92 relations: Aksu Canyon, Alatau, Alay Mountains, Almaty, Altai Mountains, Apple, Aspect (geography), Ürümqi, Barköl Kazakh Autonomous County, Bishkek, Bogda Shan, Borohoro Mountains, Cenozoic, Central Asia, Chinese folk religion, Chuy Region, Dankov, Dzungaria, Dzungarian Alatau, Dzungarian Gate, Fergana Range, Fergana Valley, Geography of Kazakhstan, Geography of Kyrgyzstan, Hami, Han dynasty, Himalayas, Ili River, Immortality, Issyk-Kul, Jengish Chokusu, Juglans regia, Kakshaal Too, Kazakhstan, Küngöy Ala-Too Range, Khan Tengri, Kyrgyz Ala-Too Range, Kyrgyzstan, List of places on land with elevations below sea level, Lists of World Heritage Sites, Microclimate, Mongolia, Mountaineering, Naryn Region, National Geographic Society, Northwest China, Oblast, Old Turkic language, Orogeny, Pamir Mountains, ..., Permafrost, Picea schrenkiana, Plate tectonics, Pyotr Semyonov-Tyan-Shansky, Qilian Mountains, Queen Mother of the West, Records of the Grand Historian, Sima Qian, Suusamyr Too, Suusamyr Valley, Syr Darya, Taklamakan Desert, Talas Alatau, Talas Region, Talas River, Taldıqorğan, Tang dynasty, Tannu-Ola mountains, Taoism, Tarim Basin, Tarim River, Tashkent, Tectonics of the Tian Shan, Tengri, Tengrism, Terskey Alatau, Tian, Tibetan Plateau, Torugart Pass, Trans-Alay Range, Trans-Ili Alatau, Turkestan Range, Turkic languages, Turpan Depression, Tuva, Uzbekistan, World Heritage Committee, World Heritage site, Xinjiang, Xiongnu, Yan Shigu, Yuezhi. Expand index (42 more) » « Shrink index
Aksu Canyon is 15 km long and 500m deep canyon in Kazakhstan.
Alatau or Ala-Too (Alatay', Алатау; Аladağ; Ала-Тоо; Алатау) is a generic name for a number of mountain ranges in Central Asia, characterized by interleaving areas of vegetation, scattered rocks and snows.
The Alay or Alai Mountains (Алай тоо кыркасы; Алайский хребет) constitute a mountain range that extends from the Tien Shan mountain range in Kyrgyzstan west into Tajikistan.
Almaty (Алматы, Almaty; Алматы), formerly known as Alma-Ata (Алма-Ата) and Verny (Верный Vernyy), is the largest city in Kazakhstan, with a population of 1,797,431 people, about 8% of the country's total population.
The Altai Mountains (also spelled Altay Mountains; Altai: Алтай туулар, Altay tuular; Mongolian:, Altai-yin niruɣu (Chakhar) / Алтайн нуруу, Altain nuruu (Khalkha); Kazakh: Алтай таулары, Altai’ tay’lary, التاي تاۋلارى Алтайские горы, Altajskije gory; Chinese; 阿尔泰山脉, Ā'ěrtài Shānmài, Xiao'erjing: اَعَرتَىْ شًامَىْ; Dungan: Артэ Шанмэ) are a mountain range in Central and East Asia, where Russia, China, Mongolia, and Kazakhstan come together, and are where the rivers Irtysh and Ob have their headwaters.
An apple is a sweet, edible fruit produced by an apple tree (Malus pumila).
In physical geology, aspect is the compass direction that a slope faces.
Ürümqi (yengi; from Oirat "beautiful pasture") is the capital of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in the far northwest of the People's Republic of China.
Barköl Kazakh Autonomous County (Barköl Qazaq awtonomïyalıq awdanı, sometimes Barkul or Balikul in English) is part of Kumul Prefecture in Xinjiang, China and has an area of.
Bishkek (Бишке́к, BISHKEK, بىشکەک;; bʲɪʂˈkʲɛk), formerly Pishpek and Frunze, is the capital and largest city of Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz Republic).
The Bogda Shan (Богд Уул, Bogd Uul) range is part of the eastern Tian Shan mountains, and located in Xinjiang, some 60 km east of Ürümqi.
The Borohoro Mountains is one of the major ranges of the Tian Shan mountain system.
The Cenozoic Era meaning "new life", is the current and most recent of the three Phanerozoic geological eras, following the Mesozoic Era and, extending from 66 million years ago to the present day.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
Chinese folk religion (Chinese popular religion) or Han folk religion is the religious tradition of the Han people, including veneration of forces of nature and ancestors, exorcism of harmful forces, and a belief in the rational order of nature which can be influenced by human beings and their rulers as well as spirits and gods.
