10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German professor of theology, composer, priest, monk, and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation.
Maximilian Karl Emil "Max" Weber (21 April 1864 – 14 June 1920) was a German sociologist, philosopher, jurist, and political economist.
Mühlhausen is a city in the north-west of Thuringia, Germany, north of Niederdorla, the country's geographical centre, north-west of Erfurt, east of Kassel and south-east of Göttingen.
Meiningen is a town in the southern part of the state of Thuringia, Germany.
Eckhart von Hochheim (–), commonly known as Meister Eckhart or Eckehart, was a German theologian, philosopher and mystic, born near Gotha, in the Landgraviate of Thuringia (now central Germany) in the Holy Roman Empire.
Meuselwitz is a town in the Altenburger Land district, in Thuringia, Germany.
Content in this edit is translated from the existing German Wikipedia article at:de:Michael Roth (Kybernetiker); see its history for attribution. Michael Roth (born June 18, 1936 in Lomnička) is a German engineer and professor of automation, specializing in microprocessor technology, computer science and sociology as well as philosophy of science.
The Migration Period was a period during the decline of the Roman Empire around the 4th to 6th centuries AD in which there were widespread migrations of peoples within or into Europe, mostly into Roman territory, notably the Germanic tribes and the Huns.
Montenegro (Montenegrin: Црна Гора / Crna Gora, meaning "Black Mountain") is a sovereign state in Southeastern Europe.
Munich (München; Minga) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps.
Munich Airport, Flughafen München, is a major international airport near Munich, the capital of Bavaria.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Neudietendorf–Ritschenhausen railway connects Neudietendorf and Ritschenhausen in the German state of Thuringia.
Nordhausen is a city in Thuringia, Germany.
Nordhausen is a Kreis (district) in the north of Thuringia, Germany.
The Nordhausen University of Applied Sciences (Fachhochschule Nordhausen) is located in Nordhausen, Thuringia, Germany.
Nuremberg (Nürnberg) is a city on the river Pegnitz and on the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia, about north of Munich.
The Nuremberg–Erfurt high-speed railway is a 190 km-long German high-speed railway under construction, between Nuremberg and Erfurt. The line is listed in the Germany's federal transport plan as Verkehrsprojekt Deutsche Einheit Nr. ("German Unity transport project no") 8.1 and is a section of the high-speed route between Berlin and Munich and a section of the line connecting Italy and Scandinavia in the European Union's Trans-European Rail network. It consists of an upgraded line between Nuremberg and Ebensfeld and a new line between Ebensfeld and Erfurt. The journey time between Erfurt and Nuremberg will be reduced to approximately one hour and 20 minutes after completion. The planning began in 1991 and construction started in April 1996. Three years later construction was stopped by the new SPD-Green coalition government formed after the 1998 election and only recommenced in 2002. The new line was opened at the timetable change on 10 December 2017. The timing of the final commissioning of the upgraded section is still uncertain.
Oberhof is a town in the Schmalkalden-Meiningen district of Thuringia, Germany.
Ohrdruf is a small town in the district of Gotha in the German state of Thuringia.
Opel (Opel) is a German automobile manufacturer, subsidiary of French automaker Groupe PSA since August 2017.
Osterland (terra orientalis) is a historical region in Germany.
Ostheim vor der Rhön is a town in Northern Bavaria in the district of Rhön-Grabfeld in Franconia.
Ostsiedlung (literally east settling), in English called the German eastward expansion, was the medieval eastward migration and settlement of Germanic-speaking peoples from the Holy Roman Empire, especially its southern and western portions, into less-populated regions of Central Europe, parts of west Eastern Europe, and the Baltics.
Wilhelm Heinrich Otto Dix (2 December 1891 – 25 July 1969) was a German painter and printmaker, noted for his ruthless and harshly realistic depictions of Weimar society and the brutality of war.
Friedrich Otto Schott (17 December 1851 – 27 August 1935) was a German chemist, glass technologist, and the inventor of borosilicate glass.
Paul Klee (18 December 1879 – 29 June 1940) was a Swiss German artist.
Picea abies, the Norway spruce, is a species of spruce native to Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.
The Pleiße is a right tributary of the White Elster in Saxony, Germany.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Poles in Germany are the second largest Polish diaspora (Polonia) in the world and the biggest in Europe.
Potash is some of various mined and manufactured salts that contain potassium in water-soluble form.
The Principality of Reuss-Gera (Fürstentum Reuß-Gera), called the Principality of the Reuss Junior Line (Fürstentum Reuß jüngerer Linie) after 1848, was a sovereign state in modern Germany, ruled by members of the House of Reuss.
