400 relations: A. Tom Grunfeld, Abbasid Caliphate, Agence France-Presse, Aksai Chin, Alfred James Broomhall, Alston Rivers, Altan Khan, Amban, Amdo, An Lushan Rebellion, António de Andrade, Architecture of India, Autonomous administrative division, Autonomous administrative divisions of China, Autonomous prefecture, Autonomy, Avalokiteśvara, Ü (region), Ü-Tsang, Bai people, Bakhtiyar Khilji's Tibet campaign, Baltistan, Bamda, Barkam Town, Barley, Batang County, Battle of Chamdo, Battle of Talas, Before Present, Bhrikuti, Bhutan, Blang people, Bon, Bonan people, Brahmaputra River, Brahmi script, British Empire, British expedition to Tibet, Buckwheat, Buddhism, Bureau of Buddhist and Tibetan Affairs, Burmese language, Buryatia, Butter tea, Camel, Central Asia, Central Tibetan Administration, Chamdo, Chang'an, Chant, ..., Charles Allen (writer), China, Chinese architecture, Chinese Civil War, Chinese expedition to Tibet (1720), Chinese expedition to Tibet (1910), Chongqing, Christopher I. Beckwith, Civil war, Classical Tibetan, Columbia University Libraries, Communist Party of China, Como Chamling, Controlled-access highway, Convention Between Great Britain and China Respecting Tibet, Coqên Town, Cordyceps, Cultural Revolution, Dagze Lake, Dalai Lama, Deity, Dharamshala, Dharmachakra, Diarchy, Diqing Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Domestic yak, Dongxiangs, Dpon-chen, Drepung Monastery, Drigum Tsenpo, Drogön Chögyal Phagpa, Dzo, Dzongkha, Dzungar Khanate, East India Company, Elliot Sperling, Emirate of Afghanistan, Emperor Taizong of Tang, Emperor Yang of Sui, Epic of King Gesar, Era of Fragmentation, Erik Haarh, Ethnic group, Exonym and endonym, Flag of Tibet, France 24, Francis Younghusband, Freedom in Exile, Gampopa, Ganden Monastery, Ganden Phodrang, Ganden Tripa, Ganges, Gangtok, Gao Xianzhi, Gar (music), Garzê Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Gautama Buddha, Güshi Khan, Gelu, Nepal, Gelug, Geography (Ptolemy), George Bogle (diplomat), Glenn H. Mullin, Goat, Godan Khan, Golmud, Gompa, Government of the Republic of China, Great Leap Forward, Guge, Guthuk, Gyantse, Gyêgu, Hamlet, Han Chinese, He Guoqiang, Himalayas, Hindu, Historical linguistics, Historical region, History of Tibet, Horse, Hu Jintao, Hu Yaobang, Hugh Edward Richardson, Hui people, Human rights in Tibet, Imperial Preceptor, Incorporation of Tibet into the People's Republic of China, Index of Tibet-related articles, India, Indus River, Ippolito Desideri, Isobel Miller Kuhn, James O. Fraser, Je Tsongkhapa, Jean Baptiste Bourguignon d'Anville, Jia Qinglin, Jiaqing Emperor, Johann Grueber, Jokhang, Jonang, Kadam (Tibetan Buddhism), Kagyu, Kalmykia, Kalu Rinpoche, Kangding, Karaoke, Karluks, Karma Kagyu, Karma Pakshi, 2nd Karmapa Lama, Karmapa, Kashag, Kashmir, Kham, Khoshut Khanate, Kublai Khan, Ladakh, Ladakhi language, Lahaul and Spiti district, Lake Manasarovar, Lake Paiku, Lake Puma Yumco, Lake Rakshastal, Lamb and mutton, Leh, Lhamo La-tso, Lhasa, Lhasa (prefecture-level city), Lhasa Gonggar Airport, Lhasa riot of 1750, Lhatse (town), Lhoba people, Li Changchun, Li Keqiang, Li Tai, Library of Congress, List of highest mountains on Earth, List of Major National Historical and Cultural Sites in Tibet, List of modern political leaders of Tibet, List of Tibetan monasteries, Lisu people, Loanword, Losar, Lu (music), Lumajangdong Co, Mahayana, Mainland China, Manchu people, Mandala, Matthew Kapstein, Möngke Khan, McMahon Line, Mekong, Melvyn Goldstein, Metonymy, Miao people, Middle Chinese, Mojibake, Momo (food), Mongolia, Mongolia (1911–24), Mongols, Monguor people, Monlam Prayer Festival, Monpa people, Monsoon, Mosuo, Mother Jones (magazine), Mount Everest, Mount Kailash, Music of Tibet, Mustard seed, Nagqu Town, Nakhi people, Namri Songtsen, Namtso, Nangma, Nanzhao, Naropa, Nêdong (village), Neolithic, Nepal, Nestorianism, Norbulingka, Nu people, Nyingchi, Nyingma, Oirats, Old Book of Tang, OMF International, Order of Friars Minor Capuchin, Outline of Tibet, Padmasambhava, Pakistan, Pangong Tso, Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, Peter Hopkirk, Phagmodrupa dynasty, Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China, Potala Palace, Presidencies and provinces of British India, Princess Wencheng, Proselytism, Protestantism, Ptolemy, Pumi people, Qiang people, Qianlong Emperor, Qing dynasty, Qinghai, Qinghai Lake, Qinghai–Tibet railway, Rain shadow, Ramoche Temple, Red Guards, Religious music, Religious text, Renminbi, Republic of China (1912–1949), Rinpungpa, Rolf Stein, Russia, Russian Empire, Rutog Town, Rye, Sakya, Sakya Pandita, Sakya Trizin, Salar people, Salween River, Sanskrit, Sándor Kőrösi Csoma, Semitic languages, Separatism, Sera Monastery, Seventeen Point Agreement for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet, Shangpa Kagyu, Sheep, Sherpa language, Shigatse, Shiquanhe, Shiva, Sichuan, Sign language, Sikh Empire, Sikkim, Sikkimese language, Siling Lake, Simla Accord (1914), Sino-Indian War, Sino-Nepalese War, Sino-Sikh War, Sino-Tibetan languages, Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China, Skardu, Society of Jesus, Songtsen Gampo, South Tibet, Spiti Valley, Standard Chinese, Standard Tibetan, Staple food, State Council of the People's Republic of China, Stew, Stupa, Subsistence agriculture, Suzerainty, Tai Situ Changchub Gyaltsen, Tang dynasty, Tangut people, Tartary, Tawang, Territory, Thangka, The Great Game, The Historical Status of China's Tibet, The Hotel on the Roof of the World, THL Simplified Phonetic Transcription, Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, Tibet (1912–1951), Tibet Area (administrative division), Tibet Autonomous Region, Tibet Justice Center, Tibet under Yuan rule, Tibetan alphabet, Tibetan art, Tibetan Buddhism, Tibetan calendar, Tibetan Empire, Tibetan festivals, Tibetan independence movement, Tibetan Muslims, Tibetan people, Tibetan pinyin, Tibetan Plateau, Tibetan rug, Tibetan Sign Language, Tibeto-Burman languages, Tingri (town), Tone (linguistics), Tong Tso, Tourism, Transcription into Chinese characters, Treaty of friendship and alliance between the Government of Mongolia and Tibet, Treaty of Lhasa, Tsampa, Tsangpa, Tsering Shakya, Tumed, Turkic languages, Tuva, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, University of Washington Press, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries Digital Collections, Uyghur Khaganate, Vajrayana, Wen Jiabao, William H. Baxter, World Heritage site, Wu Bangguo, Xi Jinping, Xi'an, Xikang, Xinhai Revolution, Xinhua News Agency, Xining, Yamdrok Lake, Yangtze, Yarlung Tsangpo Grand Canyon, Yarlung Tsangpo River, Yarlung Valley, Yellow River, Yi people, Yin and yang, Yogurt, Yuan dynasty, Yunnan, Zhangzhung, Zhao Erfeng, Zhongyuan, Zhou Yongkang, Zorawar Singh Kahluria, 13th Dalai Lama, 14th Dalai Lama, 1959 Tibetan uprising, 2008 Tibetan unrest, 3rd Dalai Lama, 5th Dalai Lama. Expand index (350 more) » « Shrink index
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris, France.
Aksai Chin (ﺋﺎﻗﺴﺎﻱ ﭼﯩﻦ;Hindi-अक्साई चिन) is a disputed border area between China and India.
Alfred James Broomhall (6 December 1911 – 11 May 1994), also A. J. Broomhall, was a British Protestant Christian medical missionary to China, and author and historian of the China Inland Mission (renamed as Overseas Missionary Fellowship in 1964, known today as OMF International based in Singapore).
Alston Rivers Ltd. was a London publishing firm.
