452 relations: A. A. Milne, Adaptive radiation, Afghanistan, Africa, Albinism, Allele, Altai Mountains, Amino acid, Amu Darya, Amur River, Anal gland, Anatomical terms of location, Ancient Greek, Ancient Rome, Andhra Pradesh, Ang Lee, Animal, Animal coloration, Animal Planet, Animal track, Anthrozoology, Apex predator, Aphrodisiac, Aral Sea, Asia, Asia-Pacific, Asian black bear, Asian elephant, Asiatic lion, Assam, Avestan, Ayyappan, Badger, Bali, Bali tiger, Bangladesh, Barasingha, Bear, Beard, Bengal, Bengal tiger, Bergmann's rule, Beringia, Bestiary, Bhutan, Big five game, Billy Arjan Singh, Binomial nomenclature, Bird, Black Sea, ..., Black tiger (animal), Booker Prize, Bornean tiger, Borneo, Bovidae, Breakfast cereal, Buddhism, Buffalo Zoo, Calvin and Hobbes, Cambodia, Camel, Camera trap, Camouflage, Canine tooth, Capital offences in China, Captivity (animal), Careya arborea, Carl Linnaeus, Caspian Sea, Caspian tiger, Cattle, Caucasian wisent, Central Asia, Champawat Tiger, Charismatic megafauna, Chera dynasty, China, Chinese art, Chinese astrology, Chinese constellations, Chinese culture, Chinese dragon, Chinese mythology, Chital, Chittagong, Chola dynasty, Chuba, Circus, CITES, Cleft lip and cleft palate, Climate change, Coat of arms, Coenraad Jacob Temminck, Columbia University Press, Common carotid artery, Critically endangered, Crocodile, Crown (tooth), Deciduous, Deer, Dhole, Dietary fiber, DNA, Domestic yak, Dominance (ethology), Dominance (genetics), Donkey, Douglas Harper, Dragon, Dudhwa National Park, Durga, East Asia, Eastern Anatolia Region, Economy of Russia, Endangered species, England, Ernst Schwarz, Estrous cycle, Evergreen, Extinct in the wild, Exxon, Eyespot (mimicry), Feces, Felidae, Female, Fenghuang, Fish, Flag, Flehmen response, Folk etymology, Folklore, Fossil, Founder effect, Four Asian Tigers, Four Symbols (China), Fox, Frankfurt Zoological Garden, Franklin Park Zoo, Frosted Flakes, Fur, Ganges Delta, Gansu, Garhwal division, Gaur, Gene, Gene flow, General officer, Genetic analysis, Genetic diversity, Genetic genealogy, Genetic variability, Geneticist, Geneva, George Schaller, Gestation, Golden jackal, Golden tiger, Government of India, Grassland, Gray wolf, Greater Sunda Islands, Greek language, Habitat, Habitat destruction, Habitat fragmentation, Hair follicle, Hare, Heraldry, Hinduism, History of China, Hobbes (Calvin and Hobbes), Holocene, Honey, Hong Kong, Horse, Hukawng Valley, Hunchun, Hung Ga, Hunting blind, Hybrid (biology), Hyoid apparatus, Hypothesis, Inbreeding, Inbreeding depression, India, Indian boar, Indian Ocean, Indian rhinoceros, Indian subcontinent, Indira Gandhi, Indochina, Indochinese tiger, Indonesia, Indus Valley Civilisation, Insular dwarfism, International Union for Conservation of Nature, Iran, Iris (anatomy), IUCN Red List, Jaguar, Japan, Java, Javan tiger, Jim Corbett, Johann Karl Wilhelm Illiger, John Edward Gray, Jugular vein, Kanha Tiger Reserve, Kazakhstan, Kellogg's, Khabarovsk Krai, Kleptoparasitism, Kolyma, Kumaon division, Kyrgyzstan, Lake Balkhash, Laohu Valley Reserve, Laos, Last glacial period, Late Pleistocene, Latin, Leopard, Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, Life of Pi, Life of Pi (film), Liger, Lion, List of national animals, Litigon, Local extinction, Lynx, Mahabharata, Maharaja, Malay Peninsula, Malayan tapir, Malayan tiger, Malaysia, Male, Maltese tiger, Mammal Species of the World, Man-Eaters of Kumaon, Manchu people, Manchurian wapiti, Mangrove, Mascot, Mating, Mauricio Antón, Melanism, Meru Betiri National Park, Mesopotamia, Miankaleh peninsula, Middle English, Mitochondrial DNA, Mongolia, Monkey, Morphology (biology), Mount Halimun Salak National Park, Mowgli, Muntjac, Musk deer, Myanmar, Mythology, Nagarhole National Park, Nanai people, Nape, National Geographic, Nellore district, Nepal, New York (state), Ngandong tiger, Nikolai Severtzov, Nilgai, Nocturnality, Non-governmental organization, North Korea, Nucleic acid sequence, Occipital plane, Old English, Old French, Orangutan, Orient, Pakistan, Palawan (island), Pandyan dynasty, Panthera, Panthera Corporation, Panthera zdanskyi, Peafowl, Persian language, Philippines, Phrenology, Phylogeography, Physical comparison of tigers and lions, Pleistocene, Pleistocene Park, Poaching, Porcupine, Predation, Prehistory, Presidencies and provinces of British India, Pride, Primitive (phylogenetics), Primorsky Krai, Project Tiger, Prusten, Pugmark, Pupil, Purr, Pythonidae, R. I. Pocock, Ranthambore National Park, Reproduction, Rewilding (conservation biology), Rhombus, Roar (vocalization), Rosette (zoology), Rudyard Kipling, Russia, Saiga antelope, Sakhalin, Sambar deer, Sariska Tiger Reserve, Savanna, Save China's Tigers, Science (journal), Scoliosis, Sexual dimorphism, Shapeshifting, Shaving, Shere Khan, Shiva, Siberia, Siberian roe deer, Siberian tiger, Siegfried & Roy, Sika deer, Singapore, Sister group, SLC45A2, Sloth bear, Snow leopard, Sociality, Songs of Innocence and of Experience, South Africa, South Asia, South China tiger, South Korea, Southeast Asia, Southern African lion, Soviet Union, Species, Species Survival Plan, Specific name (zoology), Spinal cord, Status symbol, Strabismus, Strangling, Striped hyena, Stubble, Subspecies, Sumatra, Sumatran tiger, Sunda Islands, Sundaland, Sundarbans, Switzerland, Synteny, Syr Darya, Systema Naturae, Tadoba Andhari Tiger Reserve, Taiga, Taiwan, Tajikistan, Tamil Eelam, Tamil Nadu, Taxonomy (biology), Tehran Zoological Garden, Telemetry, Terai, Territory (animal), Thailand, The Guardian, The Independent, The Jungle Book, The Tyger, Thermoregulation, Thorn forest, Tibetan people, Tiger (zodiac), Tiger economy, Tiger in Chinese culture, Tiger of Segur, Tiger reserves of India, Tiger tail, Tiger Temple, Tiger versus lion, Tigers (sports teams), Tigger, Tigon, Tigris, Time (magazine), Tony the Tiger, Trachea, Traditional Chinese medicine, Traditional medicine, Transcaucasia, Trinil, Trinil tiger, Tropical rainforest, Tungusic peoples, Turkmenistan, Tyger (heraldry), Udege people, Ukraine, Ungulate, United Kingdom, United States dollar, United States Secretary of Defense, Urination, Ussuri brown bear, Ussuri River, Uttarakhand, Valid name (zoology), Vietnam, Vox (website), Wanhsien tiger, Water, Water buffalo, Way Kambas National Park, Werecat, Werewolf, West, Western Asia, Western Ghats, White tiger, White Tiger (China), Whole genome sequencing, Wild boar, Wild water buffalo, Wildlife, Wildlife Conservation Society, William Blake, Winnie-the-Pooh, World Wide Fund for Nature, Yann Martel, Yawn, Zapovednik, Zoo, Zoological specimen, Zygosity, 14th Dalai Lama, 21st Century Tiger. 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Alan Alexander Milne (18 January 1882 – 31 January 1956) was an English author, best known for his books about the teddy bear Winnie-the-Pooh and for various poems.
