231 relations: Aśvaghoṣa, Abhidharma, Abhidharma-samuccaya, Abhidharmakośakārikā, Abhisamayalankara, Alexander Berzin (scholar), Amdo, Anuttarayoga Tantra, Ars moriendi, Arunachal Pradesh, Aryadeva, Asanga, Atiśa, Avalokiteśvara, Ü-Tsang, Śāntarakṣita, Śūnyatā, Bardo, Bardo Thodol, Battle of Chamdo, Bhāvanākrama, Bhikkhuni, Bodhicitta, Bodhipathapradīpa, Bodhisattva, Bodhisattva vow, Bodhisattvacaryāvatāra, Bon, Brahmavihara, Buddha-nature, Buddhaghoṣa, Buddhahood, Buddhism, Buddhism in Bhutan, Buddhist Tantras, Buryatia, Carola Roloff, Central Asia, Chan Buddhism, Chandrakirti, Chögyam Trungpa, China, Chinese expedition to Tibet (1720), Classical Tibetan, Cremation, Cultural Revolution, Dalai Lama, Darjeeling, Death horoscopes in Tibetan Buddhism, Deity yoga, ..., Derge Parkhang, Dharamshala, Dharmaguptaka, Dharmakāya, Dharmakirti, Dignāga, Divination, Drikung Kagyu, Dukkha, Dunhuang, Dzogchen, Dzungar people, Elizabeth Napper, Empowerment (Vajrayana), Enlightenment in Buddhism, Exorcism, Fierce deities, Freda Bedi, Funeral, Gampopa, Gautama Buddha, Gelug, Geshe, Hevajra, Himachal Pradesh, Himalayas, Hinayana, History of Buddhism in India, History of Tibetan Buddhism, Hotan, HuffPost, Inner Asia, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Ithaca, New York, Jamgon Ju Mipham Gyatso, Jamgon Kongtrul, Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo, Je Tsongkhapa, Jetsunma Ahkon Lhamo, Jonang, Kadam (Tibetan Buddhism), Kagyu, Kalimpong, Kalmykia, Kamalaśīla, Karma, Karma in Buddhism, Karma in Tibetan Buddhism, Karma Kagyu, Kelsang Wangmo, Kham, Kublai Khan, Ladakh, Lama, Lamdre, Lamrim, Lhasa, Lineage (Buddhism), Lojong, Lotsawa, Madhyamaka, Madhyamakālaṃkāra, Madhyamakāvatāra, Mahamudra, Mahasiddha, Mahayana, Mahayana-sutra-alamkara-karika, Maitreya, Mandala, Manjushri, Mantra, Marpa Lotsawa, Mūlamadhyamakakārikā, Meditation, Mental image, Milarepa, Ming dynasty, Moheyan, Mongolia, Mongols, Mudra, Nagarjuna, Namkhai Norbu, Naropa, National Geographic Society, Nepal, Ngagpa, Ngöndro, Nyingma, Oral tradition, Pabongkhapa Déchen Nyingpo, Padmasambhava, Palyul Monastery, Panchen Lama, Pāramitā, Pema Chödrön, Penor Rinpoche, Prajnaparamita, Pramana, Pramanavarttika, Pramāṇa-samuccaya, Prayer flag, Prostration, Pure Land Buddhism, Qing dynasty, Rainbow body, Ratnagotravibhāga, Rebirth (Buddhism), Rimé movement, Rinchen Zangpo, Rinpungpa, Russian Far East, Sakya, Sakya Pandita, Sakya Trizin, Samatha, Samaya, Samding Dorje Phagmo, Samye Debate, Sanskrit, Sarma (Tibetan Buddhism), Sarvastivada, Sādhanā, Schools of Buddhism, Sentient beings (Buddhism), Shambhala Buddhism, Shantideva, Sheja Dzö, Shigatse, Siberia, Sikkim, Six Yogas of Naropa, Sky burial, Sogyal Rinpoche, Songs of realization, Songtsen Gampo, State religion, Subtle body, Sutra, Tai Situ Changchub Gyaltsen, Tantra, Tara (Buddhism), Terma (religion), The Eight Garudhammas, The New York Times, Theravada, Three poisons, Thubten Chodron, Thubten Yeshe, Thubten Zopa Rinpoche, Tibet, Tibet and the Tang and Song dynasties, Tibet Autonomous Region, Tibetan art, Tibetan Buddhism, Tibetan Buddhist canon, Tibetan diaspora, Tibetan Empire, Tibetan Plateau, Tibetan prayer wheel, Tilopa, Traditional Tibetan medicine, Trisong Detsen, Tsangpa, Tulku, Tuva, Vajrapani, Vajrayana, Vasubandhu, Vikramashila, Vinaya, Vipassanā, West Bengal, Western esotericism, Yana (Buddhism), Yidam, Yogacarabhumi-sastra, Yuan dynasty, Zürich, 14th Dalai Lama, 5th Dalai Lama. Expand index (181 more) » « Shrink index
or Ashvaghosha was a Buddhist philosopher, dramatist, poet and orator from India.
Abhidharma (Sanskrit) or Abhidhamma (Pali) are ancient (3rd century BCE and later) Buddhist texts which contain detailed scholastic reworkings of doctrinal material appearing in the Buddhist sutras, according to schematic classifications.