The Principality of Reuss-Greiz (Fürstentum Reuß-Greiz), called the Principality of the Reuss Elder Line (Fürstentum Reuß älterer Linie.) after 1848, was a sovereign state in modern Germany, ruled by members of the House of Reuss.
The Province of Saxony (Provinz Sachsen), also known as Prussian Saxony (Preußische Sachsen) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia and later the Free State of Prussia from 1816 until 1945.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus, commonly referred to simply as Vegetius, was a writer of the Later Roman Empire (late 4th century).
Pumped-storage hydroelectricity (PSH), or pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHES), is a type of hydroelectric energy storage used by electric power systems for load balancing.
Realschule is a type of secondary school in Germany, Switzerland and Liechtenstein.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
The Rennsteig is a ridge walk as well as an historical boundary path in the Thuringian Forest, Thuringian Highland and Franconian Forest in Central Germany.
Rennsteig Tunnel (German: Rennsteigtunnel) is the longest road tunnel in Germany with a length of 7,916 meters (4.919 mi).
The Rhön Biosphere Reserve includes the entire central area of the Rhön Mountains, a low mountain range in the German states of Hesse, Bavaria and Thuringia.
The Rhön Mountains (German: Die Rhön) are a group of low mountains (or Mittelgebirge) in central Germany, located around the border area where the states of Hesse, Bavaria and Thuringia come together.
--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.
Richard Georg Strauss (11 June 1864 – 8 September 1949) was a leading German composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras.
Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 181313 February 1883) was a German composer, theatre director, polemicist, and conductor who is chiefly known for his operas (or, as some of his later works were later known, "music dramas").
Roßleben is a town in the Kyffhäuserkreis district, with a population of 5,065.
Rockhausen is a municipality in the district Ilm-Kreis, in Thuringia, Germany.
The Diocese of Dresden-Meissen (Dioecesis Dresdensis-Misnensis; Bistum Dresden-Meißen) is a Diocese of Catholic Church in Germany with its seat in Dresden.
The Diocese of Erfurt is a diocese of the Catholic church in Germany.
The Diocese of Fulda (Latin Dioecesis Fuldensis) is a Roman Catholic diocese in the north of the German state of Hessen.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
Ronneburg is a town in the district of Greiz, in Thuringia, Germany.
Rudolf Joseph Lorenz Steiner (27 (or 25) February 1861 – 30 March 1925) was an Austrian philosopher, social reformer, architect and esotericist.
Rudolstadt is a town in the German Bundesland of Thuringia, close to the Thuringian Forest to the southwest, and to Jena and Weimar to the north.
There is a significant Russian population in Germany (German: Deutsch-Russen or Russischsprachige in Deutschland).
Ryanair is an Irish low-cost airline founded in 1984, headquartered in Swords, Dublin, Ireland, with its primary operational bases at Dublin and London Stansted airports.
The Saale, also known as the Saxon Saale (Sächsische Saale) and Thuringian Saale (Thüringische Saale), is a river in Germany and a left-bank tributary of the Elbe.
Saale-Holzland (official German name: Saale-Holzland-Kreis) is a Kreis (district) in the east of Thuringia, Germany.
Saale-Orla is a Kreis (district) in the east of Thuringia, Germany.
Saale-Unstrut is a region (Anbaugebiet) for quality wine in Germany,, read on January 2, 2008 and takes its name from the rivers Saale and Unstrut.
Saalfeld (Saalfeld/Saale) is a town in Germany, capital of the Saalfeld-Rudolstadt district of Thuringia.
Saalfeld-Rudolstadt is a Kreis (district) in the south of Thuringia, Germany.
Sangerhausen is a town in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany, capital of the district of Mansfeld-Südharz, without being part of it.
The Sangerhausen–Erfurt railway is a two-track, electrified railway, which is located mainly in the north of the German state of Thuringia; a small section is in southwestern Saxony-Anhalt.
Saxe-Altenburg (Sachsen-Altenburg) was one of the Saxon duchies held by the Ernestine branch of the House of Wettin in present-day Thuringia.
Saxe-Coburg (Sachsen-Coburg) was a duchy held by the Ernestine branch of the Wettin dynasty in today's Bavaria, Germany.
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha), or Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, was an Ernestine duchy ruled by a branch of the House of Wettin, consisting of territories in the present-day states of Bavaria and Thuringia in Germany.
Saxe-Eisenach (Sachsen-Eisenach) was an Ernestine duchy ruled by the Saxon House of Wettin.
Saxe-Gotha (Sachsen-Gotha) was one of the Saxon duchies held by the Ernestine branch of the Wettin dynasty in the former Landgraviate of Thuringia.
The Duchy of Saxe-Jena was one of the Saxon Duchies held by the Ernestine line of the Wettin Dynasty.