In evolutionary biology, adaptive radiation is a process in which organisms diversify rapidly from an ancestral species into a multitude of new forms, particularly when a change in the environment makes new resources available, creates new challenges, or opens new environmental niches.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Albinism in humans is a congenital disorder characterized by the complete or partial absence of pigment in the skin, hair and eyes.
An allele is a variant form of a given gene.
The Altai Mountains (also spelled Altay Mountains; Altai: Алтай туулар, Altay tuular; Mongolian:, Altai-yin niruɣu (Chakhar) / Алтайн нуруу, Altain nuruu (Khalkha); Kazakh: Алтай таулары, Altai’ tay’lary, التاي تاۋلارى Алтайские горы, Altajskije gory; Chinese; 阿尔泰山脉, Ā'ěrtài Shānmài, Xiao'erjing: اَعَرتَىْ شًامَىْ; Dungan: Артэ Шанмэ) are a mountain range in Central and East Asia, where Russia, China, Mongolia, and Kazakhstan come together, and are where the rivers Irtysh and Ob have their headwaters.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
The Amu Darya, also called the Amu or Amo River, and historically known by its Latin name Oxus, is a major river in Central Asia.
The Amur River (Even: Тамур, Tamur; река́ Аму́р) or Heilong Jiang ("Black Dragon River";, "Black Water") is the world's tenth longest river, forming the border between the Russian Far East and Northeastern China (Inner Manchuria).
The anal glands or anal sacs are small glands found near the anus in many mammals, including dogs and cats.
Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Andhra Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India.
Ang Lee OBS (born October 23, 1954) is a Taiwanese film director and screenwriter.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
Animal coloration is the general appearance of an animal resulting from the reflection or emission of light from its surfaces.
Animal Planet is an American pay television channel owned by Discovery Inc. Originally focused on more educationally-based television shows, the network has featured more reality programming since 2008.
An animal track is an imprint left behind in soil, snow, or mud, or on some other ground surface, by an animal walking across it.
Anthrozoology (also known as human–non-human-animal studies, or HAS) is the subset of ethnobiology that deals with interactions between humans and other animals.
An apex predator, also known as an alpha predator or top predator, is a predator at the top of a food chain, with no natural predators.
An aphrodisiac or love drug is a substance that increases libido when consumed.
The Aral Sea was an endorheic lake (one with no outflow) lying between Kazakhstan (Aktobe and Kyzylorda Regions) in the north and Uzbekistan (Karakalpakstan autonomous region) in the south.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Asia-Pacific or Asia Pacific (abbreviated as APAC, Asia-Pac, AsPac, APJ, JAPA or JAPAC) is the part of the world in or near the Western Pacific Ocean.
The Asian black bear (Ursus thibetanus, previously known as Selenarctos thibetanus), also known as the moon bear and the white-chested bear, is a medium-sized bear species native to Asia and largely adapted to arboreal life.
The Asian elephant, or Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus), is the only living species of the genus Elephas and is distributed in Southeast Asia, from India and Nepal in the west to Borneo in the south.
The Asiatic lion (Panthera leo leo) is a lion population in Gujarat, India.
Assam is a state in Northeast India, situated south of the eastern Himalayas along the Brahmaputra and Barak River valleys.
Avestan, also known historically as Zend, is a language known only from its use as the language of Zoroastrian scripture (the Avesta), from which it derives its name.
Ayyappan is the Hindu god of growth, particularly popular in Kerala.
Badgers are short-legged omnivores in the family Mustelidae, which also includes the otters, polecats, weasels, and wolverines.
Bali (Balinese:, Indonesian: Pulau Bali, Provinsi Bali) is an island and province of Indonesia with the biggest Hindu population.
The Bali tiger (Panthera tigris sondaica) is an extinct tiger population that lived in the Indonesian island of Bali.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
The barasingha (Rucervus duvaucelii syn. Cervus duvaucelii), also called swamp deer, is a deer species distributed in the Indian subcontinent.
Bears are carnivoran mammals of the family Ursidae.
A beard is the collection of hair that grows on the chin and cheeks of humans and some non-human animals.
Bengal (Bānglā/Bôngô /) is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in Asia, which is located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal.
The Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) is the most numerous tiger subspecies in Asia, and was estimated at fewer than 2,500 individuals by 2011.
Bergmann's rule is an ecogeographical rule that states that within a broadly distributed taxonomic clade, populations and species of larger size are found in colder environments, and species of smaller size are found in warmer regions.
Beringia is defined today as the land and maritime area bounded on the west by the Lena River in Russia; on the east by the Mackenzie River in Canada; on the north by 72 degrees north latitude in the Chukchi Sea; and on the south by the tip of the Kamchatka Peninsula.
A bestiary, or bestiarum vocabulum, is a compendium of beasts.
Bhutan, officially the Kingdom of Bhutan (Druk Gyal Khap), is a landlocked country in South Asia.
In Africa, the big five game animals are the lion, leopard, rhinoceros (both black and white species), elephant, and Cape buffalo.
Kunwar "Billy" Arjan Singh (15 August 1917 – 1 January 2010) was an Indian hunter turned conservationist and author.
Binomial nomenclature ("two-term naming system") also called nomenclature ("two-name naming system") or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages.
Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
A black tiger is a rare colour variant of the tiger and is not a distinct species or geographic subspecies.
The Man Booker Prize for Fiction (formerly known as the Booker–McConnell Prize and commonly known simply as the Booker Prize) is a literary prize awarded each year for the best original novel written in the English language and published in the UK.
The Bornean tiger is possibly an extinct tiger population that is thought to have lived in the Sunda island of Borneo in prehistoric times.
Borneo (Pulau Borneo) is the third largest island in the world and the largest in Asia.