Altan Khan of the Tümed (1507–1582; Алтан хан; Chinese: 阿爾坦汗), whose given name was Anda (in Mongolian; 俺答 in Chinese), was the leader of the Tümed Mongols, Shunyi Wang (Prince of Shunyi, Chinese: 顺义王) of Ming dynasty China, and de facto ruler of the Right Wing, or western tribes, of the Mongols.
Amban (Manchu:Amban, Mongol: Амбан, Tibetan:ཨམ་བན་am ben, Uighur:ئامبان་am ben) is a Manchu language word meaning "high official," which corresponds to a number of different official titles in the Qing imperial government.
Amdo (ʔam˥˥.to˥˥) is one of the three traditional regions of Tibet, the other two being Ü-Tsang and Kham; it is also the birthplace of the 14th Dalai Lama.
The An Lushan Rebellion was a devastating rebellion against the Tang dynasty of China.
Father António de Andrade (1580 – March 19, 1634) was a Jesuit priest and explorer from Portugal.
The architecture of India is rooted in its history, culture and religion.
An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subdivision or dependent territory of a country that has a degree of self-governance, or autonomy, from an external authority.
. Autonomous administrative divisions of China are specific areas associated with one or more ethnic minorities that are designated as autonomous within the People's Republic of China (PRC).
Autonomous prefectures are one type of autonomous administrative divisions of China, existing at the prefectural level, with either ethnic minorities forming over 50% of the population or being the historic home of significant minorities.
In development or moral, political, and bioethical philosophy, autonomy is the capacity to make an informed, un-coerced decision.
Avalokiteśvara (अवलोकितेश्वर) is a bodhisattva who embodies the compassion of all Buddhas.
Ü is a geographic division and a historical region in Tibet.
Ü-Tsang or Tsang-Ü, is one of the three traditional provinces of Tibet, the other two being Amdo and Kham.
The Bai or Baip (Bai language: Baipho /pɛ̰˦˨xo̰˦/ (白和);; endonym pronounced) are an East Asian ethnic group.
Bakhtiar Khilji, the Muslim conqueror of Bengal under the Delhi Sultanate, launched a campaign to invade Tibet in the 13th century.
Baltistan (بلتستان, script also known as Baltiyul or Little Tibet (script), is a mountainous region on the border of Pakistan and India in the Karakoram mountains just south of K2 (the world's second-highest mountain). Baltistan borders Gilgit to the west, Xinjiang (China) in the north, Ladakh on the southeast and the Kashmir Valley on the southwest. Its average altitude is over. Prior to 1947, Baltistan was part of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, having been conquered by Raja Gulab Singh's armies in 1840. Baltistan and Ladakh were administered jointly under one wazarat (district) of the state. Baltistan retained its identity in this set-up as the Skardu tehsil, with Kargil and Leh being the other two tehsils of the district. After the Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir acceded to India, Gilgit Scouts overthrew the Maharaja's governor in Gilgit and (with Azad Kashmir's irregular forces) captured Baltistan. The Gilgit Agency and Baltistan have been governed by Pakistan ever since. The Kashmir Valley and the Kargil and Leh tehsils were retained by India. A small portion of Baltistan, including the village of Turtuk in the Nubra Valley, was incorporated into Ladakh after the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971. The region is inhabited primarily by Balti people of Tibetan descent. Millennia-old Tibetan culture, customs, norms, language and script still exist, although the vast majority of the population follows Islam. Baltistan is strategically significant to Pakistan and India; the Kargil and Siachen Wars were fought there. The region is the setting for Greg Mortenson's book, Three Cups of Tea.
Bamda is a small town in Nyingchi Prefecture in the south-east of the Tibet Autonomous Region of China, roughly from Lhasa.
Barkam is a town in and the seat of Barkam City, in the northwest of Sichuan province, People's Republic of China.
Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally.
Batang County is a county located in western Garzê Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Province, People's Republic of China.
The Battle of Chamdo occurred from 6 through 19 October 1950.
The Battle of Talas, Battle of Talas River, or Battle of Artlakh (معركة نهر طلاس) was a military engagement between the Arab Abbasid Caliphate along with their ally the Tibetan Empire against the Chinese Tang dynasty, governed at the time by Emperor Xuanzong.
Before Present (BP) years is a time scale used mainly in geology and other scientific disciplines to specify when events occurred in the past.
The Licchavi Princess Bhrikuti Devi, known to Tibetans as Bal-mo-bza' Khri-btsun, Bhelsa Tritsun ('Nepali consort') or, simply, Khri bTsun ("Royal Lady"), is traditionally considered to have been the first wife of the earliest emperor of Tibet, Songtsen Gampo (605? - 650 CE), and an incarnation of Tara.
Bhutan, officially the Kingdom of Bhutan (Druk Gyal Khap), is a landlocked country in South Asia.
The Blang (布朗族: Bùlǎng Zú) (also spelled Bulong) people are an ethnic group.
Bon, also spelled Bön, is a Tibetan religion, which self-identifies as distinct from Tibetan Buddhism, although it shares the same overall teachings and terminology.
The Bonan people (保安族; pinyin: Bǎo'ān zú; native) are an ethnic group living in Gansu and Qinghai provinces in northwestern China.
The Brahmaputra (is one of the major rivers of Asia, a trans-boundary river which flows through China, India and Bangladesh. As such, it is known by various names in the region: Assamese: ব্ৰহ্মপুত্ৰ নদ ('নদ' nôd, masculine form of 'নদী' nôdi "river") Brôhmôputrô; ब्रह्मपुत्र, IAST:; Yarlung Tsangpo;. It is also called Tsangpo-Brahmaputra (when referring to the whole river including the stretch within Tibet). The Manas River, which runs through Bhutan, joins it at Jogighopa, in India. It is the ninth largest river in the world by discharge, and the 15th longest. With its origin in the Manasarovar Lake, located on the northern side of the Himalayas in Burang County of Tibet as the Yarlung Tsangpo River, it flows across southern Tibet to break through the Himalayas in great gorges (including the Yarlung Tsangpo Grand Canyon) and into Arunachal Pradesh (India). It flows southwest through the Assam Valley as Brahmaputra and south through Bangladesh as the Jamuna (not to be mistaken with Yamuna of India). In the vast Ganges Delta, it merges with the Padma, the popular name of the river Ganges in Bangladesh, and finally the Meghna and from here it is known as Meghna before emptying into the Bay of Bengal. About long, the Brahmaputra is an important river for irrigation and transportation. The average depth of the river is and maximum depth is. The river is prone to catastrophic flooding in the spring when Himalayas snow melts. The average discharge of the river is about, and floods can reach over. It is a classic example of a braided river and is highly susceptible to channel migration and avulsion. It is also one of the few rivers in the world that exhibit a tidal bore. It is navigable for most of its length. The river drains the Himalaya east of the Indo-Nepal border, south-central portion of the Tibetan plateau above the Ganga basin, south-eastern portion of Tibet, the Patkai-Bum hills, the northern slopes of the Meghalaya hills, the Assam plains, and the northern portion of Bangladesh. The basin, especially south of Tibet, is characterized by high levels of rainfall. Kangchenjunga (8,586 m) is the only peak above 8,000 m, hence is the highest point within the Brahmaputra basin. The Brahmaputra's upper course was long unknown, and its identity with the Yarlung Tsangpo was only established by exploration in 1884–86. This river is often called Tsangpo-Brahmaputra river. The lower reaches are sacred to Hindus. While most rivers on the Indian subcontinent have female names, this river has a rare male name, as it means "son of Brahma" in Sanskrit (putra means "son").
Brahmi (IAST) is the modern name given to one of the oldest writing systems used in Ancient India and present South and Central Asia from the 1st millennium BCE.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The British expedition to Tibet, also known as the British invasion of Tibet or the Younghusband expedition to Tibet began in December 1903 and lasted until September 1904.
Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), also known as common buckwheat, Japanese buckwheat and silverhull buckwheat, is a plant cultivated for its grain-like seeds and as a cover crop.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
The Bureau of Buddhist and Tibetan Affairs, or Xuanzheng Yuan was a government agency and top-level administrative department set up in Khanbaliq (modern Beijing) that supervised Buddhist monks in addition to managing the territory of Tibet during the Yuan dynasty (1271-1368) established by Kublai Khan.
The Burmese language (မြန်မာဘာသာ, MLCTS: mranmabhasa, IPA) is the official language of Myanmar.
The Republic of Buryatia (p; Buryaad Ulas) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic), located in Asia in Siberia.
Butter tea, also known as po cha ("Tibetan tea"), cha süma ("churned tea"), Mandarin Chinese: sūyóu chá (酥油茶) or gur gur in the Ladakhi language, is a drink of the people in the Himalayan regions of Nepal, Bhutan, India (particularly in Ladakh, Sikkim) and, most famously, Tibet.
