34 relations: Adenine, Albrecht Kossel, Cancer, Cosmic dust, Cytosine, Deoxyribose, DNA, DNA replication, Fluorouracil, Guanine, Hydantoin, Hydrogen peroxide, Life, Meteorite, NASA, Nucleic acid, Nucleobase, Nucleoside, Organic compound, Outer space, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, Pyrimidine, Pyrimidine dimer, Red giant, Redox, RNA, Thymidine, Thymidine diphosphate, Thymidine monophosphate, Thymidine triphosphate, Thymineless death, Ultraviolet, Universe, Uracil.
Adenine (A, Ade) is a nucleobase (a purine derivative).
Ludwig Karl Martin Leonhard Albrecht Kossel (16 September 1853 – 5 July 1927) was a German biochemist and pioneer in the study of genetics.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Cosmic dust, also called extraterrestrial dust or space dust, is dust which exists in outer space, as well as all over planet Earth.
Cytosine (C) is one of the four main bases found in DNA and RNA, along with adenine, guanine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
Deoxyribose, or more precisely 2-deoxyribose, is a monosaccharide with idealized formula H−(C.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.
Fluorouracil (5-FU), sold under the brand name Adrucil among others, is a medication used to treat cancer.
Guanine (or G, Gua) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
Hydantoin, or glycolylurea, is a heterocyclic organic compound with the formula CH2C(O)NHC(O)NH.
Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical compound with the formula.
Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.
A meteorite is a solid piece of debris from an object, such as a comet, asteroid, or meteoroid, that originates in outer space and survives its passage through the atmosphere to reach the surface of a planet or moon.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life.
Nucleobases, also known as nitrogenous bases or often simply bases, are nitrogen-containing biological compounds that form nucleosides, which in turn are components of nucleotides, with all of these monomers constituting the basic building blocks of nucleic acids.
Nucleosides are glycosylamines that can be thought of as nucleotides without a phosphate group.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Outer space, or just space, is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth and between celestial bodies.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, also polyaromatic hydrocarbons or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons) are hydrocarbons—organic compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen—that are composed of multiple aromatic rings (organic rings in which the electrons are delocalized).
Pyrimidine is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound similar to pyridine.
Pyrimidine dimers are molecular lesions formed from thymine or cytosine bases in DNA via photochemical reactions.
A red giant is a luminous giant star of low or intermediate mass (roughly 0.3–8 solar masses) in a late phase of stellar evolution.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
Thymidine (deoxythymidine; other names deoxyribosylthymine, thymine deoxyriboside) is a pyrimidine deoxynucleoside.
Thymidine diphosphate (TDP) or deoxythymidine diphosphate (dTDP) (also thymidine pyrophosphate, dTPP) is a nucleotide diphosphate.
Thymidine monophosphate (TMP), also known as thymidylic acid (conjugate base thymidylate), deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP), or deoxythymidylic acid (conjugate base deoxythymidylate), is a nucleotide that is used as a monomer in DNA.
Deoxythymidine triphosphate (dTTP) is one of the four nucleoside triphosphates that are used in the in vivo synthesis of DNA.
Thymineless death is the phenomenon by which bacteria, yeasts and mammalian cells undergo cell death when they are starved of thymidine triphosphate (dTTP), an essential precursor for DNA replication.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.
Uracil (U) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of RNA that are represented by the letters A, G, C and U. The others are adenine (A), cytosine (C), and guanine (G).