The Bovidae are the biological family of cloven-hoofed, ruminant mammals that includes bison, African buffalo, water buffalo, antelopes, wildebeest, impala, gazelles, sheep, goats, muskoxen, and domestic cattle.
Breakfast cereal is a food product made from processed cereal grains that is often eaten as a breakfast in primarily Western societies.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Founded in 1875, the Buffalo Zoo, located at 300 Parkside Ave in Buffalo, New York, is the third oldest zoo in the United States.
Calvin and Hobbes is a daily comic strip by American cartoonist Bill Watterson that was syndicated from November 18, 1985 to December 31, 1995.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
A camel is an even-toed ungulate in the genus Camelus that bears distinctive fatty deposits known as "humps" on its back.
A camera trap is a remotely activated camera that is equipped with a motion sensor or an infrared sensor, or uses a light beam as a trigger.
Camouflage is the use of any combination of materials, coloration, or illumination for concealment, either by making animals or objects hard to see (crypsis), or by disguising them as something else (mimesis).
In mammalian oral anatomy, the canine teeth, also called cuspids, dog teeth, fangs, or (in the case of those of the upper jaw) eye teeth, are relatively long, pointed teeth.
In Mainland China, there are 53 criminal offences eligible for the death penalty.
Animals that are held by humans and prevented from escaping are said to be in captivity.
Careya arborea is a species of tree in the Lecythidaceae family, native to the Indian Subcontinent, Afghanistan, and Indochina.
Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
The Caspian tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) is an extinct tiger population.
Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.
The Caucasian wisent (Bison bonasus caucasicus) was a subspecies of European bison that inhabited the Caucasus Mountains of Eastern Europe.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
The Champawat Tiger was a female Bengal tiger responsible for an estimated 436 deaths in Nepal and the Kumaon area of India, during the last years of the 19th century and the first years of the 20th century.
Charismatic megafauna are large animal species with widespread popular appeal, which are often used by environmental activists to achieve environmentalist goals.
The Cheras were the ruling dynasty of the present-day state of Kerala and to a lesser extent, parts of Tamil Nadu in South India.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chinese art is visual art that, whether ancient or modern, originated in or is practiced in China or by Chinese artists.
Chinese astrology is based on the traditional astronomy and calendars.
Traditional Chinese astronomy has a system of dividing the celestial sphere into asterisms or constellations, known as "officials" (Chinese xīng guān).
Chinese culture is one of the world's oldest cultures, originating thousands of years ago.
Chinese dragons or East Asian dragons are legendary creatures in Chinese mythology, Chinese folklore, and East Asian culture at large.
Chinese mythology refers to myths found in the historical geographic area of China: these include myths in Chinese and other languages, as transmitted by Han Chinese and other ethnic groups, which have their own languages and myths.
The chital or cheetal (Axis axis), also known as spotted deer or axis deer, is a species of deer that is native in the Indian subcontinent.
Chittagong, officially known as Chattogram, is a major coastal city and financial centre in southeastern Bangladesh.
The Chola dynasty was one of the longest-ruling dynasties in the history of southern India.
A chuba is a long sheepskin coat made of thick Tibetan wool worn by many of the nomadic peoples of high altitude in the cold mountains of Tibet.
A circus is a company of performers who put on diverse entertainment shows that include clowns, acrobats, trained animals, trapeze acts, musicians, dancers, hoopers, tightrope walkers, jugglers, magicians, unicyclists, as well as other object manipulation and stunt-oriented artists.
CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, also known as the Washington Convention) is a multilateral treaty to protect endangered plants and animals.
Cleft lip and cleft palate, also known as orofacial cleft, is a group of conditions that includes cleft lip (CL), cleft palate (CP), and both together (CLP).
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).
A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon (i.e., shield), surcoat, or tabard.
Coenraad Jacob Temminck (31 March 1778 – 30 January 1858) was a Dutch aristocrat, zoologist, and museum director.
Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.
In anatomy, the left and right common carotid arteries (carotids) are arteries that supply the head and neck with oxygenated blood; they divide in the neck to form the external and internal carotid arteries.
A critically endangered (CR) species is one which has been categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild.
Crocodiles (subfamily Crocodylinae) or true crocodiles are large aquatic reptiles that live throughout the tropics in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia.
In dentistry, crown refers to the anatomical area of teeth, usually covered by enamel.
In the fields of horticulture and botany, the term deciduous (/dɪˈsɪdʒuəs/) means "falling off at maturity" and "tending to fall off", in reference to trees and shrubs that seasonally shed leaves, usually in the autumn; to the shedding of petals, after flowering; and to the shedding of ripe fruit.
Deer (singular and plural) are the ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae.
The dhole (Cuon alpinus) is a canid native to Central, South and Southeast Asia.
Dietary fiber or roughage is the indigestible portion of food derived from plants.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
The domestic yak (Bos grunniens) is a long-haired domesticated bovid found throughout the Himalayan region of the Indian subcontinent, the Tibetan Plateau and as far north as Mongolia and Russia.
Dominance in ethology is an "individual's preferential access to resources over another." Dominance in the context of biology and anthropology is the state of having high social status relative to one or more other individuals, who react submissively to dominant individuals.
Dominance in genetics is a relationship between alleles of one gene, in which the effect on phenotype of one allele masks the contribution of a second allele at the same locus.
The donkey or ass (Equus africanus asinus) is a domesticated member of the horse family, Equidae.
Douglas A. Harper (born 1948) is an American sociologist and photographer.
A dragon is a large, serpent-like legendary creature that appears in the folklore of many cultures around the world.
The Dudhwa National Park is a national park in the Terai of Uttar Pradesh, India, and covers an area of, with a buffer zone of.
Durga, also identified as Adi Parashakti, Devī, Shakti, Bhavani, Parvati, Amba and by numerous other names, is a principal and popular form of Hindu goddess.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
The Eastern Anatolia Region (Doğu Anadolu Bölgesi) is a geographical region of Turkey.
Russia has an upper-middle income, World Bank mixed economy with state ownership in strategic areas of the economy.
An endangered species is a species which has been categorized as very likely to become extinct.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
Ernst Schwarz (1 December 1889 – 23 September 1962) was a German zoologist, mammalogist, and herpetologist.
The estrous cycle or oestrus cycle (derived from Latin oestrus 'frenzy', originally from Greek οἶστρος oîstros 'gadfly') is the recurring physiological changes that are induced by reproductive hormones in most mammalian therian females.
In botany, an evergreen is a plant that has leaves throughout the year, always green.
An extinct in the wild (EW) species is one which has been categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as only known by living members kept in captivity or as a naturalized population outside its historic range due to massive habitat loss.
Exxon was the brand name of oil and natural resources company Exxon Corporation, prior to 1972 known as Standard Oil Company of New Jersey.
An eyespot (sometimes ocellus) is an eye-like marking.
Feces (or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine.
The biological family Felidae is a lineage of carnivorans colloquially referred to as cats.
Female (♀) is the sex of an organism, or a part of an organism, that produces non-mobile ova (egg cells).
Fenghuang are mythological birds of East Asia that reign over all other birds.