Saxe-Meiningen was one of the Saxon duchies held by the Ernestine line of the Wettin dynasty, located in the southwest of the present-day German state of Thuringia.
Saxe-Weimar (Sachsen-Weimar) was one of the Saxon duchies held by the Ernestine branch of the Wettin dynasty in present-day Thuringia.
Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach) was created as a duchy in 1809 by the merger of the Ernestine duchies of Saxe-Weimar and Saxe-Eisenach, which had been in personal union since 1741.
The Free State of Saxony (Freistaat Sachsen; Swobodny stat Sakska) is a landlocked federal state of Germany, bordering the federal states of Brandenburg, Saxony Anhalt, Thuringia, and Bavaria, as well as the countries of Poland (Lower Silesian and Lubusz Voivodeships) and the Czech Republic (Karlovy Vary, Liberec, and Ústí nad Labem Regions).
Saxony-Anhalt (Sachsen-Anhalt,, official: Land Sachsen-Anhalt) is a landlocked federal state of Germany surrounded by the federal states of Lower Saxony, Brandenburg, Saxony and Thuringia.
Sömmerda is a town near Erfurt in Thuringia, Germany, on the Unstrut river.
Sömmerda (German: Landkreis Sömmerda) is a Kreis (district) in the north of Thuringia, Germany.
Schmalkalden is a town in the Schmalkalden-Meiningen district, in the southwest of the state of Thuringia, Germany.
Schmalkalden-Meiningen is a Landkreis in the southwest of Thuringia, Germany.
The Schmücke is a ridge of hills in Thuringia, Germany.
Schott AG is an international manufacturing group of glass and glass-ceramics.
Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt was a small historic state in present-day Thuringia, Germany, with its capital at Rudolstadt.
Schwarzburg-Sondershausen was a small principality in Germany, in the present day state of Thuringia, with its capital at Sondershausen.
Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is a species of pine that is native to Eurasia, ranging from Western Europe to Eastern Siberia, south to the Caucasus Mountains and Anatolia, and north to well inside the Arctic Circle in Scandinavia.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
The sex ratio is the ratio of males to females in a population.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
Solar energy is radiant light and heat from the Sun that is harnessed using a range of ever-evolving technologies such as solar heating, photovoltaics, solar thermal energy, solar architecture, molten salt power plants and artificial photosynthesis.
Sondershausen is a town in Thuringia, Germany, capital of the Kyffhäuserkreis district, situated about 50 km north of Erfurt.
Sonneberg is a Kreis (district) in the south of Thuringia, Germany.
The South Harz Nature Park (Naturpark Südharz) is located in the county of Nordhausen in north Thuringia, Germany.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
The Soviet Occupation Zone (Sovetskaya okkupatsionnaya zona Germanii, "Soviet Occupation Zone of Germany") was the area of central Germany occupied by the Soviet Union from 1945 on, at the end of World War II.
Germany is a federal republic consisting of sixteen states (Land, plural Länder; informally and very commonly Bundesland, plural Bundesländer).
Suhl is a city in Thuringia, Germany, located SW of Erfurt, NE of Würzburg and N of Nuremberg.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
The Technische Universität Ilmenau (TU Ilmenau) is a German public research university located in Ilmenau, Thuringia, Germany.
In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.
The Left (Die Linke), also commonly referred to as the Left Party (die Linkspartei), is a democratic socialist political party in Germany.
The Phenomenology of Spirit (Phänomenologie des Geistes) (1807) is Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's most widely discussed philosophical work.
Thomas Müntzer (December 1489 – 27 May 1525) was a German preacher and radical theologian of the early Reformation whose opposition to both Luther and the Roman Catholic Church led to his open defiance of late-feudal authority in central Germany.
The Thuringian Basin (Thüringer Becken) is a depression in the central and northwest part of Thuringia in Germany which is crossed by several rivers, the longest of which is the Unstrut.
The Thuringian Forest (Thüringer Wald in German), is a mountain range in the southern parts of the German state of Thuringia, running northwest to southeast between the valley of the river Werra near Eisenach and the Thuringian-Vogtlandian Slate Mountains.
The Thuringian Forest Nature Park (Naturpark Thüringer Wald) is one of the two nature parks in the state of Thuringia, Germany.
The Thuringian Highland Thuringian Highlands or Thuringian-Vogtlandian Slate Mountains (Thüringer Schiefergebirge or Thüringisches Schiefergebirge, literally "Thuringian Slate Hills") is a low range of mountains in the German state of Thuringia.
The Thuringian Holzland (Thüringer Holzland) is an upland region in the state of Thuringia, Germany.
Thuringian sausage, or in German Thüringer Rostbratwurst (short: Roster), is a unique sausage from the German state of Thuringia which has PGI status under EU law.