Abhidharma-samuccaya (Sanskrit; Tibetan Wylie: mngon pa kun btus; English: Compendium of Abhidharma) is a Buddhist text composed by Asanga.
The Abhidharmakośakārikā or Verses on the Treasury of Abhidharma is a key text on the Abhidharma written in Sanskrit verse by Vasubandhu in the 4th or 5th century.
The "Ornament of/for Realization", abbreviated AA, is one of five Sanskrit-language Mahayana sutras which, according to Tibetan tradition, Maitreya revealed to Asaṅga in northwest India circa the 4th century AD.
Alexander Berzin (born 1944) is a scholar, translator, and teacher of Tibetan Buddhism.
Amdo (ʔam˥˥.to˥˥) is one of the three traditional regions of Tibet, the other two being Ü-Tsang and Kham; it is also the birthplace of the 14th Dalai Lama.
Anuttarayoga Tantra (Sanskrit, Tibetan: bla na med pa'i rgyud), often translated as Unexcelled Yoga Tantra or Highest Yoga Tantra, is a term used in Tibetan Buddhism in the categorization of esoteric tantric Indian Buddhist texts that constitute part of the Kangyur, or the 'translated words of the Buddha' in the Tibetan Buddhist canon.
The Ars moriendi ("The Art of Dying") are two related Latin texts dating from about 1415 and 1450 which offer advice on the protocols and procedures of a good death, explaining how to "die well" according to Christian precepts of the late Middle Ages.
Arunachal Pradesh ("the land of dawn-lit mountains") is one of the 29 states of India and is the northeastern-most state of the country.
Āryadeva (fl. 3rd century CE), was a disciple of Nagarjuna and author of several important Mahayana Madhyamaka Buddhist texts.
Asaṅga (Romaji: Mujaku) (fl. 4th century C.E.) was a major exponent of the Yogacara tradition in India, also called Vijñānavāda.
(অতীশ দীপংকর শ্রীজ্ঞান; ཇོ་བོ་རྗེ་དཔལ་ལྡན་ཨ་ཏི་ཤ།) (982 - 1054 CE) was a Buddhist Bengali religious leader and master.
Avalokiteśvara (अवलोकितेश्वर) is a bodhisattva who embodies the compassion of all Buddhas.
Ü-Tsang or Tsang-Ü, is one of the three traditional provinces of Tibet, the other two being Amdo and Kham.
(शान्तरक्षित,;, 725–788)stanford.edu: was a renowned 8th century Indian Buddhist and abbot of Nalanda.
Śūnyatā (Sanskrit; Pali: suññatā), pronounced ‘shoonyataa’, translated into English most often as emptiness and sometimes voidness, is a Buddhist concept which has multiple meanings depending on its doctrinal context.
In some schools of Buddhism, bardo (Tibetan བར་དོ་ Wylie: bar do) or antarabhāva (Sanskrit) is an intermediate, transitional, or liminal state between death and rebirth.
The Bardo Thodol ("Liberation Through Hearing During the Intermediate State") is a text from a larger corpus of teachings, the Profound Dharma of Self-Liberation through the Intention of the Peaceful and Wrathful Ones, revealed by Karma Lingpa (1326–1386).
The Battle of Chamdo occurred from 6 through 19 October 1950.
The Bhāvanākrama (Bhk, "cultivation process" or "stages of meditation"; Tib. སྒོམ་རིམ་, sGom Rim) is a set of three Buddhist texts written in Sanskrit by the Indian Buddhist scholar yogi Kamalashila (c. 9th century CE) of Nalanda university.
A bhikkhunī (Pali) or bhikṣuṇī (Sanskrit) is a fully ordained female monastic in Buddhism.
In Buddhism, bodhicitta, "enlightenment-mind", is the mind that strives toward awakening, empathy, and compassion for the benefit of all sentient beings.
Bodhipathapradīpa (A Lamp for the Path to Awakening) is a Buddhist text composed in Sanskrit by the 11th-century teacher Atiśa and widely considered his magnum opus.
In Buddhism, Bodhisattva is the Sanskrit term for anyone who has generated Bodhicitta, a spontaneous wish and compassionate mind to attain Buddhahood for the benefit of all sentient beings. Bodhisattvas are a popular subject in Buddhist art.
The Bodhisattva vow is the vow taken by Mahayana Buddhists to liberate all sentient beings.
The Bodhisattvacharyāvatāra or Bodhicaryāvatāra, sometimes translated into English as A Guide to the Bodhisattva's Way of Life, is a Mahāyāna Buddhist text written c. 700 AD in Sanskrit verse by Shantideva (Śāntideva), a Buddhist monk at Nālandā Monastic University in India.
Bon, also spelled Bön, is a Tibetan religion, which self-identifies as distinct from Tibetan Buddhism, although it shares the same overall teachings and terminology.
The brahmavihāras (sublime attitudes, lit. "abodes of brahma") are a series of four Buddhist virtues and the meditation practices made to cultivate them.
Buddha-nature or Buddha Principle refers to several related terms, most notably tathāgatagarbha and buddhadhātu.
Buddhaghoṣa (พระพุทธโฆษาจารย์) was a 5th-century Indian Theravada Buddhist commentator and scholar.
In Buddhism, buddhahood (buddhatva; buddhatta or italic) is the condition or rank of a buddha "awakened one".