Chuy Region or Chui Region (Kyrgyz: Чүй облусу, Çüy oblusu; Чуйская область, Čujskaja oblastj) is the northernmost region (oblast) of the Kyrgyz Republic.
Dankov (Данков) is a town and the administrative center of Dankovsky District in Lipetsk Oblast, Russia, located on the Don River northwest of Lipetsk, the administrative center of the oblast.
Dzungaria (also spelled Zungaria, Dzungharia or Zungharia, Dzhungaria or Zhungaria, or Djungaria or Jungaria) is a geographical region in northwest China corresponding to the northern half of Xinjiang, also known as Beijiang.
The Dzungarian Alatau (Джунгарский Алатау, Dzhungarskiy Alatau;; Jetisy' Alatay'y, Жетісу Алатауы) is a mountain range that lies on the boundary of the Dzungaria region of China and the Zhetysu region of Kazakhstan.
The Dzungarian Gate is a geographically and historically significant mountain pass between China and Central Asia.
The Fergana Range (Фергана тоо кыркасы, Ferğana tó qırqası/Fergana too kyrkasy, فەرعانا توو قىرقاسى), also known as Ferganskiy Khrebet (Феранский Хребет) Ferganskij Hrebet in Russian, meaning “Ferghana Mountain” in English) is a mountain range of the Tian Shan in the Kyrgyz Republic. The length of the range is 206 km, and the average height is 3600 m above sea level. The highest Mountain is 4893 m ASL.
The Fergana Valley (alternatively Farghana or Ferghana; Farg‘ona vodiysi, Фарғона водийси, فەرغانە ۉادىيسى; Фергана өрөөнү, Ferğana öröönü, فەرعانا ۅرۅۅنۉ; Водии Фарғона, Vodiyi Farğona / Vodiji Farƣona; Ферганская долина, Ferganskaja dolina; وادی فرغانه., Vâdiye Ferqâna; Фыйрганна Пенды, Xiao'erjing: فِ عَر قًا نَ پٌ دِ) is a valley in Central Asia spread across eastern Uzbekistan, southern Kyrgyzstan and northern Tajikistan.
Kazakhstan is located in Central Asia and Eastern Europe at.
Kyrgyzstan is a landlocked nation in Central Asia, west of the People's Republic of China.
Hami, also known as Kumul, is a prefecture-level city in eastern Xinjiang, China.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau.
Map of the Lake Balkhash drainage basin showing the Ili River and its tributaries The Ili River (Ile, ئله; Или;; Йили хә, Xiao'erjing: اِلِ حْ;, literally "Bareness") is a river situated in northwestern China and southeastern Kazakhstan.
Immortality is eternal life, being exempt from death, unending existence.
Issyk-Kul (also Ysyk Köl, Issyk-Kol: Ысык-Көл, Isıq-Köl, ىسىق-كۅل,; Иссык-Куль, Issyk-Kulj) is an endorheic lake in the northern Tian Shan mountains in eastern Kyrgyzstan.
Jengish Chokusu (Жеңиш чокусу, Ceñiş çoqusu, جەڭىش چوقۇسۇ; Пик Победы, Pik Pobedy) is the highest mountain in the Tian Shan mountain system at.
Juglans regia, the Persian walnut, English walnut, Circassian walnut, or especially in Great Britain, common walnut, is an Old World walnut tree species native to the region stretching from the Balkans eastward to the Himalayas and southwest China.
The Kakshaal Too (Какшаал Тоо, Qaqşaal Too, قاقشاال توو) is a large mountain range in the Central Tien-Shan.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
The Küngöy Ala-Too (Күңгөй Ала-Тоо), also spelled Kyungei Alatoo, Kungey Ala-Too, and Kungey Alatau, is a range in the North Tien-Shan.
Khan Tengri (Хан Тәңірі, حان تأڭئرئ, Han Táńiri; Хан-Теңири, حان-تەڭىرى, Xan-Teñiri;, Хантәңри, Xantengri;, Xiao'erjing: هًا تٍْ قْ لِ فعْ) is a mountain of the Tian Shan mountain range.
The Kyrgyz Ala-Too (Кыргыз Ала-Тоосу, also Kyrgyz Alatau, Kyrgyz Range, Alexander Range) is a large range in the North Tien-Shan.
The Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz Respublikasy; r; Қирғиз Республикаси.), or simply Kyrgyzstan, and also known as Kirghizia (Kyrgyzstan; r), is a sovereign state in Central Asia.
This is a list of places below mean sea level that are on land.