A camel is an even-toed ungulate in the genus Camelus that bears distinctive fatty deposits known as "humps" on its back.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
The Central Tibetan Administration, also known as CTA (literally Exile Tibetan People's Organisation) is an organisation based in India.
Chamdo, officially Qamdo, and known in Chinese as Changdu, is a prefecture-level city in the eastern part of the Tibet Autonomous Region, China.
Chang'an was an ancient capital of more than ten dynasties in Chinese history, today known as Xi'an.
A chant (from French chanter, from Latin cantare, "to sing") is the iterative speaking or singing of words or sounds, often primarily on one or two main pitches called reciting tones.
Charles Allen (born 1940) is a British freelance writer and popular historian who lives in London.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chinese architecture is a style of architecture that has taken shape in East Asia over many centuries.
The Chinese Civil War was a war fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led government of the Republic of China and the Communist Party of China (CPC).
The 1720 Chinese expedition to Tibet or the Chinese conquest of Tibet in 1720 was a military expedition sent by the Qing empire to expel the invading forces of the Dzungar Khanate from Tibet and establish a Chinese protectorate over the country.
The 1910 Chinese expedition to Tibet or the Chinese invasion of Tibet in 1910 was a military campaign of the Qing dynasty to establish direct rule in Tibet in early 1910.
Chongqing, formerly romanized as Chungking, is a major city in southwest China.
Christopher I. Beckwith (born 1945) is a professor in the Department of Central Eurasian Studies at Indiana University in Bloomington, Indiana.
A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups within the same state or country.
Classical Tibetan refers to the language of any text written in Tibetic after the Old Tibetan period; though it extends from the 7th century until the modern day, it particularly refers to the language of early canonical texts translated from other languages, especially Sanskrit.
Columbia University Libraries is the library system of Columbia University and is one of the top five academic library systems in North America and top ten largest libraries by volumes held.
The Communist Party of China (CPC), also referred to as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China.
Como Chamling is a saline lake in eastern Dinggyê County, Tibet Autonomous Region, China, on the Tibetan Plateau.
A controlled-access highway is a type of highway which has been designed for high-speed vehicular traffic, with all traffic flow and ingress/egress regulated.
The Convention Between Great Britain and China Respecting Tibet was a treaty signed between the Qing dynasty and the British Empire in 1906, which reaffirmed the Chinese possession of Tibet after the British expedition to Tibet in 1903-1904.
Coqen is a town and seat of Coqên County in Ngari Prefecture of the Tibet Autonomous Region of China.
Cordyceps is a genus of ascomycete fungi (sac fungi) that includes about 400 species.
The Cultural Revolution, formally the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was a sociopolitical movement in China from 1966 until 1976.
Dagzê Lake is one of many inland lakes in Tibet, with a present area of 260 km² (100 square miles).
Dalai Lama (Standard Tibetan: ཏཱ་ལའི་བླ་མ་, Tā la'i bla ma) is a title given to spiritual leaders of the Tibetan people.
A deity is a supernatural being considered divine or sacred.
Dharamshala (also spelled Dharamsala) is the second winter capital of the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh and a municipal corporation in Kangra district.
The dharmachakra (which is also known as the wheel of dharma), is one of the Ashtamangala of Indian religions such as Jainism, Buddhism, and Hinduism.
A diarchy (from Greek δι-, di-, "double", and -αρχία, -arkhía, "ruled").
Diqing Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture is an autonomous prefecture in northwestern Yunnan province, China.
The domestic yak (Bos grunniens) is a long-haired domesticated bovid found throughout the Himalayan region of the Indian subcontinent, the Tibetan Plateau and as far north as Mongolia and Russia.
The Dongxiang people (autonym: Sarta or Santa (撒尔塔);; Xiao'erjing: دْوݣسِيْاݣذُ) are one of 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China.
The dpon-chen or pönchen, literally the "great authority" or "great administrator", was the chief administrator or governor of Tibet located at Sakya Monastery during the Yuan administrative rule of Tibet in the 13th and 14th centuries.
Drepung Monastery ("Rice Heap Monastery"), located at the foot of Mount Gephel, is one of the "great three" Gelug university gompas (monasteries) of Tibet.
Drigum Tsenpo was an emperor of Tibet.
Drogön Chogyal Phagpa (1235 – 15 December 1280), was the fifth leader of the Sakya school of Tibetan Buddhism.
A dzo (Tibetan མཛོ་ mdzo) (also spelled zo, zho and dzho) is a hybrid between the yak and domestic cattle.
Dzongkha, or Bhutanese (རྫོང་ཁ་), is a Sino-Tibetan language spoken by over half a million people in Bhutan; it is the sole official and national language of the Kingdom of Bhutan.
The Dzungar Khanate, also written as the Zunghar Khanate, was an Oirat khanate on the Eurasian Steppe.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
Elliot Sperling (January 4, 1951 – January 29, 2017) was one of the world's leading historians of Tibet and Tibetan-Chinese relations, and a MacArthur Fellow.
The Emirate of Afghanistan (د افغانستان امارت) was an emirate between Central Asia and South Asia, which is today's Islamic Republic of Afghanistan.
Emperor Taizong of Tang (28January 598 10July 649), previously Prince of Qin, personal name Li Shimin, was the second emperor of the Tang dynasty of China, ruling from 626 to 649.
Emperor Yang of Sui (隋煬帝, 569 – 11 April 618), personal name Yang Guang (楊廣), alternative name Ying (英), nickname Amo (阿摩), Sui Yang Di or Yang Di (隋炀帝) known as Emperor Ming (明帝) during the brief reign of his grandson Yang Tong), was the second son of Emperor Wen of Sui, and the second emperor of China's Sui dynasty. Emperor Yang's original name was Yang Ying, but was renamed by his father, after consulting with oracles, to Yang Guang. Yang Guang was made the Prince of Jin after Emperor Wen established Sui Dynasty in 581. In 588, he was granted command of the five armies that invaded the southern Chen dynasty and was widely praised for the success of this campaign. These military achievements, as well as his machinations against his older brother Yang Yong, led to him becoming crown prince in 600. After the death of his father in 604, generally considered, though unproven, by most traditional historians to be a murder ordered by Yang Guang, he ascended the throne as Emperor Yang. Emperor Yang, ruling from 604 to 618, committed to several large construction projects, most notably the completion of the Grand Canal. He commanded the reconstruction of the Great Wall, a project which took the lives of nearly six million workers. He also ordered several military expeditions that brought Sui to its greatest territorial extent, one of which, the conquest of Champa in what is now central and southern Vietnam, resulted in the death of thousands of Sui soldiers from malaria. These expeditions, along with a series of disastrous campaigns against Goguryeo (one of the three kingdoms of Korea), left the empire bankrupt and a populace in revolt. With northern China in turmoil, Emperor Yang spent his last days in Jiangdu (江都, in modern Yangzhou, Jiangsu), where he was eventually strangled in a coup led by his general Yuwen Huaji. Despite his accomplishments, Emperor Yang was generally considered by traditional historians to be one of the worst tyrants in Chinese history and the reason for the Sui Dynasty's relatively short rule. His failed campaigns against Goguryeo, and the conscriptions levied to man them, coupled with increased taxation to finance these wars and civil unrest as a result of this taxation ultimately led to the downfall of the dynasty.
The Epic of King Gesar ("King Gesar"; Гэсэр Хаан, Geser Khagan, "King Geser", Гесар-хан or Кесар), also spelled Geser (especially in Mongolian contexts) or Kesar, is an epic cycle, believed to date from the 12th century, that relates the heroic deeds of the culture hero Gesar, the fearless lord of the legendary kingdom of Ling.
The Era of Fragmentation is a period of Tibetan history in the 9th and 10th century.
Erik Haarh (? - December 1, 1993) was a 20th-century Danish Tibetologist, most remembered for his pioneering work on the religious ethos of the Tibetan Empire and his contributions to the study of the Zhang Zhung language.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, or a group of people, an individual person, or a language or dialect.
The Tibetan flag, also known as the "snow lion flag" (gangs seng dar cha), is the national flag of Tibet, adopted by the 13th Dalai Lama in 1916.
France 24 (pronounced "France vingt-quatre") is a state-owned 24-hour international news and current affairs television network based in Paris.
Lieutenant Colonel Sir Francis Edward Younghusband, (31 May 1863 – 31 July 1942) was a British Army officer, explorer, and spiritual writer.
Freedom in Exile: The Autobiography of the Dalai Lama is the second autobiography of the 14th Dalai Lama, released in 1991.
Gampopa "the man from Gampo" Sönam Rinchen (1079–1153) was a Tibetan Buddhist teacher in the Kagyu lineage, as well as a doctor and tantric master who founded the Dagpo Kagyu school.