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Buddhism is the major religion in Bhutan.
The Buddhist Tantras are a varied group of Indian and Tibetan texts which outline unique views and practices of the Buddhist tantra religious systems.
The Republic of Buryatia (p; Buryaad Ulas) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic), located in Asia in Siberia.
Carola Roloff (born 1959 in Holzminden, West Germany) is a German Buddhist nun.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
Chan (of), from Sanskrit dhyāna (meaning "meditation" or "meditative state"), is a Chinese school of Mahāyāna Buddhism.
Chandrakirti was a Buddhist scholar of the Madhyamaka school and a noted commentator on the works of Nagarjuna and those of his main disciple, Aryadeva, authoring two influential works, Prasannapadā and Madhyamakāvatāra.
Chögyam Trungpa (Wylie: Chos rgyam Drung pa; March 5, 1939 – April 4, 1987) was a Buddhist meditation master and holder of both the Kagyu and Nyingma lineages, the eleventh Trungpa tülku, a tertön, supreme abbot of the Surmang monasteries, scholar, teacher, poet, artist, and originator of a radical re-presentation of Shambhala vision.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The 1720 Chinese expedition to Tibet or the Chinese conquest of Tibet in 1720 was a military expedition sent by the Qing empire to expel the invading forces of the Dzungar Khanate from Tibet and establish a Chinese protectorate over the country.
Classical Tibetan refers to the language of any text written in Tibetic after the Old Tibetan period; though it extends from the 7th century until the modern day, it particularly refers to the language of early canonical texts translated from other languages, especially Sanskrit.
Cremation is the combustion, vaporization, and oxidation of cadavers to basic chemical compounds, such as gases, ashes and mineral fragments retaining the appearance of dry bone.
The Cultural Revolution, formally the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was a sociopolitical movement in China from 1966 until 1976.
Dalai Lama (Standard Tibetan: ཏཱ་ལའི་བླ་མ་, Tā la'i bla ma) is a title given to spiritual leaders of the Tibetan people.
Darjeeling is a town and a municipality in the Indian state of West Bengal.
The use of death horoscopes in Tibetan Buddhism is an old practice that still sees application today.
Deity yoga (Tibetan: lha'i rnal 'byor; Sanskrit: Devata-yoga) is a practice of Vajrayana Buddhism involving identification with a chosen deity through visualisations and rituals, and the realisation of emptiness.
The Derge Parkhang, (pronunciation "Dehr-geh", alternative names Dege Parkhang, Derge Sutra Printing Temple, Dege Yinjing Yuan, Derge Barkhang, Dege Barkhang, Barkhang, Parkhang, Bakong Scripture Printing Press and Monastery) is one of the foremost cultural treasures of Tibet.
Dharamshala (also spelled Dharamsala) is the second winter capital of the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh and a municipal corporation in Kangra district.
The Dharmaguptaka (Sanskrit) are one of the eighteen or twenty early Buddhist schools, depending on the source.
The dharmakāya (Sanskrit, "truth body" or "reality body") is one of the three bodies (trikaya) of a buddha in Mahayana Buddhism.
Dharmakīrti (fl. c. 6th or 7th century) was an influential Indian Buddhist philosopher who worked at Nālandā.
Dignāga (a.k.a. Diṅnāga, c. 480 – c. 540 CE) was an Indian Buddhist scholar and one of the Buddhist founders of Indian logic (hetu vidyā).
Divination (from Latin divinare "to foresee, to be inspired by a god", related to divinus, divine) is the attempt to gain insight into a question or situation by way of an occultic, standardized process or ritual.
Drikung Kagyu or Drigung Kagyu (Wylie: 'bri-gung bka'-brgyud) is one of the eight "minor" lineages of the Kagyu school of Tibetan Buddhism.
Dukkha (Pāli; Sanskrit: duḥkha; Tibetan: སྡུག་བསྔལ་ sdug bsngal, pr. "duk-ngel") is an important Buddhist concept, commonly translated as "suffering", "pain", "unsatisfactoriness" or "stress".
Dunhuang is a county-level city in northwestern Gansu Province, Western China.
Dzogchen or "Great Perfection", Sanskrit: अतियोग, is a tradition of teachings in Tibetan Buddhism aimed at discovering and continuing in the natural primordial state of being.
The name Dzungar people, also written as Zunghar (literally züüngar, from the Mongolian for "left hand"), referred to the several Oirat tribes who formed and maintained the Dzungar Khanate in the 17th and 18th centuries.
Elizabeth Napper is the author of Dependent-Arising and Emptiness, A Tibetan Buddhist Interpretation of Madhyamika Philosophy, Emphasizing the Compatibility of Emptiness and Conventional Phenomena.
An empowerment is a ritual in Vajrayana which initiates a student into a particular tantric deity practice.
The English term enlightenment is the western translation of the term bodhi, "awakening", which was popularised in the Western world through the 19th century translations of Max Müller.
Exorcism (from Greek εξορκισμός, exorkismós "binding by oath") is the religious or spiritual practice of evicting demons or other spiritual entities from a person, or an area, that are believed to be possessed.
In Buddhism, fierce deities are the fierce, wrathful or forceful (Tibetan: trowo, Sanskrit: krodha) forms of enlightened Buddhas, Bodhisattvas or Devas (divine beings).
