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Thyroid hormones

Index Thyroid hormones

Thyroid hormones are two hormones produced and released by the thyroid gland, namely triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). [1]

103 relations: Adrenaline, Anterior pituitary, Atom, Basal metabolic rate, Bicyclic molecule, Bird, Blood, Blood plasma, Brain, Calcitonin, Carbimazole, Carbohydrate, Cardiac output, Catecholamine, Cell (biology), Cell membrane, Charles Harington (chemist), Chemical reaction, Chemical synapse, Coactivator (genetics), CRYM, Crystallin, Decarboxylation, Deiodinase, Desiccated thyroid extract, Diffusion, Diiodothyronine, Diiodotyrosine, Edward Calvin Kendall, Endometrium, Enzyme, Fat, Follicular cell, G protein–coupled receptor, George Barger, Gestational age, Goitre, Goitrin, Graves' disease, Growth hormone, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Hibernation, Hormone, Hormone response element, Hydroxy group, Hyperthyroidism, Hypothermia, Hypothyroidism, Interstitium, Iodide, ..., Iodine, Iodine deficiency, Iodothyronine deiodinase, Ischemia, Levothyroxine, Liothyronine, Liotrix, Lipophilicity, Major depressive disorder, Mammal, Metabolism, Monocarboxylate transporter 10, Monocarboxylate transporter 8, Monoiodotyrosine, Moulting, Na+/K+-ATPase, Negative feedback, Neurodevelopmental disorder, Neuron, Norepinephrine, Nuclear receptor, Permissiveness (biology), Phenol, Polar T3 syndrome, Preterm birth, Propylthiouracil, Protein, Protein Data Bank, RNA polymerase, Selenium, Serotonin, Serum albumin, Sodium, Thermoregulation, Thiamazole, Thyroglobulin, Thyroid, Thyroid disease, Thyroid function tests, Thyroid hormone receptor, Thyroid hormones, Thyroid peroxidase, Thyroid-stimulating hormone, Thyronamine, Thyrotropic cell, Thyrotropin-releasing hormone, Thyroxine-binding globulin, Trace amine-associated receptor, Transthyretin, Triiodothyronine, Tyrosine, Unified atomic mass unit, 3-Iodothyronamine. Expand index (53 more) »


Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.

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Anterior pituitary

A major organ of the endocrine system, the anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis or pars anterior), is the glandular, anterior lobe that together with the posterior lobe (posterior pituitary, or the neurohypophysis) makes up the pituitary gland (hypophysis).

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An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.

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Basal metabolic rate

Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the rate of energy expenditure per unit time by endothermic animals at rest.

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Bicyclic molecule

A bicyclic molecule (bi.

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Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.

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Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.

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Blood plasma

Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells.

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The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.

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Calcitonin (also known as thyrocalcitonin) is a 32-amino acid linear polypeptide hormone that is produced in humans primarily by the parafollicular cells (also known as C-cells) of the thyroid gland, and in many other animals in the ultimopharyngeal body.

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Carbimazole is used to treat hyperthyroidism.

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A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).

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Cardiac output

Cardiac output (CO, also denoted by the symbols Q and \dot Q_), is a term used in cardiac physiology that describes the volume of blood being pumped by the heart, in particular by the left or right ventricle, per unit time.

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A catecholamine (CA) is a monoamine, an organic compound that has a catechol (benzene with two hydroxyl side groups at carbons 1 and 2) and a side-chain amine.

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Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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Cell membrane

The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).

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Charles Harington (chemist)

Sir Charles Robert Harington, KBE, FRS (1 August 1897 – 4 February 1972) was a chemist, best known for synthesizing thyroxine.

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Chemical reaction

A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.

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Chemical synapse

Chemical synapses are biological junctions through which neurons' signals can be exchanged to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as those in muscles or glands.

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Coactivator (genetics)

A coactivator is a type of transcriptional coregulator that binds to an activator (a transcription factor) to increase the rate of transcription of a gene or set of genes.

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Mu-crystallin homolog also known as NADP-regulated thyroid-hormone-binding protein (THBP) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYM gene.

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In anatomy, a crystallin is a water-soluble structural protein found in the lens and the cornea of the eye accounting for the transparency of the structure.

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Decarboxylation is a chemical reaction that removes a carboxyl group and releases carbon dioxide (CO2).

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Deiodinase (or iodide peroxidase or "Monodeiodinase") is a peroxidase enzyme that is involved in the activation or deactivation of thyroid hormones.

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Desiccated thyroid extract

Desiccated thyroid or thyroid extract refers to porcine or bovine thyroid glands, dried and powdered for therapeutic use.