Ganden Monastery (also Gaden or Gandain) or Ganden Namgyeling is one of the "great three" Gelug university monasteries of Tibet, China.
The Ganden Phodrang or Ganden Podrang was the Tibetan government that was established by the 5th Dalai Lama with the help of the Güshi Khan of the Khoshut in 1642.
The Ganden Tripa or Gaden Tripa ("Holder of the Ganden Throne") is the title of the spiritual leader of the Gelug school of Tibetan Buddhism, the school that controlled central Tibet from the mid-17th century until the 1950s.
The Ganges, also known as Ganga, is a trans-boundary river of Asia which flows through the nations of India and Bangladesh.
Gangtok is a city, municipality, the capital and the largest town of the Indian state of Sikkim.
Gao Xianzhi, or Go Seonji, (died January 24, 756) was a Tang dynasty general of Goguryeo descent.
Gar music style is a Tibetan form of chanting and dancing.
Garzê Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture also known as Ganzi (THL Kardzé Börik Rangkyongkhül) — is an autonomous prefecture of China occupying the western arm of Sichuan.
Gautama Buddha (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.
Güshi Khan (also spelled Gushri Khan, Гүш хаан, གུ་ཤྲཱི་བསྟན་འཛིན, 1582 – 14 January 1655) was a Khoshut prince and leader of the Khoshut Khanate, who supplanted the Tumed descendants of Altan Khan as the main benefactor of the Dalai Lama and the Gelug school of Tibetan Buddhism.
Gelu, Nepal is a village development committee in Ramechhap District in the Janakpur Zone of north-eastern Nepal.
The Gelug (Wylie: dGe-Lugs-Pa) is the newest of the schools of Tibetan Buddhism.
The Geography (Γεωγραφικὴ Ὑφήγησις, Geōgraphikḕ Hyphḗgēsis, "Geographical Guidance"), also known by its Latin names as the Geographia and the Cosmographia, is a gazetteer, an atlas, and a treatise on cartography, compiling the geographical knowledge of the 2nd-century Roman Empire.
George Bogle (26 November 1746 – 3 April 1781) was a Scottish adventurer and diplomat, the first to establish diplomatic relations with Tibet and to attempt recognition by the Chinese Qing dynasty.
Glenn H. Mullin (born 1949, Quebec, Canada) is a Tibetologist who lived in the Indian Himalayas between 1972 and 1984, where he studied philosophy, literature, meditation, yoga, and the enlightenment culture under thirty-five of the great living masters from the four schools of Tibetan Buddhism.
The domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe.
Godan, also romanized as Koden and Khodan, (12061251) was a grandson of Genghis Khan, and was administrator over much of China before Kublai Khan came to power.
Golmud, also transliterated as Ge'ermu, Geermu or Nagormo, is a county-level city in Qinghai Province, China, bordering Xinjiang to the northwest and the Tibet Autonomous Region to the southwest.
Gompas, Gönpas, or Gumbas ("remote place", Sanskrit araṇya), also known as ling, are Buddhist ecclesiastical fortifications of learning, lineage and sādhanā that may be understood as a conflation of a fortification, a vihara and a university associated with Tibetan Buddhism and thus common in historical Tibetan regions including parts of China, India, Nepal, Ladakh and Bhutan.
The Government of the Republic of China was formally established in 1912 in Nanking, with Sun Yat-sen as President of the Provisional Government of the Republic of China under the Provisional Constitution of the Republic of China.
The Great Leap Forward of the People's Republic of China (PRC) was an economic and social campaign by the Communist Party of China (CPC) from 1958 to 1962.
Guge was an ancient kingdom in Western Tibet.
Guthuk (Tibetan: དགུ་ཐུག་, English: "nice stew") is a noodle soup in Tibetan cuisine.
Gyantse Town officially, Gyangzê Town (also spelled Gyangtse) is a town located in Gyantse County, Shigatse Prefecture, Tibet Autonomous Region, China.
Gyêgu Subdistrict, formerly a part of the Gyêgu town is a township-level division in Yushu, Yushu TAP, Qinghai, China.
The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, often shortened to Hamlet, is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare at an uncertain date between 1599 and 1602.
The Han Chinese,.
He Guoqiang (born October 1943) is a retired senior leader of the Communist Party of China (CPC).
The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
Historical linguistics, also called diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change over time.
Historical regions (or historical countries) are geographic areas which at some point in time had a cultural, ethnic, linguistic or political basis, regardless of present-day borders.
Tibetan history, as it has been recorded, is particularly focused on the history of Buddhism in Tibet.
The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of ''Equus ferus''.
---- Hu Jintao (born 21 December 1942) is a Chinese politician who was the paramount leader of China from 2002 to 2012.
Hu Yaobang (20 November 1915 – 15 April 1989) was a high-ranking official of the People's Republic of China.
Hugh Edward Richardson (22 December 1905 – 3 December 2000) was an Indian Civil Service officer, British diplomat and Tibetologist.
The Hui people (Xiao'erjing: خُوِذُو; Dungan: Хуэйзў, Xuejzw) are an East Asian ethnoreligious group predominantly composed of Han Chinese adherents of the Muslim faith found throughout China, mainly in the northwestern provinces of the country and the Zhongyuan region.
Human rights in Tibet is a contentious issue.
The Imperial Preceptor, or Dishi (lit. "Teacher of the Emperor") was a high title and powerful post created by Kublai Khan, founder of the Yuan dynasty.
The incorporation of Tibet into the People's Republic of China (called 'Chinese invasion of Tibet' by Tibetan Government in Exile; called 'peaceful liberation of Tibet' in China) was the process by which the People's Republic of China (PRC) gained control of Tibet.
This is a list of topics related to Tibet.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indus River (also called the Sindhū) is one of the longest rivers in Asia.
Ippolito Desideri or Hippolyte Desideri (21 December 1684 – 14 April 1733) was an Italian Jesuit missionary and traveller and the most famous of the early European missionaries to visit Tibet.
Isobel Selina Miller Kuhn, born Isobel Selina Miller, aka, "Belle" (December 17, 1901 – March 20, 1957), was a Canadian Christian missionary to the Lisu people of Yunnan Province, China, and northern Thailand.
James Outram Fraser (Chinese 富能仁) (1886–1938) was a British Protestant Christian missionary to China with the China Inland Mission.
Zongkapa Lobsang Zhaba, or Tsongkhapa ("The man from Tsongkha", 1357–1419), usually taken to mean "the Man from Onion Valley", born in Amdo, was a famous teacher of Tibetan Buddhism whose activities led to the formation of the Gelug school of Tibetan Buddhism.
Jean Baptiste Bourguignon d'Anville (born in Paris July 11, 1697January 28, 1782) was a geographer and cartographer who greatly improved the standards of map-making.
Jia Qinglin (born March 1940) is a retired senior leader of the People's Republic of China and of its ruling Communist Party.
The Jiaqing Emperor (13 November 1760 – 2 September 1820), personal name Yongyan, was the seventh emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty, and the fifth Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1796 to 1820.
Johann Grueber (28 October 1623, Linz - 30 September 1680, Sárospatak, Hungary) was an Austrian Jesuit missionary and astronomer in China, and noted explorer.
The Jokhang, also known as the Qoikang Monastery, Jokang, Jokhang Temple, Jokhang Monastery and Zuglagkang (or Tsuklakang), is a Buddhist temple in Barkhor Square in Lhasa, the capital city of Tibet.
The Jonang is one of the schools of Tibetan Buddhism.
The Kadam school of Tibetan Buddhism was founded by Dromtön (1005–1064), a Tibetan lay master and the foremost disciple of the great Bengali master Atiśa (982-1054).
The Kagyu, Kagyü, or Kagyud school, also known as the "Oral Lineage" or Whispered Transmission school, is today regarded as one of six main schools (chos lugs) of Himalayan or Tibetan Buddhism.
The Republic of Kalmykia (p; Хальмг Таңһч, Xaľmg Tañhç) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic).
Kalu Rinpoche (1905 – May 10, 1989) was a Buddhist lama, meditation master, scholar and teacher.
Kangding, or Dartsedo, is a county-level city and the seat of Garzê Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Sichuan province of Southwest China.
Karaoke, is a form of interactive entertainment or video game developed in Japan in which an amateur singer sings along with recorded music (a music video) using a microphone.
The Karluks (also Qarluqs, Qarluks, Karluqs, Old Turkic:, Qarluq, Persian: خَلُّخ (Khallokh), Arabic قارلوق "Qarluq") were a prominent nomadic Turkic tribal confederacy residing in the regions of Kara-Irtysh (Black Irtysh) and the Tarbagatai Mountains west of the Altay Mountains in Central Asia.