Freda Bedi (sometimes spelled Frida Bedi, also named Sister Palmo, or Gelongma Karma Kechog Palmo) (5 February 1911 – 26 March 1977) was a British woman who was the first Western woman to take ordination in Tibetan Buddhism, which occurred in 1972.
A funeral is a ceremony connected with the burial, cremation, or interment of a corpse, or the burial (or equivalent) with the attendant observances.
Gampopa "the man from Gampo" Sönam Rinchen (1079–1153) was a Tibetan Buddhist teacher in the Kagyu lineage, as well as a doctor and tantric master who founded the Dagpo Kagyu school.
Gautama Buddha (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.
The Gelug (Wylie: dGe-Lugs-Pa) is the newest of the schools of Tibetan Buddhism.
Geshe (Tib. dge bshes, short for dge-ba'i bshes-gnyen, "virtuous friend"; translation of Skt. kalyāņamitra) or geshema is a Tibetan Buddhist academic degree for monks and nuns.
Hevajra (Tibetan: ཀྱེའི་རྡོ་རྗེ་ kye'i rdo rje / kye rdo rje; Chinese: 喜金剛 Xǐ jīngāng / 呼金剛 Hū jīngāng) is one of the main yidams (enlightened beings) in Tantric, or Vajrayana Buddhism.
Himachal Pradesh (literally "snow-laden province") is a Indian state located in North India.
The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau.
"Hīnayāna" is a Sanskrit term literally meaning the "inferior vehicle".
Buddhism is a world religion, which arose in and around the ancient Kingdom of Magadha (now in Bihar, India), and is based on the teachings of Siddhārtha Gautama who was deemed a "Buddha" ("Awakened One").
Buddhism was first actively disseminated in Tibet from the 7th to the 9th century CE, predominantly from India, but also influenced by Chinese Buddhism.
Hotan, also transliterated from Chinese as Hetian, is a major oasis town in southwestern Xinjiang, an autonomous region in western China.
HuffPost (formerly The Huffington Post and sometimes abbreviated HuffPo) is a liberal American news and opinion website and blog that has both localized and international editions.
Inner Asia refers to regions within East Asia and North Asia that are today part of western China, Mongolia and eastern Russia.
The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (IEP) is a scholarly online encyclopedia, dealing with philosophy, philosophical topics, and philosophers.
Ithaca is a city in the Finger Lakes region of New York.
Jamgön Ju Mipham, or Mipham Jamyang Namgyal Gyamtso (1846–1912) (also known as "Mipham the Great") was a very influential philosopher and polymath of the Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhism.
Jamgön Kongtrül Lodrö Thayé (1813–1899), also known as Jamgön Kongtrül the Great, was a Tibetan Buddhist scholar, poet, artist, physician, tertön and polymath.
Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo (1820–1892), also known by his tertön title, Pema Ösel Dongak Lingpa, was a renowned teacher, scholar and tertön of 19th-century Tibet.
Zongkapa Lobsang Zhaba, or Tsongkhapa ("The man from Tsongkha", 1357–1419), usually taken to mean "the Man from Onion Valley", born in Amdo, was a famous teacher of Tibetan Buddhism whose activities led to the formation of the Gelug school of Tibetan Buddhism.
Jetsunma Ahkon Lhamo (born October 12, 1949; born Alyce Louise Zeoli) is an enthroned tulku within the Palyul lineage of the Nyingma tradition of Tibetan Buddhism.
The Jonang is one of the schools of Tibetan Buddhism.
The Kadam school of Tibetan Buddhism was founded by Dromtön (1005–1064), a Tibetan lay master and the foremost disciple of the great Bengali master Atiśa (982-1054).
The Kagyu, Kagyü, or Kagyud school, also known as the "Oral Lineage" or Whispered Transmission school, is today regarded as one of six main schools (chos lugs) of Himalayan or Tibetan Buddhism.
Kalimpong is a hill station in the Indian state of West Bengal.
The Republic of Kalmykia (p; Хальмг Таңһч, Xaľmg Tañhç) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic).
Kamalaśīla (Skt. Kamalaśīla; Tib. པདྨའི་ངང་ཚུལ་, Pemé Ngang Tsul; Wyl. pad+ma'i ngang tshul) (c. 740-795) was an Indian Buddhist of Nalanda Mahavihara who accompanied Śāntarakṣita (725–788) to Tibet at the request of Trisong Detsen.
Karma (karma,; italic) means action, work or deed; it also refers to the spiritual principle of cause and effect where intent and actions of an individual (cause) influence the future of that individual (effect).
Karma (Sanskrit, also karman, Pāli: kamma) is a Sanskrit term that literally means "action" or "doing".
Karma in Tibetan Buddhism is one of the central issues addressed in Eastern philosophy, and an important part of its general practice.
Karma Kagyu, or Kamtsang Kagyu, is probably the 2nd largest and certainly the most widely practiced lineage within the Kagyu school, one of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism.
Geshe Kelsang Wangmo is a German-born Buddhist nun, scholar, and teacher.
Kham is a historical region of Tibet covering a land area largely divided between present-day Tibet Autonomous Region and Sichuan, with smaller portions located within Qinghai, Gansu and Yunnan provinces of China.