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
A flag is a piece of fabric (most often rectangular or quadrilateral) with a distinctive design and colors.
The flehmen response, also called the flehmen position, flehmen reaction, flehming, or flehmening, is a behavior in which an animal curls back its upper lip exposing its front teeth, inhales with the nostrils usually closed, and then often holds this position for several seconds.
Folk etymology or reanalysis – sometimes called pseudo-etymology, popular etymology, or analogical reformation – is a change in a word or phrase resulting from the replacement of an unfamiliar form by a more familiar one.
Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group.
A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.
In population genetics, the founder effect is the loss of genetic variation that occurs when a new population is established by a very small number of individuals from a larger population.
The Four Asian Tigers, Four Asian Dragons or Four Little Dragons, are the economies of Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan, which underwent rapid industrialization and maintained exceptionally high growth rates (in excess of 7 percent a year) between the early 1960s (mid-1950s for Hong Kong) and 1990s.
The Four Symbols (literally meaning "four images") are four mythological creatures in the Chinese constellations.
Foxes are small-to-medium-sized, omnivorous mammals belonging to several genera of the family Canidae.
The Frankfurt Zoological Garden is the zoo of Frankfurt, Germany.
The Franklin Park Zoo is a zoo located in Boston, Massachusetts.
Fur is the hair covering of non-human mammals, particularly those mammals with extensive body hair that is soft and thick.
The Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (also known as the Brahmaputra Delta, the Sunderbans Delta or the Bengal Delta) is a river delta in the Bengal region of the South Asia, consisting of Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal.
Gansu (Tibetan: ཀན་སུའུ་ Kan su'u) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northwest of the country.
Garhwal (IPA: /ɡəɽʋːɔɭ/) is the western region and administrative division of the northern Indian state of Uttarakhand which is home to the Garhwali people.
The gaur (Bos gaurus), also called the Indian bison, is the largest extant bovine.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
In population genetics, gene flow (also known as gene migration or allele flow) is the transfer of genetic variation from one population to another.
A general officer is an officer of high rank in the army, and in some nations' air forces or marines.
Genetic analysis is the overall process of studying and researching in fields of science that involve genetics and molecular biology.
Genetic diversity is the total number of genetic characteristics in the genetic makeup of a species.
Genetic genealogy is the use of DNA testing in combination with traditional genealogical methods to infer relationships between individuals and find ancestors.
Genetic variability is either the presence of, or the generation of, genetic differences.
A geneticist is a biologist who studies genetics, the science of genes, heredity, and variation of organisms.
Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.
George Beals Schaller (born 1933) is a German-born American mammalogist, biologist, conservationist and author.
Gestation is the carrying of an embryo or fetus inside viviparous animals.
The golden jackal (Canis aureus) is a wolf-like canid that is native to Southeast Europe, Southwest Asia, South Asia, and regions of Southeast Asia.
A golden tiger, golden tabby tiger or strawberry tiger is a tiger with a colour variation caused by a recessive gene.
The Government of India (IAST), often abbreviated as GoI, is the union government created by the constitution of India as the legislative, executive and judicial authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories of a constitutionally democratic republic.
Grasslands are areas where the vegetation is dominated by grasses (Poaceae); however, sedge (Cyperaceae) and rush (Juncaceae) families can also be found along with variable proportions of legumes, like clover, and other herbs.
The gray wolf (Canis lupus), also known as the timber wolf,Paquet, P. & Carbyn, L. W. (2003).
The Greater Sunda Islands are a group of four large islands within the Malay Archipelago.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives.
Habitat destruction is the process in which natural habitat is rendered unable to support the species present.
Habitat fragmentation describes the emergence of discontinuities (fragmentation) in an organism's preferred environment (habitat), causing population fragmentation and ecosystem decay.
The hair follicle is a dynamic organ found in mammalian skin.
Hares and jackrabbits are leporids belonging to the genus Lepus.
Heraldry is a broad term, encompassing the design, display, and study of armorial bearings (known as armory), as well as related disciplines, such as vexillology, together with the study of ceremony, rank, and pedigree.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.
Hobbes is one of the two main characters in the comic strip Calvin and Hobbes by Bill Watterson.
The Holocene is the current geological epoch.
Honey is a sweet, viscous food substance produced by bees and some related insects.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of ''Equus ferus''.
The Hukawng Valley (ဟူးကောင်းချိုင့်ဝှမ်း; also spelt Hukaung Valley) is an isolated valley in Burma, roughly in area.
Hunchun is a county-level city in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture, far eastern Jilin province, Northeast China.
Hung Ga (洪家), Hung Kuen (洪拳), or Hung Ga Kuen (洪家拳) is a southern Chinese martial art (Cantonese, to be more specific), which belongs to the southern shaolin styles and associated with the Cantonese folk hero Wong Fei Hung, who was a master of Hung Ga.
A hunting blind (US), hide or machan is a cover device for hunters or gamekeepers, designed to reduce the chance of detection.
In biology, a hybrid, or crossbreed, is the result of combining the qualities of two organisms of different breeds, varieties, species or genera through sexual reproduction.
The hyoid apparatus is the collective term used in veterinary anatomy for the bones which suspend the tongue and larynx.
A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon.
Inbreeding is the production of offspring from the mating or breeding of individuals or organisms that are closely related genetically.
Inbreeding depression is the reduced biological fitness in a given population as a result of inbreeding, or breeding of related individuals.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indian boar (Sus scrofa cristatus), also known as the Andamanese pig or Moupin pigLydekker, R. (1900),, London: R. Ward, pp.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
The Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis), also called the greater one-horned rhinoceros and great Indian rhinoceros, is a rhinoceros native to the Indian subcontinent.
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (née Nehru; 19 November 1917 – 31 October 1984) was an Indian politician, stateswoman and a central figure of the Indian National Congress.
Indochina, originally Indo-China, is a geographical term originating in the early nineteenth century and referring to the continental portion of the region now known as Southeast Asia.
The Indochinese tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) (เสือ โคร่ง อิน โด จีน, S̄eụ̄x khor̀ng xin do cīn) is a tiger population that lives in Myanmar, Thailand, Lao PDR, Vietnam, Cambodia and southwestern China.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC), or Harappan Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation (5500–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.
Insular dwarfism, a form of phyletic dwarfism, is the process and condition of large animals evolving or having a reduced body size when their population's range is limited to a small environment, primarily islands.
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
In humans and most mammals and birds, the iris (plural: irides or irises) is a thin, circular structure in the eye, responsible for controlling the diameter and size of the pupil and thus the amount of light reaching the retina.
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List or Red Data List), founded in 1964, has evolved to become the world's most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of biological species.
The jaguar (Panthera onca) is a wild cat species and the only extant member of the genus Panthera native to the Americas.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Java (Indonesian: Jawa; Javanese: ꦗꦮ; Sundanese) is an island of Indonesia.
The Javan tiger (Panthera tigris sondaica) is an extinct tiger population that lived in the Indonesian island of Java until the mid 1970s.