Karma Kagyu, or Kamtsang Kagyu, is probably the 2nd largest and certainly the most widely practiced lineage within the Kagyu school, one of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism.
Karma Pakshi (1204/6–1283) was the 2nd Gyalwa Karmapa.
The Karmapa (honorific title His Holiness the Gyalwa (རྒྱལ་བ་, Victorious One) Karmapa, more formally as Gyalwang (རྒྱལ་དབང་ཀརྨ་པ་, King of Victorious Ones) Karmapa, and informally as the Karmapa Lama) is the head of the Karma Kagyu, the largest sub-school of the Kagyu (བཀའ་བརྒྱུད), itself one of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism.
The Kashag was the governing council of Tibet during the rule of the Qing dynasty and post-Qing period until the 1950s.
Kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent.
Kham is a historical region of Tibet covering a land area largely divided between present-day Tibet Autonomous Region and Sichuan, with smaller portions located within Qinghai, Gansu and Yunnan provinces of China.
The Khoshut Khanate was an Oirat khanate based in the Tibetan Plateau in the 17th and the 18th centuries.
Kublai (Хубилай, Hubilai; Simplified Chinese: 忽必烈) was the fifth Khagan (Great Khan) of the Mongol Empire (Ikh Mongol Uls), reigning from 1260 to 1294 (although due to the division of the empire this was a nominal position).
Ladakh ("land of high passes") is a region in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir that currently extends from the Kunlun mountain range to the main Great Himalayas to the south, inhabited by people of Indo-Aryan and Tibetan descent.
The Ladakhi language, also called Bhoti or Bodhi, is a Tibetic language spoken in the Ladakh region of India.
The district of Lahaul-Spiti in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh consists of the two formerly separate districts of Lahaul and Spiti.
Lake Manasarovar (Chinese: -zh玛旁雍錯 (simplified), -zh瑪旁雍錯(traditional)), also called Mapam Yumtso, is a high altitude freshwater lake fed by the Kailash Glaciers near Mount Kailash in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China.
Lake Paiku (or Peiku, Tibetan: Paiku-Tso or -Tsho) is a lake at elevation on the Tibetan Plateau at, south of the Yarlung Tsangpo (Brahmaputra) River.
Lake Puma Yumco (Chinese: 普莫雍錯) is a lake located at 5,030 metres (16,503 ft) above mean sea level on the southern Tibetan Plateau.
Lake Rakshastal (Wylie transliteration: lag-ngar mtsho; Chinese: 拉昂错, Pinyin: Lā'áng Cuò; La'nga Co) is a lake in Tibet Autonomous Region, lying just west of Lake Manasarovar and south of Mount Kailash.
Lamb, hogget, and mutton are the meat of domestic sheep (species Ovis aries) at different ages.
Leh is a town in the Leh district of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.
Lhamo La-tso or Lhamo Latso is a small oval oracle lake where senior Tibetan monks of the Gelug sect go for visions to assist in the discovery of reincarnations of the Dalai Lamas.
Lhasa is a city and administrative capital of the Tibet Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China.
Lhasa is a prefecture-level city, formerly a prefecture until 7 January 1960, one of the main administrative divisions of the Tibet Autonomous Region of China.
Lhasa Gonggar Airport (ལྷ་ས་གོང་དཀར་གནམ་གྲུ་ཐང་) is the airport serving Lhasa, the capital city of the Tibet Autonomous Region, China.
The Lhasa riot of 1750 took place in the Tibetan capital Lhasa, and lasted several days during the period of Qing rule of Tibet.
The new town of Lhatse or Lhatse Xian, also known as Quxar, Quxia or Chusar, is a small town of a few thousand people in the Tibet Autonomous Region in the valley of the Yarlung Tsangpo River in Lhatse County, southwest of Shigatse and just west of the mountain pass leading to it.
Lhoba (Lo, Klo, Glo) is any of a diverse amalgamation of Sino-Tibetan-speaking tribespeople living in and around Pemako, a region in southeastern Tibet including Mainling, Medog and Zayü counties of Nyingchi Prefecture and Lhünzê County of Lhoka (Shannan) Prefecture.
Li Changchun (born February 1944) is a retired Chinese politician and a former senior leader of the Communist Party of China.
Li Keqiang (Mandarin:; born 1 July 1955) is the current Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China.
Li Tai (618 – December 15, 652), courtesy name Huibao (惠褒), nickname Qingque (青雀), formally Prince Gong of Pu (濮恭王), was an imperial prince of the Chinese Tang Dynasty.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
There are at least 109 mountains on Earth with elevations greater than above sea level.
This list is of Major Sites Protected for their Historical and Cultural Value at the National Level in the Autonomous Region of Tibet, People's Republic of China.
The following is a list of modern political leaders of Tibet within the People's Republic of China.
This list of Tibetan monasteries is a listing of historical and contemporary monasteries of Tibetan Buddhism within the ethno-cultural Tibet itself and elsewhere.
The Lisu people (လီဆူလူမျိုး,;; ลีสู่; Lisu: or) are a Tibeto-Burman ethnic group who inhabit mountainous regions of Burma (Myanmar), southwest China, Thailand, and the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
Losar ("new year"William D. Crump, "Losar" in Encyclopedia of New Year's Holidays Worldwide (McFarland & Co.: 2008), pp. 237-38.) is a festival in Tibetan Buddhism.
Lu is a Tibetan style of folk music of a cappella songs, which are distinctively high in pitch with glottal vibrations.
Lumajangdong Co or Lumajiang Dongcuo is a lake in the Ngari Prefecture, Tibet, China with an area of 250 km².
Mahāyāna (Sanskrit for "Great Vehicle") is one of two (or three, if Vajrayana is counted separately) main existing branches of Buddhism and a term for classification of Buddhist philosophies and practice.
Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, is the geopolitical as well as geographical area under the direct jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
The Manchu are an ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name.
A mandala (Sanskrit: मण्डल, maṇḍala; literally "circle") is a spiritual and ritual symbol in Hinduism and Buddhism, representing the universe.
Matthew Kapstein is a scholar of Tibetan religions and Buddhism at the University of Chicago Divinity School.
Möngke (valign / Мөнх;; January 11, 1209 – August 11, 1259) was the fourth khagan of the Mongol Empire, ruling from July 1, 1251, to August 11, 1259.
The McMahon Line is a border line between Tibetan region of China and North-east region of India, proposed by British colonial administrator Henry McMahon at the 1914 Simla Convention which was signed between the British and the Tibetan representatives.
The Mekong is a trans-boundary river in Southeast Asia.
Melvyn C. Goldstein (born 8 February 1938) is an American social anthropologist and Tibet scholar.
Metonymy is a figure of speech in which a thing or concept is referred to by the name of something closely associated with that thing or concept.
The Miao is an ethnic group belonging to South China, and is recognized by the government of China as one of the 55 official minority groups.
Middle Chinese (formerly known as Ancient Chinese) or the Qieyun system (QYS) is the historical variety of Chinese recorded in the Qieyun, a rime dictionary first published in 601 and followed by several revised and expanded editions.
Mojibake (文字化け) is the garbled text that is the result of text being decoded using an unintended character encoding.
Momo is a type of South Asian dumpling; native to Bhutan, Tibet, Nepal, and the Ladakh, Sikkim, Assam and Darjeeling regions of India.
Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.
The Bogd Khaanate of Mongolia was the government of Mongolia (Outer Mongolia) between 1911 and 1919 and again from 1921 to 1924.
The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
The Monguor or Tu people, White Mongol or Tsagaan Mongol are one of the 56 officially recognized ethnic groups in China.
Monlam also known as The Great Prayer Festival, falls on 4th–11th day of the 1st Tibetan month in Tibetan Buddhism.
The Monpa or Mönpa (मोनपा) are a major ethnic group of Arunachal Pradesh in northeastern India.
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.
The Mosuo (also spelled Moso or Musuo), often called the Na among themselves, are a small ethnic group living in Yunnan and Sichuan Provinces in China, close to the border with Tibet.
Mother Jones (abbreviated MoJo) is a progressive American magazine that focuses on news, commentary, and investigative reporting on topics including politics, the environment, human rights, and culture.
Mount Everest, known in Nepali as Sagarmāthā and in Tibetan as Chomolungma, is Earth's highest mountain above sea level, located in the Mahalangur Himal sub-range of the Himalayas.
Mount Kailash (also Mount Kailasa; Kangrinboqê or Gang Rinpoche (Tibetan: གངས་རིན་པོ་ཆེ; s (simplified); t (traditional)), is a 6,638 m (21,778 ft) high peak in the Kailash Range (Gangdisê Mountains), which forms part of Transhimalaya in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China. The mountain is located near Lake Manasarovar and Lake Rakshastal, close to the source of some of the longest Asian rivers: the Indus, Sutlej, Brahmaputra, and Karnali also known as Ghaghara (a tributary of the Ganges) in India. Mount Kailash is considered to be sacred in four religions: Hinduism, Buddhism, Bön and Jainism.