Kublai (Хубилай, Hubilai; Simplified Chinese: 忽必烈) was the fifth Khagan (Great Khan) of the Mongol Empire (Ikh Mongol Uls), reigning from 1260 to 1294 (although due to the division of the empire this was a nominal position).
Ladakh ("land of high passes") is a region in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir that currently extends from the Kunlun mountain range to the main Great Himalayas to the south, inhabited by people of Indo-Aryan and Tibetan descent.
Lama ("chief" or "high priest") is a title for a teacher of the Dhamma in Tibetan Buddhism.
Lamdré is a meditative system in Tibetan Buddhism rooted in the view that the result of its practice is contained within the path.
Lamrim (Tibetan: "stages of the path") is a Tibetan Buddhist textual form for presenting the stages in the complete path to enlightenment as taught by Buddha.
Lhasa is a city and administrative capital of the Tibet Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China.
A lineage in Buddhism is a line of transmission of the Buddhist teaching that is "theoretically traced back to the Buddha himself." The acknowledgement of the transmission can be oral, or certified in documents.
Lojong (Tib. བློ་སྦྱོང་) is a mind training practice in the Tibetan Buddhist tradition based on a set of aphorisms formulated in Tibet in the 12th century by Chekawa Yeshe Dorje.
Lotsawa is a Tibetan word used as a title to refer to the native Tibetan translators, such as Vairotsana, Rinchen Zangpo, Marpa Lotsawa and others, who worked alongside Indian scholars or panditas to translate Buddhist texts into Tibetan from Sanskrit, Classical Chinese and other Asian languages.
Madhyamaka (Madhyamaka,; also known as Śūnyavāda) refers primarily to the later schools of Buddhist philosophy founded by Nagarjuna (150 CE to 250 CE).
The Madhyamakālaṃkāra is an eighth-century Buddhist text, believed to have been originally composed in Sanskrit by Śāntarakṣita (725–788), which is extant in Tibetan.
The Madhyamakāvatāra is a text by Candrakīrti (600–c. 650) on the Mādhyamaka school of Buddhist philosophy.
Mahāmudrā (Sanskrit, Tibetan: Chagchen, Wylie: phyag chen, contraction of Chagya Chenpo, Wylie: phyag rgya chen po) literally means "great seal" or "great imprint" and refers to the fact that "all phenomena inevitably are stamped by the fact of wisdom and emptiness inseparable".
Mahasiddha (Sanskrit: mahāsiddha "great adept) is a term for someone who embodies and cultivates the "siddhi of perfection".
Mahāyāna (Sanskrit for "Great Vehicle") is one of two (or three, if Vajrayana is counted separately) main existing branches of Buddhism and a term for classification of Buddhist philosophies and practice.
Mahāyāna Sūtrālamkāra kārikā ("The Adornment of Mahayana sutras") is a major work of Buddhist philosophy attributed to Maitreya-nātha as dictated to Asanga.
Maitreya (Sanskrit), Metteyya (Pali), is regarded as a future Buddha of this world in Buddhist eschatology.
A mandala (Sanskrit: मण्डल, maṇḍala; literally "circle") is a spiritual and ritual symbol in Hinduism and Buddhism, representing the universe.
Mañjuśrī is a bodhisattva associated with prajñā (insight) in Mahayana Buddhism.
A "mantra" ((Sanskrit: मन्त्र)) is a sacred utterance, a numinous sound, a syllable, word or phonemes, or group of words in Sanskrit believed by practitioners to have psychological and spiritual powers.
Marpa Lotsawa (1012–1097), sometimes known fully as Lhodak Marpa Choski Lodos or commonly as Marpa the Translator, was a Tibetan Buddhist teacher credited with the transmission of many Vajrayana teachings from India, including the teachings and lineages of Mahamudra.
The Mūlamadhyamakakārikā (Sanskrit) or Fundamental Verses on the Middle Way, is a key text of the Madhyamaka-school, written by Nagarjuna.
Meditation can be defined as a practice where an individual uses a technique, such as focusing their mind on a particular object, thought or activity, to achieve a mentally clear and emotionally calm state.
A mental image or mental picture is the representation in a person's mind of the physical world outside that person.
UJetsun Milarepa (c. 1052 – c. 1135 CE) is generally considered one of Tibet's most famous yogis and poets.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
Heshang Moheyan was a late 8th century Buddhist monk associated with the East Mountain Teaching.
Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.
The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
A mudra (Sanskrit "seal", "mark", or "gesture") is a symbolic or ritual gesture in Hinduism and Buddhism.
Nāgārjuna (c. 150 – c. 250 CE) is widely considered one of the most important Mahayana philosophers.
Namkhai Norbu is a Dzogchen teacher, who was born in Derge, eastern Tibet on 8 December 1938.
Nāropā (Prakrit; Nāropadā or Naḍapāda) (probably died ca. 1040 CE) was an Indian Buddhist Mahasiddha.
The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions in the world.
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
In Tibetan Buddhism and Bon, a Ngagpa (Sanskrit mantrī) is a non-monastic practitioner of Dzogchen who has received a skra dbang, a hair empowerment, for example in the Dudjom Tersar lineage.
The Tibetan term Ngöndro (pūrvaka) refers to the preliminary, preparatory or foundational practices or disciplines (Sanskrit: sādhanā) common to all four schools of Tibetan Buddhism and also to Bon.