Edward James Corbett (25 July 1875 – 19 April 1955) was a British hunter, tracker and conservationist, author and naturalist, who hunted a large number of man-eating tigers and leopards in India.
Johann Karl Wilhelm Illiger (19 November 1775 – 10 May 1813) was a German entomologist and zoologist.
John Edward Gray, FRS (12 February 1800 – 7 March 1875) was a British zoologist.
The jugular veins are veins that take deoxygenated blood from the head back to the heart via the superior vena cava.
Kanha Tiger Reserve, also called Kanha National Park, is one of the tiger reserves of India and the largest national park of Madhya Pradesh, state in the heart of India.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
Kellogg's is a DBA for the Kellogg Company, an American multinational food-manufacturing company headquartered in Battle Creek, Michigan, United States.
Khabarovsk Krai (p) is a federal subject (a krai) of Russia.
Kleptoparasitism (literally, parasitism by theft) is a form of feeding in which one animal takes prey or other food from another that has caught, collected, or otherwise prepared the food, including stored food (as in the case of cuckoo bees, which lay their eggs on the pollen masses made by other bees; food resources could also be in the form of hosts of parasitic or parasitoid wasps).
Kolyma (Колыма́) is a region located in the Russian Far East.
For Kumaoni people see Kumaoni people Kumaon or Kumaun is one of the two regions and administrative divisions of Uttarakhand, a mountainous state of northern India, the other being Garhwal.
The Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz Respublikasy; r; Қирғиз Республикаси.), or simply Kyrgyzstan, and also known as Kirghizia (Kyrgyzstan; r), is a sovereign state in Central Asia.
Lake Balkhash (Балқаш көлі,; Озеро Балхаш, Ozero Balhaš) is one of the largest lakes in Asia and 15th largest in the world.
The Laohu Valley Reserve (LVR) is a nature reserve located near Philippolis in the Free State and near Vanderkloof Dam in the Northern Cape of South Africa.
Laos (ລາວ,, Lāo; Laos), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao: ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ, Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao; République démocratique populaire lao), commonly referred to by its colloquial name of Muang Lao (Lao: ເມືອງລາວ, Muang Lao), is a landlocked country in the heart of the Indochinese peninsula of Mainland Southeast Asia, bordered by Myanmar (Burma) and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the southwest and Thailand to the west and southwest.
The last glacial period occurred from the end of the Eemian interglacial to the end of the Younger Dryas, encompassing the period years ago.
The Late Pleistocene is a geochronological age of the Pleistocene Epoch and is associated with Upper Pleistocene or Tarantian stage Pleistocene series rocks.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The leopard (Panthera pardus) is one of the five species in the genus Panthera, a member of the Felidae.
The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (translit, translit, commonly known as the LTTE or the Tamil Tigers) was a Tamil militant organization that was based in northeastern Sri Lanka.
Life of Pi is a Canadian fantasy adventure novel by Yann Martel published in 2001.
Life of Pi is a 2012 American survival drama film based on Yann Martel's 2001 novel of the same name.
The liger is a hybrid offspring of a male lion (Panthera leo) and a female tiger (Panthera tigris).
The lion (Panthera leo) is a species in the cat family (Felidae).
This is a list of national animals.
A litigon is a rare second generation hybrid from a female tigon (a hybrid between a male tiger and a female lion) and a male lion, specifically an Asiatic lion.
Local extinction or extirpation is the condition of a species (or other taxon) that ceases to exist in the chosen geographic area of study, though it still exists elsewhere.
A lynx (plural lynx or lynxes) is any of the four species (Canada lynx, Iberian lynx, Eurasian lynx, Bobcat) within the medium-sized wild cat genus Lynx.
The Mahābhārata (महाभारतम्) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Rāmāyaṇa.
Mahārāja (महाराज, also spelled Maharajah, Moharaja) is a Sanskrit title for a "great ruler", "great king" or "high king".
The Malay Peninsula (Tanah Melayu, تانه ملايو; คาบสมุทรมลายู,, မလေး ကျွန်းဆွယ်, 马来半岛 / 馬來半島) is a peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus), also called the Asian tapir, is the largest of the five species of tapir and the only one native to Asia.
The Malayan tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) is a tiger population that inhabits the southern and central parts of the Malay Peninsula, and has been classified as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List in 2015.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
A male (♂) organism is the physiological sex that produces sperm.
The Maltese tiger, or blue tiger, is a reported but unproven coloration morph of a tiger, reported mostly in the Fujian Province of China.
Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference is a standard reference work in mammology giving descriptions and bibliographic data for the known species of mammals.
Man-Eaters of Kumaon is a 1944 book written by hunter-naturalist Jim Corbett.
The Manchu are an ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name.
The Manchurian wapiti (Cervus canadensis xanthopygus) is a subspecies of Cervus canadensis (named "elk" or "wapiti" in North America), native to eastern Asia.
A mangrove is a shrub or small tree that grows in coastal saline or brackish water.
A mascot is any person, animal, or object thought to bring luck, or anything used to represent a group with a common public identity, such as a school, professional sports team, society, military unit, or brand name.
In biology, mating (or mateing in British English) is the pairing of either opposite-sex or hermaphroditic organisms, usually for the purposes of sexual reproduction.
Mauricio Antón Ortuzar (born 1961 in Bilbao, Spain) is a paleoartist and illustrator specialized in the scientific reconstruction of extinct life, well known for his influential paintings of hominids, extinct carnivores and other vertebrate fossil groups.
Melanism is a development of the dark-colored pigment melanin in the skin or its appendages and is the opposite of albinism.
Meru Betiri National Park is a national park in the province of East Java, Indonesia, extending over an area of 580 km2 of which a small part is marine (8.45 km2).
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
Miyānkāle peninsula (شبه جزیره میانکاله) is a narrow but long peninsula in Māzandarān Province in the north of Iran situated in the extreme south-eastern part of the Caspian Sea.
Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.
Monkeys are non-hominoid simians, generally possessing tails and consisting of about 260 known living species.
Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.
Mount Halimun Salak National Park is a 400 km2 conservation area in the Indonesian province of West Java on the island of Java.
Mowgli is a fictional character and the protagonist of Rudyard Kipling's The Jungle Book stories.
Muntjacs, also known as barking deer and Mastreani deer, are small deer of the genus Muntiacus.
Musk deer can refer to any one, or all seven, of the species that make up Moschus, the only extant genus of the family Moschidae.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
Mythology refers variously to the collected myths of a group of people or to the study of such myths.
Nagarhole National Park (also known as Rajiv Gandhi National Park), is a national park located in Kodagu district and Mysore district in Karnataka state in South India.
The Nanai people are a Tungusic people of the Far East, who have traditionally lived along Heilongjiang (Amur), Songhuajiang (Sunggari) and Ussuri rivers on the Middle Amur Basin.
The nape is the back of the neck.
National Geographic (formerly the National Geographic Magazine and branded also as NAT GEO or) is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society.