The music of Tibet reflects the cultural heritage of the trans-Himalayan region, centered in Tibet but also known wherever ethnic Tibetan groups are found in Nepal, Bhutan, India and further abroad.
Mustard seeds are the small round seeds of various mustard plants.
Nagqu Town, Nagchu in original Tibetan or Naqu, also known as Nagchuka or Nagquka, is a town in northern Tibet, seat of Nagqu, approximately by road north-east of the capital Lhasa, within the People's Republic of China.
The Nakhi or Nashi (endonym: ¹na²khi) are an ethnic group inhabiting the foothills of the Himalayas in the northwestern part of Yunnan Province, as well as the southwestern part of Sichuan Province in China.
Namri Songtsen, also known as "Namri Löntsen" (570?–618?/629) was, according to tradition, the 32nd King of Tibet of the Yarlung Dynasty, which until his reign ruled only the Yarlung Valley.
Namtso or Lake Nam (officially: Nam Co; Tenger nuur; “Heavenly Lake”; in European literature: Tengri Nor) is a mountain lake on the border between Damxung County of Lhasa prefecture-level city and Baingoin County of Nagqu Prefecture in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China, approximately NNW of Lhasa.
Nangma (ནང་མ་) is a genre of Tibetan dance music closely related to Toeshey.
Nanzhao, also spelled Nanchao or Nan Chao, was a polity that flourished in what is now southern China and Southeast Asia during the 8th and 9th centuries.
Nāropā (Prakrit; Nāropadā or Naḍapāda) (probably died ca. 1040 CE) was an Indian Buddhist Mahasiddha.
Nedong or Netong is a village in Nêdong County, in the Shannan Prefecture, in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
Nestorianism is a Christological doctrine that emphasizes a distinction between the human and divine natures of the divine person, Jesus.
Norbulingka (ནོར་བུ་གླིང་ཀ་; Wylie: Nor-bu-gling-ka;; literally "The Jewelled Park") is a palace and surrounding park in Lhasa, Tibet, China, built from 1755.
The Nu people (alternative names include Nusu, Nung, Zauzou and Along) are one of the 56 ethnic groups recognized by the People's Republic of China.
Nyingchi, also known as Linzhi, is a prefecture-level city in southeast of the Tibet Autonomous Region.
The Nyingma tradition is the oldest of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism (the other three being the Kagyu, Sakya and Gelug).
Oirats (Oirad or Ойрд, Oird; Өөрд; in the past, also Eleuths) are the westernmost group of the Mongols whose ancestral home is in the Altai region of western Mongolia.
The Old Book of Tang, or simply the Book of Tang, is the first classic historical work about the Tang dynasty, comprising 200 chapters, and is one of the Twenty-Four Histories.
OMF International (formerly Overseas Missionary Fellowship and before 1964 the China Inland Mission) is an international and interdenominational Protestant Christian missionary society with an international centre in Singapore.
The Order of Friars Minor Capuchin (postnominal abbr. O.F.M.Cap.) is an order of friars within the Catholic Church, among the chief offshoots of the Franciscans.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Tibet: Tibet is a plateau region in Asia and the home to the indigenous Tibetan people.
Padmasambhava (lit. "Lotus-Born"), also known as Guru Rinpoche, was an 8th-century Indian Buddhist master.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Pangong Tso (Hindi: पांगोंग त्सो), Tibetan for "high grassland lake", also referred to as Pangong Lake, is an endorheic lake in the Himalayas situated at a height of about.
The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea or Periplus of the Red Sea (Περίπλους τῆς Ἐρυθράς Θαλάσσης, Periplus Maris Erythraei) is a Greco-Roman periplus, written in Greek, describing navigation and trading opportunities from Roman Egyptian ports like Berenice along the coast of the Red Sea, and others along Northeast Africa and the Sindh and South western India.
Peter Hopkirk (15 December 1930 – 22 August 2014) was a British journalist, author and historian who wrote six books about the British Empire, Russia and Central Asia.
The Phagmodrupa Dynasty or Pagmodru was a dynastic regime that held sway over Tibet or parts thereof from 1354 to the early 17th century.
The Standing Committee of the Central Political Bureau of the Communist Party of China, usually known as the Politburo Standing Committee (PSC), is a committee consisting of the top leadership of the Communist Party of China.
The Potala Palace in Lhasa, Tibet Autonomous Region, China was the residence of the Dalai Lama until the 14th Dalai Lama fled to India during the 1959 Tibetan uprising.
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.
Princess Wencheng (Tibetan: Mung-chang Kungco;; 628–680/2), surnamed Li, was a member of a minor branch of the royal clan of the Chinese Tang dynasty (possibly the daughter of Li Daozong, the Prince of Jiangxia).
Proselytism is the act of attempting to convert people to another religion or opinion.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
The Pumi (also Primi) people (Tibetan: བོད་མི་, Wylie: bod mi,, own name) are an ethnic group.
The Qiang people are an ethnic group in China.
The Qianlong Emperor (25 September 1711 – 7 February 1799) was the sixth emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China proper.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
Qinghai, formerly known in English as Kokonur, is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the northwest of the country.
Qinghai Lake, Koko Nor (Mongolian: Хөх нуур) or Tso Ngonpo (Tibetan: མཚོ་སྔོན་པོ།) is the largest lake in China.
The Qinghai–Tibet railway or Qingzang railway (མཚོ་བོད་ལྕགས་ལམ།, mtsho bod lcags lam), is a high-elevation railway that connects Xining, Qinghai Province, to Lhasa, Tibet Autonomous Region of China.
A rain shadow is a dry area on the leeward side of a mountainous area (away from the wind).
Ramoche Temple is a Buddhist monastery in Lhasa, Tibet.
Red Guards were a student mass paramilitary social movement mobilized by Mao Zedong in 1966 and 1967, during the Cultural Revolution.
Religious music (also sacred music) is music performed or composed for religious use or through religious influence.
Religious texts (also known as scripture, or scriptures, from the Latin scriptura, meaning "writing") are texts which religious traditions consider to be central to their practice or beliefs.
The renminbi (Ab.: RMB;; sign: 元; code: CNY) is the official currency of the People's Republic of China.
The Republic of China was a sovereign state in East Asia, that occupied the territories of modern China, and for part of its history Mongolia and Taiwan.
Rinpungpa was a Tibetan regime that dominated much of Western Tibet and part of Ü-Tsang between 1435 and 1565.
Rolf Alfred Stein (13 June 1911 – 9 October 1999) was a German-born French Sinologist and Tibetologist.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Rutog or Rudok is a town and seat of Rutog County in far western Tibet.
Rye (Secale cereale) is a grass grown extensively as a grain, a cover crop and a forage crop.
The Sakya ("pale earth") school is one of four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism, the others being the Nyingma, Kagyu, and Gelug.
Sakya Pandita Kunga Gyeltsen (Tibetan: ས་སྐྱ་པནདིཏ་ཀུན་དགའ་རྒྱལ་མཚན)1182-28 November 1251) was a Tibetan spiritual leader and Buddhist scholar and the fourth of the Five Sakya Forefathers. Künga Gyeltsen is generally known simply as Sakya Pandita, a title given to him in recognition of his scholarly achievements and knowledge of Sanskrit. He is held in the tradition to have been an emanation of Manjusri, the embodiment of the wisdom of all the Buddhas. After that he also known as a great scholar in Tibet, Mongolia, China and India and was proficient in the five great sciences of Buddhist philosophy, medicine, grammar, dialectics and sacred Sanskrit literature as well as the minor sciences of rhetoric, synonymies, poetry, dancing and astrology. He is considered to be the fourth Sakya Forefather and sixth Sakya Trizin and one of the most important figures in the Sakya lineage.
Sakya Trizin ("Sakya Throne-Holder") is the traditional title of the head of the Sakya school of Tibetan Buddhism.
The Salar people (Salır, سالار;, Xiao'erjing: صَالاذُ) are an ethnic minority of China who largely speak the Salar language, an Oghuz Turkic language.
The Salween, known in China as the Nu River, is a river about long that flows from the Tibetan Plateau into the Andaman Sea in Southeast Asia.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Sándor Csoma de Kőrös (born Sándor Csoma; 27 March 1784/811 April 1842) was a Hungarian philologist and Orientalist, author of the first Tibetan-English dictionary and grammar book.
The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.
A common definition of separatism is that it is the advocacy of a state of cultural, ethnic, tribal, religious, racial, governmental or gender separation from the larger group.