The Nyingma tradition is the oldest of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism (the other three being the Kagyu, Sakya and Gelug).
Oral tradition, or oral lore, is a form of human communication where in knowledge, art, ideas and cultural material is received, preserved and transmitted orally from one generation to another.
Pabongkhapa Déchen Nyingpo, (1878–1941) was a Gelug lama of the modern era of Tibetan Buddhism.
Padmasambhava (lit. "Lotus-Born"), also known as Guru Rinpoche, was an 8th-century Indian Buddhist master.
Palyul Monastery, also known as Palyul Namgyal Jangchub Choling Monastery and sometimes romanized as Pelyul Monastery, is one of the six mother monasteries of the Nyingma tradition of Tibetan Buddhism.
The Panchen Lama is a tulku of the Gelug school of Tibetan Buddhism.
Pāramitā (Sanskrit, Pali) or pāramī (Pāli) is "perfection" or "completeness".
Pema Chödrön (born Deirdre Blomfield-Brown July 14, 1936) is an American Tibetan Buddhist.
Kyabjé Drubwang Padma Norbu Rinpoche (1932 - March 27, 2009) was the 11th throne holder of the Palyul Lineage of the Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhism, and said to be an incarnation of Vimalamitra.
Prajñāpāramitā means "the Perfection of (Transcendent) Wisdom" in Mahāyāna Buddhism.
Pramana (Sanskrit: प्रमाण) literally means "proof" and "means of knowledge".
The Pramāṇavārttika (Sanskrit, Commentary on Valid Cognition; Tib. tshad ma rnam 'grel) is an influential Buddhist text on pramana (valid instruments of knowledge, epistemic criteria), a form of Indian epistemology.
The Pramāṇa-samuccaya ("Compendium of Validities") is a philosophical treatise by Dignāga, an Indian Buddhist logician and epistemologist who lived from c. 480 to c. 540.
A prayer flag is a colorful rectangular cloth, often found strung along mountain ridges and peaks high in the Himalayas.
Prostration is the placement of the body in a reverentially or submissively prone position as a gesture.
Pure Land Buddhism (浄土仏教 Jōdo bukkyō; Korean:; Tịnh Độ Tông), also referred to as Amidism in English, is a broad branch of Mahayana Buddhism and one of the most widely practiced traditions of Buddhism in East Asia.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
In Dzogchen, rainbow body (Jalü or Jalus) is a level of realization.
The Ratnagotravibhāga (Sanskrit, abbreviated as RgV) and its vyākhyā commentary (abbreviated RgVV), also known as the Uttaratantraśāstra, are a compendium of the tathāgatagarbha literature.
Rebirth in Buddhism refers to its teaching that the actions of a person lead to a new existence after death, in endless cycles called saṃsāra.
The Rimé movement is a movement involving the Sakya, Kagyu and Nyingma schools of Tibetan Buddhism, along with some Bon scholars.
(Lochen) Rinchen Zangpo (958–1055), also known as Mahaguru, was a principal lotsawa or translator of Sanskrit Buddhist texts into Tibetan during the second diffusion of Buddhism in Tibet (or the New Translation School or New Mantra School period).
Rinpungpa was a Tibetan regime that dominated much of Western Tibet and part of Ü-Tsang between 1435 and 1565.
The Russian Far East (p) comprises the Russian part of the Far East - the extreme eastern territory of Russia, between Lake Baikal in Eastern Siberia and the Pacific Ocean.
The Sakya ("pale earth") school is one of four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism, the others being the Nyingma, Kagyu, and Gelug.
Sakya Pandita Kunga Gyeltsen (Tibetan: ས་སྐྱ་པནདིཏ་ཀུན་དགའ་རྒྱལ་མཚན)1182-28 November 1251) was a Tibetan spiritual leader and Buddhist scholar and the fourth of the Five Sakya Forefathers. Künga Gyeltsen is generally known simply as Sakya Pandita, a title given to him in recognition of his scholarly achievements and knowledge of Sanskrit. He is held in the tradition to have been an emanation of Manjusri, the embodiment of the wisdom of all the Buddhas. After that he also known as a great scholar in Tibet, Mongolia, China and India and was proficient in the five great sciences of Buddhist philosophy, medicine, grammar, dialectics and sacred Sanskrit literature as well as the minor sciences of rhetoric, synonymies, poetry, dancing and astrology. He is considered to be the fourth Sakya Forefather and sixth Sakya Trizin and one of the most important figures in the Sakya lineage.
Sakya Trizin ("Sakya Throne-Holder") is the traditional title of the head of the Sakya school of Tibetan Buddhism.
Samatha (Pāli) or śamatha (शमथ; zhǐ) is the Buddhist practice (bhāvanā भावना) of calming the mind (citta चित्त) and its 'formations' (saṅkhāra संस्कार).
The samaya (Japanese and, sanmaya-kai, Sānmóyéjiè), is a set of vows or precepts given to initiates of an esoteric Vajrayana Buddhist order as part of the abhiṣeka (empowerment or initiation) ceremony that creates a bond between the guru and disciple.
The Samding Dorje Phagmo is the highest female incarnation in TibetThe Power-places of Central Tibet: The Pilgrim's Guide, (1988) p. 268.