Nellore district (officially: Sri Potti Sriramulu Nellore district), located in Coastal Andhra region is one of the 13 districts of Andhra Pradesh.
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
New York is a state in the northeastern United States.
The Ngandong tiger (Panthera tigris soloensis) is an extinct tiger subspecies, which occurred in the Sundaland region of Indonesia during the Pleistocene epoch.
Nikolai Alekseevich Severtzov (5 November 1827 – 8 February 1885) was a Russian explorer and naturalist.
The nilgai or blue bull (literally meaning "blue cow"; Boselaphus tragocamelus) is the largest Asian antelope and is endemic to the Indian subcontinent.
Nocturnality is an animal behavior characterized by being active during the night and sleeping during the day.
Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations, commonly referred to as NGOs, are usually non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations (though often funded by governments) that are active in humanitarian, educational, health care, public policy, social, human rights, environmental, and other areas to effect changes according to their objectives.
North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides forming alleles within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule.
That area of the squamous part of the occipital bone which lies above the highest of the nuchal lines is named the occipital plane or (planum occipitale), and is covered by the occipitalis muscle.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.
The orangutans (also spelled orang-utan, orangutang, or orang-utang) are three extant species of great apes native to Indonesia and Malaysia.
The Orient is the East, traditionally comprising anything that belongs to the Eastern world, in relation to Europe.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Palawan is the largest island of the province of Palawan in the Philippines and the fifth largest island of the country.
The Pandyan dynasty was an ancient Tamil dynasty, one of the three Tamil dynasties, the other two being the Chola and the Chera.
Panthera is a genus within the Felidae family that was named and first described by the German naturalist Oken in 1816.
Panthera Corporation, or Panthera is a charitable organization devoted to preserving big cats and their ecosystems around the globe.
The Longdan tiger or Panthera zdanskyi is an extinct species of pantherine known from the Gansu province of northwestern China.
The peafowl include three species of birds in the genera Pavo and Afropavo of the Phasianidae family, the pheasants and their allies.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Phrenology is a pseudomedicine primarily focused on measurements of the human skull, based on the concept that the brain is the organ of the mind, and that certain brain areas have localized, specific functions or modules.
Phylogeography is the study of the historical processes that may be responsible for the contemporary geographic distributions of individuals.
When discussing fights between lions and tigers, a physical comparison of them is often made.
The Pleistocene (often colloquially referred to as the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations.
Pleistocene Park (Плейстоценовый парк) is a nature reserve on the Kolyma River south of Chersky in the Sakha Republic, Russia, in northeastern Siberia, where an attempt is being made to recreate the northern subarctic steppe grassland ecosystem that flourished in the area during the last glacial period.
Poaching has been defined as the illegal hunting or capturing of wild animals, usually associated with land use rights.
Porcupines are rodents with a coat of sharp spines, or quills, that protect against predators.
Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a hunting animal) kills and eats its prey (the organism that is attacked).
Human prehistory is the period between the use of the first stone tools 3.3 million years ago by hominins and the invention of writing systems.
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.
Pride is an inwardly directed emotion that carries two antithetical meanings.
In phylogenetics, a primitive (or ancestral) character, trait, or feature of a lineage or taxon is one that is inherited from the common ancestor of a clade (or clade group) and has undergone little change since.
Primorsky Krai (p; 프리모르스키 지방) is a federal subject (a krai) of Russia, located in the Far East region of the country and is a part of the Far Eastern Federal District.
Project Tiger is a tiger conservation programme launched in 1973 by the Government of India during Prime Minister Indira Gandhi's tenure.
Prusten is a vocalization made by only three members of the Pantherinae subfamily, the tiger, snow leopard and the clouded leopard.
Pugmark is the term used to refer to the footprint of most animals (especially megafauna).
The pupil is a hole located in the center of the iris of the eye that allows light to strike the retina.
A purr is a tonal fluttering sound made by some species of felids, and two species of genets.
The Pythonidae, commonly known simply as pythons, from the Greek word python (πυθων), are a family of nonvenomous snakes found in Africa, Asia, and Australia.
Reginald Innes Pocock F.R.S. (4 March 1863 – 9 August 1947) was a British zoologist.
Ranthambhore National Park (रणथंभौर राष्ट्रीय उद्यान) or Ranthambhore is the fortieth largest national park in northern India, covering 392 km².
Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents".
Rewilding is large-scale conservation aimed at restoring and protecting natural processes and core wilderness areas, providing connectivity between such areas, and protecting or reintroducing apex predators and keystone species.
In plane Euclidean geometry, a rhombus (plural rhombi or rhombuses) is a simple (non-self-intersecting) quadrilateral whose four sides all have the same length.
A roar is a type of animal vocalization consisting of both a low fundamental frequency (pitch) and low formant frequency.
A rosette is a rose-like marking or formation found on the fur and skin of some animals, particularly cats.
Joseph Rudyard Kipling (30 December 1865 – 18 January 1936)The Times, (London) 18 January 1936, p. 12 was an English journalist, short-story writer, poet, and novelist.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica) is a critically endangered antelope that originally inhabited a vast area of the Eurasian steppe zone from the foothills of the Carpathian Mountains and Caucasus into Dzungaria and Mongolia.
Sakhalin (Сахалин), previously also known as Kuye Dao (Traditional Chinese:庫頁島, Simplified Chinese:库页岛) in Chinese and in Japanese, is a large Russian island in the North Pacific Ocean, lying between 45°50' and 54°24' N.
The sambar (Rusa unicolor) is a large deer native to the Indian subcontinent, southern China, and Southeast Asia that is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List since 2008.
Sariska Tiger Reserve is a national park and tiger reserve located in the Alwar district of the state of Rajasthan, India.
A savanna or savannah is a mixed woodland grassland ecosystem characterised by the trees being sufficiently widely spaced so that the canopy does not close.
Save China's Tigers (SCT) is an international charitable foundation based in Hong Kong, the United States, and the United Kingdom (Office in London) which aims to save the big cats of China from extinction.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Scoliosis is a medical condition in which a person's spine has a sideways curve.
Sexual dimorphism is the condition where the two sexes of the same species exhibit different characteristics beyond the differences in their sexual organs.
In mythology, folklore and speculative fiction, shapeshifting is the ability of a being or creature to completely transform its physical form or shape.
Shaving is the removal of hair, by using a razor or any other kind of bladed implement, to slice it down—to the level of the skin or otherwise.
Shere Khan (शेर खान; شیر خان) is a fictional Bengal tiger and the main antagonist of Rudyard Kipling's Jungle Book and its adaptations.
Shiva (Sanskrit: शिव, IAST: Śiva, lit. the auspicious one) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
The Siberian roe deer or eastern roe deer (Capreolus pygargus) is a species of roe deer found in northeastern Asia.
The Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris tigris), also called Amur tiger, is a tiger population inhabiting mainly the Sikhote Alin mountain region in southwest Primorye Province in the Russian Far East.
Siegfried & Roy are a German-American duo of magicians and entertainers who became known for their appearances with white lions and white tigers.
