67 relations: Albumin, Aluminium hydroxide, Amiodarone, Androgen, Anxiety disorder, Assay, Atrial fibrillation, Beckman Coulter, Blood test, Carbamazepine, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Circadian rhythm, Clofibrate, Colestipol, Colestyramine, Dopamine, Estrogen, Euthyroid sick syndrome, Fluorouracil, Furosemide, Glucocorticoid, Graves' disease, Heparin, Heroin, Hyperthyroidism, Hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis, Hypothalamus, Hypothyroidism, Hysteresis, Iodine, Iron(II) sulfate, Jostel's TSH index, L-DOPA, Lithium, Medical history, Methadone, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Opiate, Perphenazine, Phenobarbital, Phenytoin, Pituitary gland, Polystyrene sulfonate, Propranolol, Propylthiouracil, Radiocontrast agent, Radioimmunoassay, Rifampicin, Salicylic acid, Somatostatin, ..., Soybean, Sucralfate, Sum activity of peripheral deiodinases, Test panel, The Lancet, Thyroid, Thyroid function tests, Thyroid hormone binding ratio, Thyroid hormone resistance, Thyroid hormones, Thyroid's secretory capacity, Thyroid-stimulating hormone, Thyrotropin-releasing hormone, Thyroxine-binding globulin, Transthyretin, Triiodothyronine, University of California, San Francisco. Expand index (17 more) » « Shrink index
The albumins (formed from Latin: albumen "(egg) white; dried egg white") are a family of globular proteins, the most common of which are the serum albumins.
Aluminium hydroxide, Al(OH)3, is found in nature as the mineral gibbsite (also known as hydrargillite) and its three much rarer polymorphs: bayerite, doyleite, and nordstrandite.
Amiodarone is an antiarrhythmic medication used to treat and prevent a number of types of irregular heartbeats.
An androgen (from Greek andr-, the stem of the word meaning "man") is any natural or synthetic steroid hormone which regulates the development and maintenance of male characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors.
Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by significant feelings of anxiety and fear.
An assay is an investigative (analytic) procedure in laboratory medicine, pharmacology, environmental biology and molecular biology for qualitatively assessing or quantitatively measuring the presence, amount, or functional activity of a target entity (the analyte).
Atrial fibrillation (AF or A-fib) is an abnormal heart rhythm characterized by rapid and irregular beating of the atria.
Beckman Coulter Inc., is an American company that makes biomedical laboratory instruments.
A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a hypodermic needle, or via fingerprick.
Carbamazepine (CBZ), sold under the tradename Tegretol, among others, is a medication used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy and neuropathic pain.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
A circadian rhythm is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours.
Clofibrate (tradename Atromid-S) is an organic compound.
Colestipol (trade names Colestid, Cholestabyl) is a bile acid sequestrant used to lower blood cholesterol, specifically low-density lipoprotein (LDL).
Colestyramine (INN) or cholestyramine (USAN) (trade names Questran, Questran Light, Cholybar, Olestyr) is a bile acid sequestrant, which binds bile in the gastrointestinal tract to prevent its reabsorption.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.
Euthyroid sick syndrome (ESS), sick euthyroid syndrome (SES), thyroid allostasis in critical illness, tumours, uremia and starvation (TACITUS), non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) or low T3 low T4 syndrome is a state of adaptation or dysregulation of thyrotropic feedback control wherein the levels of T3 and/or T4 are abnormal, but the thyroid gland does not appear to be dysfunctional.
Fluorouracil (5-FU), sold under the brand name Adrucil among others, is a medication used to treat cancer.
Furosemide, sold under the brand name Lasix among others, is a medication used to treat fluid build-up due to heart failure, liver scarring, or kidney disease.
Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones.
Graves' disease, also known as toxic diffuse goiter, is an autoimmune disease that affects the thyroid.
Heparin, also known as unfractionated heparin (UFH), is medication which is used as an anticoagulant (blood thinner).
Heroin, also known as diamorphine among other names, is an opioid most commonly used as a recreational drug for its euphoric effects.
Hyperthyroidism is the condition that occurs due to excessive production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland.
The hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis (HPT axis for short, a.k.a. thyroid homeostasis or thyrotropic feedback control) is part of the neuroendocrine system responsible for the regulation of metabolism.
The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.
Hypothyroidism, also called underactive thyroid or low thyroid, is a disorder of the endocrine system in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone.
Hysteresis is the dependence of the state of a system on its history.
Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.
Iron(II) sulfate (British English: iron(II) sulphate) or ferrous sulfate denotes a range of salts with the formula FeSO4·xH2O.
Jostel's TSH index (TSHI or JTI), also referred to as Thyroid Function index (TFI) is a method for estimating the thyrotropic (i.e. thyroid stimulating) function of the anterior pituitary lobe in a quantitative way.
L-DOPA, also known as levodopa or L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine is an amino acid that is made and used as part of the normal biology of humans, as well as some animals and plants.
Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.
The medical history or case history of a patient is information gained by a physician by asking specific questions, either of the patient or of other people who know the person and can give suitable information, with the aim of obtaining information useful in formulating a diagnosis and providing medical care to the patient.
Methadone, sold under the brand name Dolophine among others, is an opioid used to treat pain and as maintenance therapy or to help with tapering in people with opioid dependence.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a drug class that reduce pain, decrease fever, prevent blood clots and, in higher doses, decrease inflammation.
Opiate is a term classically used in pharmacology to mean a drug derived from opium.