Samye Debate, also called Council of Lhasa, Council of Samye, Debate of Samye or Great Debate, was a two-year debate at Samye Temple hosted by Trisong Detsen between Indian Monastics from Nalanda and Chinese Moheyan from Tang Imperial Court between 792 and 794.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
In Tibetan Buddhism, the Sarma or "New Translation" schools include the three newer (Kagyu, Sakya and Gelug) of the four main schools, comprising the following traditions and their sub-branches with their roots in the 11th century.
The Sarvāstivāda (Sanskrit) were an early school of Buddhism that held to the existence of all dharmas in the past, present and future, the "three times".
Sādhana (Sanskrit साधन), literally "a means of accomplishing something", is a generic term coming from the yogic tradition and it refers to any spiritual exercise that is aimed at progressing the sādhaka towards the very ultimate expression of his or her life in this reality.
The Schools of Buddhism are the various institutional and doctrinal divisions of Buddhism that have existed from ancient times up to the present.
In Buddhism, sentient beings are beings with consciousness, sentience, or in some contexts life itself.
The term Shambhala Buddhism was introduced by Sakyong Mipham in the year 2000 to describe his presentation of the Shambhala teachings originally conceived by Chögyam Trungpa as secular practices for achieving enlightened society, in concert with the Kagyu and Nyingma schools of Tibetan Buddhism.
Shantideva (Sanskrit: Śāntideva;;; Шантидэва гэгээн; Tịch Thiên) was a 8th-century Indian Buddhist monk and scholar at Nalanda.
The Sheja Dzö or "Treasury of Knowledge" is a voluminous work by Jamgon Kongtrul (1813–1899).
Shigatse, officially known as Xigazê (Nepali: सिगात्से), is a prefecture-level city of the Tibet Autonomous Region of China, with an area of.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
Sikkim is a state in Northeast India.
The Six Yogas of Nāropa, also called the six dharmas of Naropa, are a set of advanced Tibetan Buddhist tantric practices and a meditation sādhanā compiled in and around the time of the Indian monk and mystic Nāropa (1016-1100 CE) and conveyed to his student Marpa Lotsawa.
Sky burial (lit. "bird-scattered") is a funeral practice in which a human corpse is placed on a mountaintop to decompose while exposed to the elements or to be eaten by scavenging animals, especially carrion birds.
Sogyal Rinpoche (born 1947) is a Tibetan Dzogchen lama of the Nyingma tradition.
Songs of realization, or Songs of Experience (Devanāgarī: दोहा; Romanized Sanskrit: Dohā; Oriya: ପଦ) are sung poetry forms characteristic of the tantric movement in both Hinduism and in Vajrayana Buddhism.
Songtsen Gampo (569–649?/605–649?) was the 33rd Tibetan king and founder of the Tibetan Empire, and is traditionally credited with the introduction of Buddhism to Tibet, influenced by his Nepali and Chinese queens, as well as being the unifier of what were previously several Tibetan kingdoms.
A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.
A subtle body is one of a series of psycho-spiritual constituents of living beings, according to various esoteric, occult, and mystical teachings.
A sutra (Sanskrit: IAST: sūtra; Pali: sutta) is a religious discourse (teaching) in text form originating from the spiritual traditions of India, particularly Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism.
Tai Situ Changchub Gyaltsen (1302 – 21 November 1364) was a key figure in Tibetan History.
Tantra (Sanskrit: तन्त्र, literally "loom, weave, system") denotes the esoteric traditions of Hinduism and Buddhism that co-developed most likely about the middle of 1st millennium CE.
Tara (तारा,; Tib. སྒྲོལ་མ, Dölma) or Ārya Tārā, also known as Jetsun Dölma (Tibetan language: rje btsun sgrol ma) in Tibetan Buddhism, is an important figure in Buddhism.
Terma ("hidden treasure") are various forms of hidden teachings that are key to Vajrayana or Tibetan Buddhist and Bon religious traditions. The belief is that these teachings were originally esoterically hidden by various adepts such as Padmasambhava and dakini such as Yeshe Tsogyal (consorts) during the 8th century, for future discovery at auspicious times by other adepts, who are known as tertöns. As such, terma represent a tradition of continuous revelation in Vajrayana or Tibetan Buddhism. Termas are a part of tantric literature.
The Eight Garudhammas (or "heavy rules") are additional precepts required of bhikkhunis (fully ordained Buddhist nuns) above and beyond the monastic rule (vinaya) that applied to monks.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Theravāda (Pali, literally "school of the elder monks") is a branch of Buddhism that uses the Buddha's teaching preserved in the Pāli Canon as its doctrinal core.
The three poisons (Sanskrit: triviṣa; Tibetan: dug gsum) or the three unwholesome roots (Sanskrit: akuśala-mūla; Pāli: akusala-mūla), in Buddhism, refer to the three root kleshas of Moha (delusion, confusion), Raga (greed, sensual attachment), and Dvesha (aversion, ill will).
Thubten Chodron, born Cheryl Greene, is an American Tibetan Buddhist nun, author, teacher, and the founder and abbess of Sravasti Abbey, the only Tibetan Buddhist training monastery for Western nuns and monks in the United States.
Thubten Yeshe (1935–1984) was a Tibetan lama who, while exiled in Nepal, co-founded Kopan Monastery (1969) and the Foundation for the Preservation of the Mahayana Tradition (1975).