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Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms.

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Diiodothyronine may refer to.

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Diiodotyrosine (DIT) is a precursor in the production of thyroid hormone, and results from iodization of monoiodotyrosine at the other meta- position on the phenol ring.

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Edward Calvin Kendall

Edward Calvin Kendall (March 8, 1886 – May 4, 1972) was an American chemist.

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The endometrium is the inner epithelial layer, along with its mucous membrane, of the mammalian uterus.

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Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.

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Follicular cell

Follicular cells (also called thyroid epithelial cells or thyrocytes) are cells in the thyroid gland that are responsible for the production and secretion of thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3).

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G protein–coupled receptor

G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven-(pass)-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses.

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George Barger

George Barger FRS FRSE FCS LLD (4 April 1878 – 5 January 1939) was a British chemist.

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Gestational age

Gestational age is a measure of the age of a pregnancy which is taken from the woman's last menstrual period (LMP), or the corresponding age of the gestation as estimated by a more accurate method if available.

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A goitre or goiter is a swelling in the neck resulting from an enlarged thyroid gland.

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Goitrin is a sulfur-containing oxazolidine, a cyclic thiocarbamate, that reduces the production of thyroid hormones such as thyroxine.

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Graves' disease

Graves' disease, also known as toxic diffuse goiter, is an autoimmune disease that affects the thyroid.

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Growth hormone

Growth hormone (GH), also known as somatotropin (or as human growth hormone in its human form), is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth, cell reproduction, and cell regeneration in humans and other animals.

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Hashimoto's thyroiditis

Hashimoto's thyroiditis, also known as chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and Hashimoto's disease, is an autoimmune disease in which the thyroid gland is gradually destroyed.

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Hibernation is a state of inactivity and metabolic depression in endotherms.

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A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.

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Hormone response element

A hormone response element (HRE) is a short sequence of DNA within the promoter of a gene that is able to bind to a specific hormone receptor complex and therefore regulate transcription.

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Hydroxy group

A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.

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Hyperthyroidism is the condition that occurs due to excessive production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland.

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Hypothermia is reduced body temperature that happens when a body dissipates more heat than it absorbs.

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Hypothyroidism, also called underactive thyroid or low thyroid, is a disorder of the endocrine system in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone.

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The interstitium is a contiguous fluid-filled space existing between the skin and the body organs, including muscles and the circulatory system.

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An iodide ion is the ion I−.

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Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.

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Iodine deficiency

Iodine deficiency is a lack of the trace element iodine, an essential nutrient in the diet.

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Iodothyronine deiodinase

Iodothyronine deiodinases (and) are a subfamily of deiodinase enzymes important in the activation and deactivation of thyroid hormones.

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Ischemia or ischaemia is a restriction in blood supply to tissues, causing a shortage of oxygen that is needed for cellular metabolism (to keep tissue alive).

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Levothyroxine, also known as -thyroxine, is a manufactured form of the thyroid hormone, thyroxine (T4).

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Liothyronine is a synthetic form of triiodothyronine (T3), a thyroid hormone used to treat hypothyroidism and myxedema coma.

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Liotrix is a 4:1 mixture of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) made synthetically.

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Lipophilicity (from Greek λίπος "fat" and φίλος "friendly"), refers to the ability of a chemical compound to dissolve in fats, oils, lipids, and non-polar solvents such as hexane or toluene.

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Major depressive disorder

Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.

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Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.

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Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.

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Monocarboxylate transporter 10

Monocarboxylate transporter 10 (MCT 10), also known as aromatic amino acid transporter 1 and T-type amino acid transporter 1 (TAT1) and solute carrier family 16 member 10 (SLC16A10), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC16A10 gene.

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Monocarboxylate transporter 8

Monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) is an active transporter protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC16A2 gene.

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Monoiodotyrosine is a precursor of thyroid hormone and results from halogenation of tyrosine at the meta-position of the benzene ring.

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In biology, moulting (British English), or molting (American English), also known as sloughing, shedding, or in many invertebrates, ecdysis, is the manner in which an animal routinely casts off a part of its body (often, but not always, an outer layer or covering), either at specific times of the year, or at specific points in its life cycle.

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-ATPase (sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase, also known as the pump or sodium–potassium pump) is an enzyme (an electrogenic transmembrane ATPase) found in the plasma membrane of all animal cells.

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Negative feedback

Negative feedback (or balancing feedback) occurs when some function of the output of a system, process, or mechanism is fed back in a manner that tends to reduce the fluctuations in the output, whether caused by changes in the input or by other disturbances.