This is a list of lists of World Heritage Sites.
A microclimate is a local set of atmospheric conditions that differ from those in the surrounding areas, often with a slight difference but sometimes with a substantial one.
Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.
Mountaineering is the sport of mountain climbing.
Naryn Region (Нарын облусу, Narın oblusu/Naryn oblusu, نارىن وبلاستى) is the largest region (oblast) of Kyrgyzstan.
The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions in the world.
Northwestern China includes the autonomous regions of Xinjiang and Ningxia and the provinces of Shaanxi, Gansu, and Qinghai.
An oblast is a type of administrative division of Belarus, Bulgaria, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Ukraine, and the former Soviet Union and Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
Old Turkic (also East Old Turkic, Orkhon Turkic, Old Uyghur) is the earliest attested form of Turkic, found in Göktürk and Uyghur inscriptions dating from about the 7th century AD to the 13th century.
An orogeny is an event that leads to a large structural deformation of the Earth's lithosphere (crust and uppermost mantle) due to the interaction between plate tectonics.
The Pamir Mountains, or the Pamirs, are a mountain range in Central Asia at the junction of the Himalayas with the Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kunlun, Hindu Kush, Suleman and Hindu Raj ranges.
In geology, permafrost is ground, including rock or (cryotic) soil, at or below the freezing point of water for two or more years.
Picea schrenkiana, Schrenk's spruce, or Asian spruce, is a spruce native to the Tian Shan mountains of central Asia in western China (Xinjiang), Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
Pyotr Petrovich Semyonov-Tyan-Shansky (Пётр Петрович Семёнов-Тян-Шанский) (2 January (New style: 14 January), 1827 – 26 February (New style: March 11), 1914) was a Russian geographer and statistician who managed the Russian Geographical Society for more than 40 years.
The Qilian Mountains also known as Richthofen Range, (Tsilien Mountains;; Mongghul: Chileb), together with the Altyn-Tagh (Altun Shan) also known as Nan Shan (literally "Southern Mountains"), as it is to the south of Hexi Corridor, is a northern outlier of the Kunlun Mountains, forming the border between Qinghai and the Gansu provinces of northern China.
The Queen Mother of the West, known by various local names, is a goddess in Chinese religion and mythology, also worshipped in neighbouring Asian countries, and attested from ancient times.
The Records of the Grand Historian, also known by its Chinese name Shiji, is a monumental history of ancient China and the world finished around 94 BC by the Han dynasty official Sima Qian after having been started by his father, Sima Tan, Grand Astrologer to the imperial court.
Sima Qian was a Chinese historian of the early Han dynasty (206AD220).
Suusamyr Too (Суусамыр тоо кыркасы) is a mountain range in internal Tian Shan in Kyrgyzstan.
Suusamyr Valley lies at 2,000-2,500 meters above the sea level between Suusamyr Too and Kyrgyz Ala-Too ranges of Tian Shan mountains in Central Asia.
The Syr Darya is a river in Central Asia. The Syr Darya originates in the Tian Shan Mountains in Kyrgyzstan and eastern Uzbekistan and flows for west and north-west through Uzbekistan and southern Kazakhstan to the northern remnants of the Aral Sea. It is the northern and eastern of the two main rivers in the endorrheic basin of the Aral Sea, the other being the Amu Darya. In the Soviet era, extensive irrigation projects were constructed around both rivers, diverting their water into farmland and causing, during the post-Soviet era, the virtual disappearance of the Aral Sea, once the world's fourth-largest lake.
The Taklamakan Desert (Xiao'erjing: تَاكْلامَاقًا شَاموْ; تەكلىماكان قۇملۇقى; Такәламаган Шамә), also spelled "Taklimakan" and "Teklimakan", is a desert in southwest Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwest China.
The Talas Ala-Too (or Alatau) range (Kyrgyz: Талас Ала-Тоосу) is range of the Tian Shan mountains forming the southern and eastern border of Talas Region of Kyrgyzstan.
Talas Region (Kyrgyz: Талас облусу, Talas oblusu Russian: Таласская область) is a region (oblast) of Kyrgyzstan.
The Talas River (Kyrgyz, Талас) rises in the Talas Region of Kyrgyzstan and flows west into Kazakhstan.
Taldykorgan (Талдықорған, Taldıqorğan, Талдыкорган), known as Taldy-Kurgan until 1993, is the administrative center of Almaty Region, Kazakhstan.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
The Tannu-Ola mountains Таңды-Уула, Tañdı-Uula, Taᶇdь-Uula, – Tangdy-Uula mountains; Тагнын нуруу, Tağnîn nurú) is a mountain range in southern Siberia, in the Tuva Republic of Russia. It extends in an east-west direction and curves along the Mongolian border. Its highest peak reaches.
Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').
The Tarim Basin is an endorheic basin in northwest China occupying an area of about.
The Tarim River (Mandarin Tǎlǐmù Hé, 塔里木河; Uyghur: تارىم دەرياسى, Тарим дәряси), known in Sanskrit as the Śītā is an endorheic river in Xinjiang, China.
Tashkent (Toshkent, Тошкент, تاشكېنت,; Ташкент) is the capital and largest city of Uzbekistan, as well as the most populated city in Central Asia with a population in 2012 of 2,309,300.
The Tian Shan is a mountain range in central Asia that extends through western China, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan.
Tengri (𐱅𐰭𐰼𐰃; Тангра; Modern Turkish: Tanrı; Proto-Turkic *teŋri / *taŋrɨ; Mongolian script:, Tngri; Modern Mongolian: Тэнгэр, Tenger), is one of the names for the primary chief deity used by the early Turkic (Xiongnu, Hunnic, Bulgar) and Mongolic (Xianbei) peoples.
Tengrism, also known as Tengriism or Tengrianism, is a Central Asian religion characterized by shamanism, animism, totemism, poly- and monotheismMichael Fergus, Janar Jandosova,, Stacey International, 2003, p.91.
The Terskey Alatau or Terskey Ala-Too (Тескей Ала-Тоо) is a mountain range in the Tian Shan mountains in Kyrgyzstan.
Tiān (天) is one of the oldest Chinese terms for heaven and a key concept in Chinese mythology, philosophy, and religion.
The Tibetan Plateau, also known in China as the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau or the Qing–Zang Plateau or Himalayan Plateau, is a vast elevated plateau in Central Asia and East Asia, covering most of the Tibet Autonomous Region and Qinghai in western China, as well as part of Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir, India.
Torugart Pass is a mountain pass in the Tian Shan mountain range near the border between the Naryn Province of Kyrgyzstan and the Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China.
The Trans-Alay Range (Чоң Алай кырка тоосу, Chon Alai Krka Toosu; Заалайский хребет, Zaalaisky Khrebet; also 'Trans Alai') is the northernmost range of the Pamir Mountain System.
Ile Alatau (Ile Alatay'y, Іле Алатауы; Заилийский Алатау, Zailiyskiy Alatau), also spelt as Trans-Ili Alatau, etc., is a part of the Northern Tian Shan mountain system (ancient Mount Imeon) in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
One of the northern extensions of the Pamir-Alay system, the Turkestan Range stretches for a total length of 340 km from the Alay Mountains on the border of Kyrgyzstan with Tajikistan to the Samarkand oasis in Uzbekistan.
The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).
The Turpan Depression, or Turfan Depression, is a fault-bounded trough located around and south of the city-oasis of Turpan, in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region in far western China, about southeast of the regional capital Ürümqi.
Tuva (Тува́) or Tyva (Тыва), officially the Tyva Republic (p; Тыва Республика, Tyva Respublika), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic, also defined in the Constitution of the Russian Federation as a state).
Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.
The World Heritage Committee selects the sites to be listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites, including the World Heritage List and the List of World Heritage in Danger, monitors the state of conservation of the World Heritage properties, defines the use of the World Heritage Fund and allocates financial assistance upon requests from States Parties.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى; SASM/GNC: Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni; p) is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country.
The Xiongnu were a confederation of nomadic peoples who, according to ancient Chinese sources, inhabited the eastern Asian Steppe from the 3rd century BC to the late 1st century AD.
Yan Shigu (581–645), formal name Yan Zhou (顏籀), but went by the courtesy name of Shigu, was a famous Chinese author and linguist of the Tang Dynasty.
The Yuezhi or Rouzhi were an ancient people first reported in Chinese histories as nomadic pastoralists living in an arid grassland area in the western part of the modern Chinese province of Gansu, during the 1st millennium BC.
Heavenly Mountains, Mount Heaven, Mount Tianshan, Northern Tyan-Shan, T'Ien Shan, T'ien-shan Range, Tangritah, Tengri Mountains, Tengri tagh, Thian Shan Mountains, Tian Mountains, Tian Shan Mountains, Tian Shan range, Tian-Shan, Tian-shan, Tianshan, Tianshan Mountains, Tien Shan, Tien Shan Mountain, Tien Shan Mountains, Tien shan, Tien-Shan, Tien-Shan Mountain, Tien-Shan Mountains, Tien-Shan mountains, Tienshan, Tienshan Mountain, Tyan Shan, Western Tien-Shan, تەڭرىتاغ, 天山.