Sera Monastery ("Wild Roses Monastery") is one of the "great three" Gelug university monasteries of Tibet, located north of Lhasa and about north of the Jokhang.
The Agreement of the Central People's Government and the Local Government of Tibet on Measures for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet, or the Seventeen Point Agreement for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet for short, is the document by which the delegates of the 14th Dalai Lama, sovereign of the de facto state of Tibet, reached an agreement in 1951 with the Central People's Government of the newly established People's Republic of China on affirming Chinese sovereignty over Tibet.
The Shangpa Kagyu ("Oral Tradition of the man from Shang") is known as the "secret lineage" of the Kagyu school of Vajrayana or Tibetan Buddhism and differs in origin from the better known Dagpo schools.
Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are quadrupedal, ruminant mammal typically kept as livestock.
Sherpa (also Sharpa, Xiaerba, Sherwa) is a language spoken in Nepal and the Indian state of Sikkim, mainly by the Sherpa community.
Shigatse, officially known as Xigazê (Nepali: सिगात्से), is a prefecture-level city of the Tibet Autonomous Region of China, with an area of.
Sênggêzangbo (named after Sênggê Zangbo, a river in Ngari), or Shiquanhe (i.e. "Lion Spring River Town"), is the main town of Ngari Prefecture, Tibet.
Shiva (Sanskrit: शिव, IAST: Śiva, lit. the auspicious one) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism.
Sichuan, formerly romanized as Szechuan or Szechwan, is a province in southwest China occupying most of the Sichuan Basin and the easternmost part of the Tibetan Plateau between the Jinsha River on the west, the Daba Mountains in the north, and the Yungui Plateau to the south.
Sign languages (also known as signed languages) are languages that use manual communication to convey meaning.
The Sikh Empire (also Sikh Khalsa Raj, Sarkar-i-Khalsa or Pañjab (Punjab) Empire) was a major power in the Indian subcontinent, formed under the leadership of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, who established a secular empire based in the Punjab.
Sikkim is a state in Northeast India.
The Sikkimese language, also called "Sikkimese Tibetan", "Bhutia", "Drenjongké" ("Rice Valley language"), Dranjoke, Denjongka, Denzongpeke, and Denzongke, belongs to the Southern Tibetic languages.
Siling Lake, is a lake in the Tibet Autonomous Region, to the north of Xainza.
The Simla Accord, or the Convention Between Great Britain, China, and Tibet, Simla,, Tibet Justice Center.
The Sino-Indian War (भारत-चीन युद्ध Bhārat-Chīn Yuddh), also known as the Sino-Indian Border Conflict, was a war between China and India that occurred in 1962.
The Sino-Nepalese War (नेपाल-चीन युद्ध), also known as the Sino-Gorkha war, was an invasion of Tibet by Nepal from 1788-1792.
The Sino-Sikh War (also referred to as the Invasion of Tibet or the Dogra War) was fought from May 1841 to August 1842, between the forces of Qing China and the Sikh Empire after General Zorawar Singh Kahluria invaded western Tibet.
The Sino-Tibetan languages, in a few sources also known as Trans-Himalayan, are a family of more than 400 languages spoken in East Asia, Southeast Asia and South Asia.
The Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China, also referred to as the 2010 Chinese Census, was conducted by the National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China with a zero hour of November 1, 2010.
Skardu (سکردو, script) is a city in Gilgit-Baltistan region of Pakistan, and serves as the capital of Skardu District.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
Songtsen Gampo (569–649?/605–649?) was the 33rd Tibetan king and founder of the Tibetan Empire, and is traditionally credited with the introduction of Buddhism to Tibet, influenced by his Nepali and Chinese queens, as well as being the unifier of what were previously several Tibetan kingdoms.
South Tibet is a literal translation of the Chinese term Zàngnán (藏南), which may refer to different geographic areas.
The Spiti Valley is a cold desert mountain valley located high in the Himalaya mountains in the north-eastern part of the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh.
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.
Standard Tibetan is the most widely spoken form of the Tibetic languages.
A staple food, or simply a staple, is a food that is eaten routinely and in such quantities that it constitutes a dominant portion of a standard diet for a given people, supplying a large fraction of energy needs and generally forming a significant proportion of the intake of other nutrients as well.
The State Council, constitutionally synonymous with the Central People's Government since 1954 (particularly in relation to local governments), is the chief administrative authority of the People's Republic of China.
A stew is a combination of solid food ingredients that have been cooked in liquid and served in the resultant gravy.
A stupa (Sanskrit: "heap") is a mound-like or hemispherical structure containing relics (śarīra - typically the remains of Buddhist monks or nuns) that is used as a place of meditation.
Subsistence agriculture is a self-sufficiency farming system in which the farmers focus on growing enough food to feed themselves and their entire families.
Suzerainty (and) is a back-formation from the late 18th-century word suzerain, meaning upper-sovereign, derived from the French sus (meaning above) + -erain (from souverain, meaning sovereign).
Tai Situ Changchub Gyaltsen (1302 – 21 November 1364) was a key figure in Tibetan History.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
The Tangut first appeared as a tribal union living under Tuyuhun authority and moved to Northwest China sometime before the 10th century to found the Western Xia or Tangut Empire (1038–1227).
Tartary (Latin: Tartaria) or Great Tartary (Latin: Tartaria Magna) was a name used from the Middle Ages until the twentieth century to designate the great tract of northern and central Asia stretching from the Caspian Sea and the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean, settled mostly by Turko-Mongol peoples after the Mongol invasion and the subsequent Turkic migrations.
Tawang is a town situated at an elevation of approximately to the east of Bhutan.
A territory is an administrative division, usually an area that is under the jurisdiction of a state.
A thangka, variously spelt as thangka, tangka, thanka, or tanka (Nepal Bhasa: पौभा), is a Tibetan Buddhist painting on cotton, silk appliqué, usually depicting a Buddhist deity, scene, or mandala.
"The Great Game" was a political and diplomatic confrontation that existed for most of the nineteenth century between the British Empire and the Russian Empire over Afghanistan and neighbouring territories in Central and Southern Asia.
The Historical Status of China's Tibet is a book published in 1997 in English by the government of the People's Republic of China.
The Hotel on the Roof of the World is a humorous account by Alec Le Sueur of the attempt to manage the Holiday Inn Lhasa in Tibet in the late 1980s and early 1990s.
The THL Simplified Phonetic Transcription of Standard Tibetan (or THL Phonetic Transcription for short) is a system for the phonetic rendering of the Tibetan language.
The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, commonly known in mainland China as the June Fourth Incident (六四事件), were student-led demonstrations in Beijing, the capital of the People's Republic of China, in 1989.
The historical era of Tibet from 1912 to 1951 followed the collapse of the Qing dynasty in 1912, and lasted until the invasion of Tibet by the People's Republic of China.
The Tibet Area was a province-level administrative division of the Republic of China and early People's Republic of China.
The Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) or Xizang Autonomous Region, called Tibet or Xizang for short, is a province-level autonomous region of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
Tibet Justice Center, (TJC, formerly International Committee of Lawyers for Tibet, ICLT) is an American legal association founded in 1989 that advocates human rights and self-determination for the Tibetan people.
Tibet under Yuan rule refers to the Yuan dynasty's rule over Tibet from approximately 1270 to 1354.
The Tibetan alphabet is an abugida used to write the Tibetic languages such as Tibetan, as well as Dzongkha, Sikkimese, Ladakhi, and sometimes Balti.
For more than a thousand years, Tibetan artists have played a key role in the cultural life of Tibet.
Tibetan Buddhism is the form of Buddhist doctrine and institutions named after the lands of Tibet, but also found in the regions surrounding the Himalayas and much of Central Asia.
The Tibetan calendar is a lunisolar calendar, that is, the Tibetan year is composed of either 12 or 13 lunar months, each beginning and ending with a new moon.
The Tibetan Empire ("Great Tibet") existed from the 7th to 9th centuries AD when Tibet was unified as a large and powerful empire, and ruled an area considerably larger than the Tibetan Plateau, stretching to parts of East Asia, Central Asia and South Asia.
In Tibet, the Tibetan calendar lags approximately four to six weeks behind the solar calendar.
The Tibetan independence movement is a movement for the independence of Tibet and the political separation of Tibet from China.
The Tibetan Muslims, also known as the Kachee (also spelled Kache), form a small minority in Tibet.
The Tibetan people are an ethnic group native to Tibet.
Pö yig Kigajor--> The SASM/GNC/SRC romanization of Tibetan, commonly known as Tibetan pinyin, is the official transcription system for the Tibetan language in the People's Republic of China for personal names and place names.
The Tibetan Plateau, also known in China as the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau or the Qing–Zang Plateau or Himalayan Plateau, is a vast elevated plateau in Central Asia and East Asia, covering most of the Tibet Autonomous Region and Qinghai in western China, as well as part of Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir, India.