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Neurodevelopmental disorder

Neurodevelopmental disorder is a mental disorder.

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A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.

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Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.

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Nuclear receptor

In the field of molecular biology, nuclear receptors are a class of proteins found within cells that are responsible for sensing steroid and thyroid hormones and certain other molecules.

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Permissiveness (biology)

In endocrinology, permissiveness is a biochemical phenomenon in which the presence of one hormone is required in order for another hormone to exert its full effects on a target cell.

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Phenol, also known as phenolic acid, is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH.

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Polar T3 syndrome

Polar T3 syndrome is a condition found in polar explorers, caused by a decrease in levels of the thyroid hormone T3.

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Preterm birth

Preterm birth, also known as premature birth, is the birth of a baby at fewer than 37 weeks gestational age.

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Propylthiouracil (PTU) is a medication used to treat hyperthyroidism.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Protein Data Bank

The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is a crystallographic database for the three-dimensional structural data of large biological molecules, such as proteins and nucleic acids.

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RNA polymerase

RNA polymerase (ribonucleic acid polymerase), both abbreviated RNAP or RNApol, official name DNA-directed RNA polymerase, is a member of a family of enzymes that are essential to life: they are found in all organisms (-species) and many viruses.

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Selenium is a chemical element with symbol Se and atomic number 34.

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Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.

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Serum albumin

Serum albumin, often referred to simply as blood albumin, is an albumin (a type of globular protein) found in vertebrate blood.

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Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.

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Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when the surrounding temperature is very different.

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Thiamazole, also known as methimazole, is an antithyroid drug, and part of the thioamide group.

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Thyroglobulin (Tg) is a 660 kDa, dimeric protein produced by the follicular cells of the thyroid and used entirely within the thyroid gland.

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The thyroid gland, or simply the thyroid, is an endocrine gland in the neck, consisting of two lobes connected by an isthmus.

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Thyroid disease

Thyroid disease is a medical condition that affects the function of the thyroid gland (the endocrine organ found at the front of the neck that produces thyroid hormones).

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Thyroid function tests

Thyroid function tests (TFTs) is a collective term for blood tests used to check the function of the thyroid.

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Thyroid hormone receptor

The thyroid hormone receptor (TR) is a type of nuclear receptor that is activated by binding thyroid hormone.

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Thyroid hormones

Thyroid hormones are two hormones produced and released by the thyroid gland, namely triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4).

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Thyroid peroxidase

Thyroid peroxidase, also called thyroperoxidase (TPO) or iodide peroxidase, is an enzyme expressed mainly in the thyroid where it is secreted into colloid.

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Thyroid-stimulating hormone

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as thyrotropin, thyrotropic hormone, TSH, or hTSH for human TSH) is a pituitary hormone that stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroxine (T4), and then triiodothyronine (T3) which stimulates the metabolism of almost every tissue in the body.

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Thyronamine refers both to a molecule, and to derivatives of that molecule: a family of decarboxylated and deiodinated metabolites of the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3).

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Thyrotropic cell

Thyrotropes (also called thyrotrophs) are endocrine cells in the anterior pituitary which produce thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in response to thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH).

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Thyrotropin-releasing hormone

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), also called thyrotropin-releasing factor (TRF) or thyroliberin, is a releasing hormone, produced by the hypothalamus, that stimulates the release of thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone or TSH) and prolactin from the anterior pituitary.

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Thyroxine-binding globulin

Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) is a globulin that binds thyroid hormones in circulation.

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Trace amine-associated receptor

Trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs), sometimes referred to as trace amine receptors (TAs or TARs), are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that were discovered in 2001.

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Transthyretin (TTR) is a transport protein in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid that carries the thyroid hormone thyroxine (T4) and retinol-binding protein bound to retinol.

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Triiodothyronine, also known as T3, is a thyroid hormone.

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Tyrosine (symbol Tyr or Y) or 4-hydroxyphenylalanine is one of the 20 standard amino acids that are used by cells to synthesize proteins.

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Unified atomic mass unit

The unified atomic mass unit or dalton (symbol: u, or Da) is a standard unit of mass that quantifies mass on an atomic or molecular scale (atomic mass).

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3-Iodothyronamine (T1AM) is an endogenous thyronamine.

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7488-70-2, FT4, Liothyronine Sodium, Summer hormone, Synthetic thyroid hormone, Thyroid hormone, Thyroid hormone replacement, Thyroid hormone synthesis, Thyroxin, Thyroxine.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thyroid_hormones

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