Thubten Zopa Rinpoche (1946 Thami, Nepal as Dawa Chötar) is a Nepali lama from Khumbu, the entryway to Mount Everest.
Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia.
This article elaborates on the historical relationship development between imperial China and Tibetan regime in Tang and Song dynasty.
The Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) or Xizang Autonomous Region, called Tibet or Xizang for short, is a province-level autonomous region of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
For more than a thousand years, Tibetan artists have played a key role in the cultural life of Tibet.
Tibetan Buddhism is the form of Buddhist doctrine and institutions named after the lands of Tibet, but also found in the regions surrounding the Himalayas and much of Central Asia.
The Tibetan Buddhist canon is a loosely defined list of sacred texts recognized by various sects of Tibetan Buddhism.
The Tibetan diaspora is a term used to refer to the communities of Tibetan people living outside their original homeland of Tibet.
The Tibetan Empire ("Great Tibet") existed from the 7th to 9th centuries AD when Tibet was unified as a large and powerful empire, and ruled an area considerably larger than the Tibetan Plateau, stretching to parts of East Asia, Central Asia and South Asia.
The Tibetan Plateau, also known in China as the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau or the Qing–Zang Plateau or Himalayan Plateau, is a vast elevated plateau in Central Asia and East Asia, covering most of the Tibet Autonomous Region and Qinghai in western China, as well as part of Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir, India.
Prayer Wheels (Tibetan: mani ´khor lo) are widely used in Tibet and areas where Tibetan culture is predominant.
Tilopa (Prakrit; Sanskrit: Talika or Tilopada) (988–1069) was born in either Chativavo (Chittagong), Bengal or Jagora, Bengal in India.
Traditional Tibetan medicine, also known as Sowa-Rigpa medicine, is a centuries-old traditional medical system that employs a complex approach to diagnosis, incorporating techniques such as pulse analysis and urinalysis, and utilizes behavior and dietary modification, medicines composed of natural materials (e.g., herbs and minerals) and physical therapies (e.g. Tibetan acupuncture, moxabustion, etc.) to treat illness.
Trisong Detsen or Trisong Detsän was the son of Me Agtsom and the 38th emperor of Tibet.
Tsangpa was a dynasty that dominated large parts of Tibet from 1565 to 1642.
A tulku (also tülku, trulku) is a reincarnate custodian of a specific lineage of teachings in Tibetan Buddhism who is given empowerments and trained from a young age by students of his or her predecessor.
Tuva (Тува́) or Tyva (Тыва), officially the Tyva Republic (p; Тыва Республика, Tyva Respublika), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic, also defined in the Constitution of the Russian Federation as a state).
(Sanskrit: "Vajra in hand") is one of the earliest-appearing bodhisattvas in Mahayana Buddhism.
Vajrayāna, Mantrayāna, Tantrayāna, Tantric Buddhism and Esoteric Buddhism are the various Buddhist traditions of Tantra and "Secret Mantra", which developed in medieval India and spread to Tibet and East Asia.
Vasubandhu (Sanskrit) (fl. 4th to 5th century CE) was a very influential Buddhist monk and scholar from Gandhara.
Vikramashila (IAST) was one of the two most important centres of learning in India during the Pala Empire, along with Nalanda.
The Vinaya (Pali and Sanskrit, literally meaning "leading out", "education", "discipline") is the regulatory framework for the sangha or monastic community of Buddhism based on the canonical texts called the Vinaya Pitaka.
Vipassanā (Pāli) or vipaśyanā (विपश्यन) in the Buddhist tradition means insight into the true nature of reality.
West Bengal (Paśchimbāṅga) is an Indian state, located in Eastern India on the Bay of Bengal.
Western esotericism (also called esotericism and esoterism), also known as the Western mystery tradition, is a term under which scholars have categorised a wide range of loosely related ideas and movements which have developed within Western society.
Yāna (Sanskrit and Pāli: "vehicle") refers to a mode or method of spiritual practice in Buddhism, and in particular to divisions of various schools of Buddhism according to their type of practice.
Yidam is a type of deity associated with tantric or Vajrayana Buddhism said to be manifestations of Buddhahood or enlightened mind.
The Yogācārabhūmi-Śāstra (Sanskrit) or Discourse on the Stages of Yogic Practice is the encyclopaedic and definitive text of the Yogacara school of Buddhism.
The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.
Zürich or Zurich is the largest city in Switzerland and the capital of the canton of Zürich.
The 14th Dalai Lama (religious name: Tenzin Gyatso, shortened from Jetsun Jamphel Ngawang Lobsang Yeshe Tenzin Gyatso; born Lhamo Thondup, 6 July 1935) is the current Dalai Lama.
Ngawang Lobsang Gyatso (1617 to 1682) was the Fifth Dalai Lama, and the first Dalai Lama to wield effective temporal and spiritual power over all Tibet.
Buddhism in Tibet, Four Tenets system, Four tenets system, Grand Lamaism, Indo-Tibetan philosophy, Lama Buddhism, Lamaism, Lamaist, Schools of Tibetan Buddhism, Tibet Buddhism, Tibetan Buddhist, Tibetan Buddhists, Tibetan Buddism, Tibetan Lamaism, Tibetan buddhism, Tibetan buddism, Tibetan monk, Tibetan monks, Yellow Buddhism.