The sika deer (Cervus nippon) also known as the spotted deer or the Japanese deer, is a species of deer native to much of East Asia, and introduced to various other parts of the world.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
A sister group or sister taxon is a phylogenetic term denoting the closest relatives of another given unit in an evolutionary tree.
Membrane-associated transporter protein (MATP) also known as solute carrier family 45 member 2 (SLC45A2) or melanoma antigen AIM1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC45A2 gene.
The sloth bear (Melursus ursinus), also known as the labiated bear, is an insectivorous bear species native to the Indian subcontinent.
The snow leopard or ounce (Panthera uncia) is a large cat native to the mountain ranges of Central and South Asia.
Sociality is the degree to which individuals in an animal population tend to associate in social groups (Gregariousness) and form cooperative societies.
Songs of Innocence and of Experience is an illustrated collection of poems by William Blake.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
The South China tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) is a tiger population in the provinces of Fujian, Guangdong, Hunan, Jiangxi in southern China.
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
The Southern African lion (Panthera leo melanochaita) is a lion subspecies in Southern Africa.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
The American Species Survival Plan or SSP program was developed in 1981 by the (American) Association of Zoos and Aquariums to help ensure the survival of selected species in zoos and aquariums, most of which are threatened or endangered in the wild.
In zoological nomenclature, the specific name (also specific epithet or species epithet) is the second part (the second name) within the scientific name of a species (a binomen).
The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.
A status symbol is a perceived visible, external denotation of one's social position and perceived indicator of economic or social status.
Strabismus, also known as crossed eyes, is a condition in which the eyes do not properly align with each other when looking at an object.
Strangling is compression of the neck that may lead to unconsciousness or death by causing an increasingly hypoxic state in the brain.
The striped hyena (Hyaena hyaena) is a species of hyena native to North and East Africa, the Middle East, the Caucasus, Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent.
Stubble may mean.
In biological classification, the term subspecies refers to a unity of populations of a species living in a subdivision of the species’s global range and varies from other populations of the same species by morphological characteristics.
Sumatra is an Indonesian island in Southeast Asia that is part of the Sunda Islands.
The Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sondaica) is a tiger population that lives in the Indonesian island of Sumatra.
The Sunda Islands are a group of islands in the Malay archipelago.
Sundaland (also called the Sundaic region) is a biogeographical region of Southeastern Asia corresponding to a larger landmass that was exposed throughout the last 2.6 million years during periods when sea levels were lower.
The Sundarbans is a vast forest in the coastal region of the Bay of Bengal and considered one of the natural wonders of the world.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
In classical genetics, synteny describes the physical co-localization of genetic loci on the same chromosome within an individual or species.
The Syr Darya is a river in Central Asia. The Syr Darya originates in the Tian Shan Mountains in Kyrgyzstan and eastern Uzbekistan and flows for west and north-west through Uzbekistan and southern Kazakhstan to the northern remnants of the Aral Sea. It is the northern and eastern of the two main rivers in the endorrheic basin of the Aral Sea, the other being the Amu Darya. In the Soviet era, extensive irrigation projects were constructed around both rivers, diverting their water into farmland and causing, during the post-Soviet era, the virtual disappearance of the Aral Sea, once the world's fourth-largest lake.
(originally in Latin written with the ligature æ) is one of the major works of the Swedish botanist, zoologist and physician Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778) and introduced the Linnaean taxonomy.
Tadoba Andhari Tiger Reserve is located in Chandrapur district of Maharashtra state in India.
Taiga (p; from Turkic), also known as boreal forest or snow forest, is a biome characterized by coniferous forests consisting mostly of pines, spruces and larches.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Tajikistan (or; Тоҷикистон), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Jumhuriyi Tojikiston), is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an estimated population of million people as of, and an area of.
Tamil Eelam (தமிழீழம் tamiḻ īḻam, generally rendered outside Tamil-speaking areas as தமிழ் ஈழம்) is a proposed independent state that Tamils in Sri Lanka and the Sri Lankan Tamil diaspora aspire to create in the north and east of Sri Lanka.
Tamil Nadu (• tamiḻ nāḍu ? literally 'The Land of Tamils' or 'Tamil Country') is one of the 29 states of India.
Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.
The Tehran Zoological Garden, also known as Eram Zoo, is located 4 kilometer on the Tehran - Karaj Expressway in the Eram amusement Park.
Telemetry is an automated communications process by which measurements and other data are collected at remote or inaccessible points and transmitted to receiving equipment for monitoring.
The Terai (तराई तराइ) is a lowland region in southern Nepal and northern India that lies south of the outer foothills of the Himalayas, the Siwalik Hills, and north of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
In ethology, territory is the sociographical area that an animal of a particular species consistently defends against conspecifics (or, occasionally, animals of other species).
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The Jungle Book (1894) is a collection of stories by the English author Rudyard Kipling.
"The Tyger" is a poem by the English poet William Blake published in 1794 as part of the Songs of Experience collection.
Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when the surrounding temperature is very different.
A thorny forest is a dense, scrublike vegetation characteristic of dry subtropical and warm temperate areas with a seasonal rainfall averaging.
The Tibetan people are an ethnic group native to Tibet.
The Tiger (寅) is the third of the 12-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar.
A tiger economy is the economy of a country which undergoes rapid economic growth, usually accompanied by an increase in the standard of living.
Throughout Chinese history, the tiger has incited a sense of both awe and admiration: its prowess, its ferocity, its beauty, and the harmony of the opposites.
The Tiger of Segur was a young man-eating male Bengal tiger.
There are 50 tiger reserves in India which are governed by Project Tiger which is administrated by the National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA).
A tiger tail is part of the morphology of a tiger.
Tiger Temple, or Wat Pha Luang Ta Bua Yanasampanno, was a Theravada Buddhist temple in the Sai Yok District of Thailand's Kanchanaburi Province in the west of the country.
Historically, the comparative merits of the tiger (Panthera tigris) versus the lion (Panthera leo) have been a popular topic of discussion by hunters, naturalists, artists and poets, and continue to inspire the popular imagination in the present day.
Tigers may refer to one of several sports teams.
Tigger is a fictional tiger character originally introduced in A. A. Milne's book The House at Pooh Corner. Like other Pooh characters, Tigger is based on one of Christopher Robin Milne's stuffed toy animals.
A tigon or tiglon is a hybrid cross between a male tiger (Panthera tigris) and a female lion (Panthera leo).
Batman River The Tigris (Sumerian: Idigna or Idigina; Akkadian: 𒁇𒄘𒃼; دجلة Dijlah; ܕܹܩܠܵܬ.; Տիգրիս Tigris; Դգլաթ Dglatʿ;, biblical Hiddekel) is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Tony the Tiger is the advertising cartoon mascot for Kellogg's Frosted Flakes (also known as Frosties) breakfast cereal, appearing on its packaging and advertising.
The trachea, colloquially called the windpipe, is a cartilaginous tube that connects the pharynx and larynx to the lungs, allowing the passage of air, and so is present in almost all air-breathing animals with lungs.