Thuringia held state elections on 30 August 2009, the same day as the Saarland and Saxony state elections.
The Thuringii or Toringi, were a Germanic tribe that appeared late during the Migration Period in the Harz Mountains of central Germania, still called Thuringia.
The Treaty of Leipzig or Partition of Leipzig (German Leipziger Teilung) was signed on 11 November 1485 between Elector Ernest of Saxony and his younger brother Albert III, the sons of Elector Frederick II of Saxony from the House of Wettin.
Turks in Germany, also referred to as German Turks and Turkish Germans, (Türken in Deutschland or Deutsch-Türken; Almanya'da yaşayan Türkler or Almanya Türkleri) refers to ethnic Turkish people living in Germany.
The Ukrainian community of Germany is small yet sizable at around 250,000; Germany's Ukrainians have created a number of institutions and organizations, such as the Central Association of Ukrainians in Germany and Association of Ukrainian Diaspora in Germany.
The unification of Germany into a politically and administratively integrated nation state officially occurred on 18 January 1871, in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles in France.
A university (universitas, "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines.
The University of Erfurt (Universität Erfurt) is a public university located in Erfurt, the capital city of the German state of Thuringia.
Friedrich Schiller University Jena (FSU; Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, shortened form Uni Jena) is a public research university located in Jena, Thuringia, Germany.
The Unstrut is a river in eastern Germany and a left tributary of the Saale.
Unstrut-Hainich-Kreis is a Kreis (district) in the north of Thuringia, Germany.
Unterbreizbach is a municipality in the Wartburgkreis district of Thuringia, Germany.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change.
Uziel "Uzi" Gal (עוזיאל "עוזי" גל, born Gotthard Glas; 15 December 1923 – 7 September 2002), was a German-born Israeli gun designer, best remembered as the designer and namesake of the Uzi submachine gun.
Vacha is a town in the Wartburgkreis district, in Thuringia, Germany.
Vogtei is a municipality in the Unstrut-Hainich district of Thuringia, Germany.
The Vogtland (Fojtsko) is a region reaching across the German free states of Bavaria, Saxony and Thuringia and into the Czech Republic (north-western Bohemia).
Walter Adolph Georg Gropius (18 May 1883 – 5 July 1969) was a German architect and founder of the Bauhaus School, who, along with Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier and Frank Lloyd Wright, is widely regarded as one of the pioneering masters of modernist architecture.
The War of the Thuringen Succession (German: thüringisch-hessische Erbfolgekrieg) (1247–1264) was a military conflict over a successor to the last Landgrave of Thuringia for control of the state of Thuringia (now in modern-day Germany).
The Wartburg is a castle originally built in the Middle Ages.
Wartburgkreis is a Kreis (district) in the west of Thuringia, Germany.
Wassily Wassilyevich Kandinsky (Vasily Vasilyevich Kandinsky) (– 13 December 1944) was a Russian painter and art theorist.
Würzburg (Main-Franconian: Wörtzburch) is a city in the region of Franconia, northern Bavaria, Germany.
Weimar (Vimaria or Vinaria) is a city in the federal state of Thuringia, Germany.
The Weimar Saxon-Grand Ducal Art School (Großherzoglich-Sächsische Kunstschule Weimar) was created on October 1, 1860, by a decree of Charles Alexander, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach.
The Weimar–Gera railway is a line in the German state of Thuringia, connecting the city of Weimar via Jena, Stadtroda and Hermsdorf to Gera.
Weimarer Land is a Kreis (district) in the east of Thuringia, Germany.
Karl Rudolf Werner Braune (11 April 1909 − 7 June 1951) was a German SS functionary during the Nazi era and a Holocaust perpetrator.
The Werra, a river in central Germany, forms the right-source of the Weser.
The Weser is a river in Northwestern Germany.
The White Elster is a long river in central Europe, right tributary of the Saale.
Wind power is the use of air flow through wind turbines to mechanically power generators for electricity.
SAG/SDAG Wismut was a uranium mining company in East Germany during the time of the cold war.
The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 191 Member States and Territories.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
The Zeitgeist is a concept from 18th to 19th-century German philosophy, translated as "spirit of the age" or "spirit of the times".
Zwickau (Sorbian (hist.): Šwikawa, Czech Cvikov) is a town in Saxony, Germany, it is the capital of the district of Zwickau.
Durynsko, Free State of Thuringia, Freestate of Thuringia, Freistaat Thüringen, History of Thuringia, Saxony-Thueringen, The Free State of Thuringia, Thierengen, Thueringen, Thueringia, Thuringen, Thuringen State, Germany, Thuringia (state), Thuringia, Germany, Thüringen, Thüringen (state), Thüringia, Turingia, Turíngia.