Perphenazine is a typical antipsychotic drug.
Phenobarbital, also known as phenobarbitone or phenobarb, is a medication recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of certain types of epilepsy in developing countries.
Phenytoin (PHT), sold under the brand name Dilantin among others, is an anti-seizure medication.
An explanation of the development of the pituitary gland (Hypophysis cerebri) & the congenital anomalies. In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing in humans.
Polystyrene sulfonates are polymers derived from polystyrene by the addition of sulfonate functional groups.
Propranolol, sold under the brand name Inderal among others, is a medication of the beta blocker type. It is used to treat high blood pressure, a number of types of irregular heart rate, thyrotoxicosis, capillary hemangiomas, performance anxiety, and essential tremors. It is used to prevent migraine headaches, and to prevent further heart problems in those with angina or previous heart attacks. It can be taken by mouth or by injection into a vein. The formulation that is taken by mouth comes in short-acting and long-acting versions. Propranolol appears in the blood after 30 minutes and has a maximum effect between 60 and 90 minutes when taken by mouth. Common side effects include nausea, abdominal pain, and constipation. It should not be used in those with an already slow heart rate and most of those with heart failure. Quickly stopping the medication in those with coronary artery disease may worsen symptoms. It may worsen the symptoms of asthma. Caution is recommended in those with liver or kidney problems. Propranolol may cause harmful effects in the baby if taken during pregnancy. Its use during breastfeeding is probably safe, but the baby should be monitored for side effects. It is a non-selective beta blocker which works by blocking β-adrenergic receptors. Propranolol was discovered in 1964. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. Propranolol is available as a generic medication. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 0.24 and 2.16 per month as of 2014. In the United States it costs about $15 per month at a typical dose.
Propylthiouracil (PTU) is a medication used to treat hyperthyroidism.
Radiocontrast agents are substances used to enhance the visibility of internal structures in X-ray-based imaging techniques such as computed tomography (contrast CT), projectional radiography, and fluoroscopy.
A radioimmunoassay (RIA) is an immunoassay that uses radiolabeled molecules in a stepwise formation of immune complexes.
Rifampicin, also known as rifampin, is an antibiotic used to treat several types of bacterial infections, including tuberculosis, leprosy, and Legionnaire's disease.
Salicylic acid (from Latin salix, willow tree) is a lipophilic monohydroxybenzoic acid, a type of phenolic acid, and a beta hydroxy acid (BHA).
Somatostatin, also known as growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH) or by several other names, is a peptide hormone that regulates the endocrine system and affects neurotransmission and cell proliferation via interaction with G protein-coupled somatostatin receptors and inhibition of the release of numerous secondary hormones.
The soybean (Glycine max), or soya bean, is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean, which has numerous uses.
Sucralfate is a medication primarily taken to treat active duodenal ulcers. Sucralfate is also used for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and stress ulcers. Sucralfate is a sucrose sulfate-aluminium complex that binds to the ulcer, creating a physical barrier that protects the gastrointestinal tract from stomach acid and prevents the degradation of mucus. It also promotes bicarbonate production and acts like an acid buffer with cytoprotective properties.
The sum activity of peripheral deiodinases (GD, also referred to as deiodination capacity, total deiodinase activity or SPINA-GD) is the maximum amount of triiodothyronine produced per time-unit under conditions of substrate saturation.
A test panel is a predetermined group of medical tests as an aid in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.
The Lancet is a weekly peer-reviewed general medical journal.
The thyroid gland, or simply the thyroid, is an endocrine gland in the neck, consisting of two lobes connected by an isthmus.
Thyroid function tests (TFTs) is a collective term for blood tests used to check the function of the thyroid.
Thyroid hormone binding ratio (THBR) is a Thyroid Function Test that measures the "uptake" of T3 or T4 tracer by Thyroid Binding Globulin (TBG) in a given serum sample.
Thyroid hormone resistance (sometimes Refetoff syndrome) describes a rare syndrome in which the thyroid hormone levels are elevated but the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level is not suppressed, or not completely suppressed as would be expected.
Thyroid hormones are two hormones produced and released by the thyroid gland, namely triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4).
Thyroid's secretory capacity (GT, also referred to as thyroid's incretory capacity, maximum thyroid hormone output, T4 output or, if calculated from levels of thyroid hormones, as SPINA-GT) is the maximum stimulated amount of thyroxine that the thyroid can produce in a given time-unit (e.g. one second).
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as thyrotropin, thyrotropic hormone, TSH, or hTSH for human TSH) is a pituitary hormone that stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroxine (T4), and then triiodothyronine (T3) which stimulates the metabolism of almost every tissue in the body.
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), also called thyrotropin-releasing factor (TRF) or thyroliberin, is a releasing hormone, produced by the hypothalamus, that stimulates the release of thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone or TSH) and prolactin from the anterior pituitary.
Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) is a globulin that binds thyroid hormones in circulation.
Transthyretin (TTR) is a transport protein in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid that carries the thyroid hormone thyroxine (T4) and retinol-binding protein bound to retinol.
Triiodothyronine, also known as T3, is a thyroid hormone.
The University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), is a research university located in San Francisco, California and part of the University of California system.
Free thyroxine, Free thyroxine index, Free triiodothyronine, T uptake, T4 test, TFTs, Thyroid Function Test, Thyroid function test, Thyroid hormone uptake, Thyroid-stimulating hormone measurement, Total T3, Total thyroxine, Total triiodothyronine.