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a style of traditional medicine built on a foundation of more than 2,500 years of Chinese medical practice that includes various forms of herbal medicine, acupuncture, massage (tui na), exercise (qigong), and dietary therapy, but recently also influenced by modern Western medicine.
Traditional medicine (also known as indigenous or folk medicine) comprises medical aspects of traditional knowledge that developed over generations within various societies before the era of modern medicine.
Transcaucasia (Закавказье), or the South Caucasus, is a geographical region in the vicinity of the southern Caucasus Mountains on the border of Eastern Europe and Western Asia.
Trinil is a palaeoanthropological site on the banks of the Bengawan Solo River in Ngawi Regency, East Java Province, Indonesia.
The Trinil tiger (Panthera tigris trinilensis) is an extinct tiger subspecies dating from about 1.2 million years ago that was found at the locality of Trinil, Java, Indonesia.
Tropical rainforests are rainforests that occur in areas of tropical rainforest climate in which there is no dry season – all months have an average precipitation of at least 60 mm – and may also be referred to as lowland equatorial evergreen rainforest.
Tungusic peoples are the peoples who speak Tungusic languages.
Turkmenistan (or; Türkmenistan), (formerly known as Turkmenia) is a sovereign state in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.
Tyger, also known as heraldic tiger is a beast used as a charge in heraldry.
Udege (Удэгейцы in Russian; ethnonym: удээ and удэхе, or Udihe, Udekhe, and Udeghe correspondingly) are a people who live in the Primorsky Krai and Khabarovsk Krai regions in Russia, the native population of this region.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
Ungulates (pronounced) are any members of a diverse group of primarily large mammals that includes odd-toed ungulates such as horses and rhinoceroses, and even-toed ungulates such as cattle, pigs, giraffes, camels, deer, and hippopotami.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
The Secretary of Defense (SecDef) is the leader and chief executive officer of the Department of Defense, the executive department of the Armed Forces of the United States of America.
Urination is the release of urine from the urinary bladder through the urethra to the outside of the body.
The Ussuri brown bear (Ursus arctos lasiotus), also known as the black grizzly is a subspecies of the brown bear.
The Ussuri River or Wusuli River (река Уссури), runs through Khabarovsk and Primorsky Krais, Russia, and the southeast region of Northeast China.
Uttarakhand, officially the State of Uttarakhand (Uttarākhaṇḍ Rājya), formerly known as Uttaranchal, is a state in the northern part of India.
In zoological nomenclature, the valid name of a taxon is the zoological name that is to be used for that taxon following the rules in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN).
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Vox is an American news and opinion website owned by Vox Media.
The Wanhsien tiger (Panthera tigris acutidens), is an extinct subspecies of tiger that lived in Asia from the late Pliocene until the middle Pleistocene.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
The water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) or domestic Asian water buffalo is a large bovid originating in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and China.
Way Kambas National Park is a national park covering 1,300 square kilometres in Lampung province, southern Sumatra, Indonesia.
A werecat (also written in a hyphenated form as were-cat) is an analogy to "werewolf" for a feline therianthropic creature.
In folklore, a werewolf (werwulf, "man-wolf") or occasionally lycanthrope (λυκάνθρωπος lukánthrōpos, "wolf-person") is a human with the ability to shapeshift into a wolf (or, especially in modern film, a therianthropic hybrid wolflike creature), either purposely or after being placed under a curse or affliction (often a bite or scratch from another werewolf).
West is one of the four cardinal directions or points of the compass.
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
Western Ghats also known as Sahyadri (Benevolent Mountains) is a mountain range that runs parallel to the western coast of the Indian peninsula, located entirely in India.
The white tiger or bleached tiger is a pigmentation variant of the Bengal tiger, which is reported in the wild from time to time in the Indian states of Madhya Pradesh, Assam, West Bengal and Bihar in the Sunderbans region and especially in the former State of Rewa.
The White Tiger is one of the Four Symbols of the Chinese constellations.
Whole genome sequencing (also known as WGS, full genome sequencing, complete genome sequencing, or entire genome sequencing) is the process of determining the complete DNA sequence of an organism's genome at a single time.
The wild boar (Sus scrofa), also known as the wild swine,Heptner, V. G.; Nasimovich, A. A.; Bannikov, A. G.; Hoffman, R. S. (1988), Volume I, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation, pp.
The wild water buffalo (Bubalus arnee), also called Asian buffalo, Asiatic buffalo and wild Asian buffalo, is a large bovine native to the Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia.
Wildlife traditionally refers to undomesticated animal species, but has come to include all plants, fungi, and other organisms that grow or live wild in an area without being introduced by humans.
Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) was founded in 1895 as the New York Zoological Society (NYZS) and currently works to conserve more than two million square miles of wild places around the world.
William Blake (28 November 1757 – 12 August 1827) was an English poet, painter, and printmaker.
Winnie-the-Pooh, also called Pooh Bear, is a fictional anthropomorphic teddy bear created by English author A. A. Milne.
The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization founded in 1961, working in the field of the wilderness preservation, and the reduction of human impact on the environment.
Yann Martel (born 25 June 1963) is a Spanish-born Canadian author best known for the Man Booker Prize-winning novel Life of Pi, a #1 international bestseller published in more than 50 territories.
A yawn is a reflex consisting of the simultaneous inhalation of air and the stretching of the eardrums, followed by an exhalation of breath. Yawning (oscitation) most often occurs in adults immediately before and after sleep, during tedious activities and as a result of its contagious quality. It is commonly associated with tiredness, stress, sleepiness, or even boredom and hunger. In humans, yawning is often triggered by others yawning (e.g. seeing a person yawning, talking to someone on the phone who is yawning) and is a typical example of positive feedback. This "contagious" yawning has also been observed in chimpanzees, dogs, cats, birds, and reptiles, and can occur across species. Approximately 20 psychological reasons for yawning have been proposed by scholars, but there is little agreement on the primacy of any one. During a yawn, the tensor tympani muscle in the middle ear contracts, creating a rumbling noise from within the head. Yawning is sometimes accompanied, both in humans and animals, by an instinctive act of stretching several parts of the body, including arms, neck, shoulders and back.
Zapovednik (заповедник, plural заповедники, from the Russian заповедный, "sacred, prohibited from disturbance, committed, committed ") is an established term on the territory of the former Soviet Union for a protected area which is kept "forever wild".
A zoo (short for zoological garden or zoological park and also called an animal park or menagerie) is a facility in which all animals are housed within enclosures, displayed to the public, and in which they may also breed.
A zoological specimen is an animal or part of an animal preserved for scientific use.
Zygosity is the degree of similarity of the alleles for a trait in an organism.
The 14th Dalai Lama (religious name: Tenzin Gyatso, shortened from Jetsun Jamphel Ngawang Lobsang Yeshe Tenzin Gyatso; born Lhamo Thondup, 6 July 1935) is the current Dalai Lama.
21st Century Tiger raises funds for wild tiger conservation projects.
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