Tibetan rug making is an ancient, traditional craft.
Tibetan Sign Language is the recently established deaf sign language of Tibet.
The Tibeto-Burman languages are the non-Sinitic members of the Sino-Tibetan language family, over 400 of which are spoken throughout the highlands of Southeast Asia as well as certain parts of East Asia and South Asia.
Gangga (or Tingri according to name of region) (Tibetan: སྒང་དགའ་, Wylie: sgang dga', Chinese: 岗嘎镇; Pinyin: gǎnggā zhèn) is a town in southern Tibet.
Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.
Tong Tso or Dong Co (）is a plateau lake in Gêrzê County, Tibet Autonomous Region, southwest of China. The name of lake means "Desolate Lake" in Standard Tibetan. The lake has a total area of about 87.7 square kilometers. Lying at an elevation of 4,396 metres, it is dotted with two islands.
Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours.
Transcription into Chinese is the use of traditional or simplified characters to transcribe phonetically the sound of terms and names foreign to the Chinese language.
A Treaty of friendship and alliance between the Government of Mongolia and Tibet was signed on 11 January 1913 (corresponding to 29 December 1912 of the Julian calendar), at Urga (now Ulaanbaatar).
The Treaty of Lhasa, officially the Convention Between Great Britain and Thibet, was a treaty signed in 1904 between Tibet and the British Empire, in Lhasa, the capital of Tibet, then under administrative rule of the Qing dynasty.
Tsampa or Tsamba (साम्पा) is a Tibetan and Himalayan Nepalese staple foodstuff, particularly prominent in the central part of the region.
Tsangpa was a dynasty that dominated large parts of Tibet from 1565 to 1642.
Tsering Wangdu Shakya (born 1959) is a historian and scholar on Tibetan literature and modern Tibet and its relationship with China.
The Tümed (Tumad, "The many or ten thousands" derived from Tumen) are a Mongol subgroup.
The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).
Tuva (Тува́) or Tyva (Тыва), officially the Tyva Republic (p; Тыва Республика, Tyva Respublika), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic, also defined in the Constitution of the Russian Federation as a state).
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
The University of Washington Press is an American academic publishing house.
The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries Digital Collections was established in 2001 to provide remote (online) access to the library's unique resources.
The Uyghur Khaganate (or Uyghur Empire or Uighur Khaganate or Toquz Oghuz Country) (Modern Uyghur: ئورخۇن ئۇيغۇر خانلىقى), (Tang era names, with modern Hanyu Pinyin: or) was a Turkic empire that existed for about a century between the mid 8th and 9th centuries.
Vajrayāna, Mantrayāna, Tantrayāna, Tantric Buddhism and Esoteric Buddhism are the various Buddhist traditions of Tantra and "Secret Mantra", which developed in medieval India and spread to Tibet and East Asia.
Wen Jiabao (born 15 September 1942) was the sixth Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, serving as China's head of government for a decade between 2003 and 2013.
William Hubbard Baxter III (born March 3, 1949) is an American linguist specializing in the history of the Chinese language and best known for his work on the reconstruction on Old Chinese.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
Wu Bangguo (born 12 July 1941) is a retired high-ranking politician in the People's Republic of China.
Xi Jinping (born 15 June 1953) is a Chinese politician currently serving as General Secretary of the Communist Party of China (CPC), President of the People's Republic of China, and Chairman of the Central Military Commission.
Xi'an is the capital of Shaanxi Province, China.
Xikang or Sikang or Hsikang was a province of the Republic of China and early People's Republic of China.
The Xinhai Revolution, also known as the Chinese Revolution or the Revolution of 1911, was a revolution that overthrew China's last imperial dynasty (the Qing dynasty) and established the Republic of China (ROC).
Xinhua News Agency (English pronunciation: J. C. Wells: Longman Pronunciation Dictionary, 3rd ed., for both British and American English) or New China News Agency is the official state-run press agency of the People's Republic of China.
Xining (Xīníng; ཟི་ལིང་། Ziling) is the capital of Qinghai province in western China, and the largest city on the Tibetan Plateau.
Yamdrok Lake (also known as Yamdrok Yumtso or Yamzho Yumco) is a freshwater lake in Tibet, it is one of the three largest sacred lakes in Tibet.
The Yangtze, which is 6,380 km (3,964 miles) long, is the longest river in Asia and the third-longest in the world.
The Yarlung Tsangpo Grand Canyon or Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon or simply the Tsangpo Canyon, Brahmaputra Canyon or Tsangpo Gorge, along the Yarlung Tsangpo River in Tibet Autonomous Region, China, is the deepest canyon in the world, and at 504.6 km (314 miles) is slightly longer than the Grand Canyon in the United States, making it one of the world's largest.
Yarlung Tsangpo (sometimes called Yarlung Zangbo or Yarlung Zangbo Jiang, or Yalu Zangbu River is the longest river of Tibet Autonomous Region, China. The part Tsangpo probably originates from the fact that the river flows from or through Tsang- encompassing the part of Tibet west of Lhasa. It is the upper stream of the Brahmaputra River. Originating at Angsi Glacier in western Tibet, southeast of Mount Kailash and Lake Manasarovar, it later forms the South Tibet Valley and Yarlung Tsangpo Grand Canyon before passing into the state of Arunachal Pradesh, India. Downstream from Arunachal Pradesh the river becomes phenomenally wider and is called the Siang. After reaching Assam, the river is known as Brahmaputra. From Assam, the river enters Bangladesh at Ramnabazar. From there until about 200 years ago it used to flow eastward and joined the Meghna River near Bhairab Upazila. This old channel has been gradually dying. At present the main channel of the river is called Jamuna River, which flows southward to meet Ganges, which in Bangladesh is called the Padma. When leaving the Tibetan Plateau, the River forms the world's largest and deepest canyon, Yarlung Tsangpo Grand Canyon.
The Yarlung Valley is formed by the Yarlung Tsangpo River and refers especially to the district where it joins with the Chongye River, and broadens out into a large plain about 2 km wide, before they flow north into the Yarlung Tsangpo River or Brahmaputra.
The Yellow River or Huang He is the second longest river in Asia, after the Yangtze River, and the sixth longest river system in the world at the estimated length of.
The Yi or Nuosuo people (historically known as Lolo) are an ethnic group in China, Vietnam, and Thailand.
In Chinese philosophy, yin and yang (and; 陽 yīnyáng, lit. "dark-bright", "negative-positive") describes how seemingly opposite or contrary forces may actually be complementary, interconnected, and interdependent in the natural world, and how they may give rise to each other as they interrelate to one another.
Yogurt, yoghurt, or yoghourt (or; from yoğurt; other spellings listed below) is a food produced by bacterial fermentation of milk.
The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.
Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country.
Zhangzhung or Shangshung was an ancient culture and kingdom of western and northwestern Tibet, which pre-dates the culture of Tibetan Buddhism in Tibet.
Zhao Erfeng (1845–1911), courtesy name Jihe, was a Qing Dynasty official and Han Chinese bannerman (Manchurized Han Chinese), who belonged to the Plain Blue Banner.
Zhongyuan, Chungyuan, or the Central Plain, also known as Zhongtu, Chungtu or Zhongzhou, Chungchou, is the area on the lower reaches of the Yellow River which formed the cradle of Chinese civilization.
Zhou Yongkang (born December 1942) is a former senior leader of the Communist Party of China (CPC).
Zorawar Singh Kahluria (1786-1841) was a general of the Sikh Empire in South Asia.
Thubten Gyatso (shortened from Ngawang Lobsang Thupten Gyatso Jigdral Chokley Namgyal;; 12 February 1876 – 17 December 1933) was the 13th Dalai Lama of Tibet.
The 14th Dalai Lama (religious name: Tenzin Gyatso, shortened from Jetsun Jamphel Ngawang Lobsang Yeshe Tenzin Gyatso; born Lhamo Thondup, 6 July 1935) is the current Dalai Lama.
The 1959 Tibetan uprising or the 1959 Tibetan rebellion began on 10 March 1959, when a revolt erupted in Lhasa, the capital of the Tibet Area, which had been under the effective control of the People's Republic of China since the Seventeen Point Agreement was reached in 1951.
The 2008 Tibetan unrest, also referred to as the 3-14 Riots in Chinese media, was a series of riots, protests, and demonstrations that started in the Tibetan regional capital of Lhasa.
Sonam Gyatso (1543–1588) was the first to be named Dalai Lama, although the title was retrospectively given to his two predecessors.
Ngawang Lobsang Gyatso (1617 to 1682) was the Fifth Dalai Lama, and the first Dalai Lama to wield effective temporal and spiritual power over all Tibet.