312 relations: Adobe, Adze, Alsace, American historic carpentry, Ancient Chinese wooden architecture, André Grétry, Anobiidae, Anoxic event, Antoniów, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, Architecture, Architecture of Wales, Arquata Scrivia, Ashlar, Aspergillus niger, Auger (drill), Austria, Bad Urach, Baden-Württemberg, Balbridie, Baltic states, Barbagia, Barn, Baserri, Basque Country (autonomous community), Bavaria, Bent (structural), Berg house, Beverly Hills, California, Biberach an der Riss, Biella, Bishops' House, Blekinge, Boat building, Bokrijk, Bologna, Borgund Stave Church, Bourges, Bousillage, Brace (tool), Braith-Mali-Museum, Braubach, Brazil, Bressummer, Brick, Brick nog, British colonization of the Americas, Broadaxe, Brothers Grimm, Bruges, Builders' rites, ..., Bundwerk, Bydgoszcz, Calw, Canada, Carpentry, Castile and León, Celle, Central Italy, Cladding (construction), Clapboard (architecture), Clay, Close studding, Cob (material), Cockroach, Colonia Tovar, Column, Combustion, Common furniture beetle, Compression (physics), Coping (joinery), Corsica, Cressing Temple, Cross bracing, Cruck, Czech Republic, Decomposition, Denmark, Dinan, Dinkelsbühl, Drawknife, Drosnay, Dry rot, Dutch barn, East Anglia, England, English barn, Eppingen, Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, Facade, Flag Fen, Flood, Framing (construction), France, Franconia, Frisia, Fungus, Gable, Garmo stave church, Gelbensande, German Timber-Frame Road, Germany, Golden Plough Tavern, Goslar, Gottlieb Daimler, Great Britain, Hall, Hall church, Hall house, Halland, Hammerbeam roof, Hanau, Hardwood, Harz, Hesse, Hewing, Hornburg, Hudson's Bay Company, Huf Haus, Infill wall, Jamestown, Virginia, Japan, Japanese carpentry, Jettying, Jig (tool), Joist, Joseph Gwilt, Kaupanger, Kaupanger Stave Church, Kent, Kluge House, Labourd, Lake Mohawk, New Jersey, Langonnet, Lap joint, Liège, Liège (province), Lierneux, Limburg (Belgium), Lintel, List of timber framing tools, Living history, Load-bearing wall, Log building, Log cabin, Log house, Lombardy, Louisiana (New France), Low German house, Low-energy house, Lower Fort Garry, Lower Saxony, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, Lozenge, Luxembourg (Belgium), Marbach am Neckar, Marking out, Mary Martha Sherwood, Mason's mark, Mass production, Maulbronn Monastery, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Mennonites, Metelen, Monza, Mortise and tenon, Mosbach, Mount Vesuvius, Mouse, Mudbrick, Nail (fastener), Nave, Neolithic, Netherlands, New England, New England barn, New France, New Netherland, Nikolaus Pevsner, Norman architecture, North Holland, Notre-Dame de Paris, Numerical control, Oak, Oceanic climate, Olędrzy, Old Salem, Open-air museum, Opus craticum, Oybin, Ozzano Monferrato, Palisade, Palisade church, Panelling, Paris, Piedmont, Pierrotage, Plane (tool), Plymouth, Massachusetts, Pomerania, Post (structural), Post and lintel, Post in ground, Post-and-plank, Poteaux-sur-sol, Powderpost beetle, Provence, Provinces of Belgium, Prussia, Purlin, Quatrefoil, Quedlinburg, Queen Anne style architecture, Race knife, Rafter, Rat, Red River Colony, Rennes, Rhode Island, Ribnitz-Damgarten, Richard Norman Shaw, Ridge-post framing, Rio Grande do Sul, Roman Empire, Romano-British culture, Ronald Brunskill, Roof, Rostock, Rothenburg ob der Tauber, Rouen, Saint-Hubert, Belgium, Saint-Sulpice-de-Grimbouville, Santa Catarina (state), Sardinia, Sawmill, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Scandinavian Heritage Park, Scania, Schorndorf, Schwerin, Scotland, Sheffield, Silesia, Sill plate, Slovincian language, Soule, South Tyrol, South Yorkshire, Spain, Spoleto, Stave church, Straw-bale construction, Structural insulated panel, Structural load, Sułów, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, Subsidence, Sugny, Susa, Piedmont, Swabia, Sweden, Switzerland, Tally marks, Tension (physics), Termite, Terraced house, The Shambles, Thermal insulation, Theux, Thiers, Puy-de-Dôme, Thuringia, Tile, Timber framing, Tirschenreuth (district), Topping out, Toruń, Tower house, Treenail, Troyes, Truss, Trutnowy, Tudor architecture, Tudor Revival architecture, UNESCO, United Kingdom, United States, University of Manchester, Upper Lusatian house, Ustaritz, Vaihingen an der Enz, Venezuela, Vernacular architecture, Villa, Vitruvius, Wall plate, Wall stud, Warwick, Wattle and daub, Württemberg, Weald, Wealden hall house, Wernigerode, Windmill, Wood splitting, Wooden churches of Southern Lesser Poland, Woodworking, Woodworking joints, Wormshill, Xylophagy, Yale University Press, York, Zero-energy building, Zgorzelec. Expand index (262 more) » « Shrink index
Adobe is a building material made from earth and other organic materials.
The adze (alternative spelling: adz) is a cutting tool shaped somewhat like an axe that dates back to the stone age.
Alsace (Alsatian: ’s Elsass; German: Elsass; Alsatia) is a cultural and historical region in eastern France, on the west bank of the upper Rhine next to Germany and Switzerland.
American historic carpentry is the historic methods with which wooden buildings were built in what is now the United States since European settlement.
Ancient Chinese wooden architecture is among the least studied of any of the world's great architectural traditions from the western point of view.
André Ernest Modeste Grétry (baptised 11 February 1741; died 24 September 1813) was a composer from the Prince-Bishopric of Liège (present-day Belgium), who worked from 1767 onwards in France and took French nationality.
Anobiidae is a family of beetles.
Oceanic anoxic events or anoxic events (anoxia conditions) refer to intervals in the Earth's past where portions of oceans become depleted in oxygen (O2) at depths over a large geographic area.
Antoniów (Antoniwald) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Stara Kamienica, within Jelenia Góra County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
Architecture is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or any other structures.
Architecture of Wales is an overview of architecture in Wales from the Medieval period to the present day, excluding castles and fortifications, ecclesiastical architecture and industrial architecture.
Arquata Scrivia is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Alessandria in the Italian region Piedmont, located about southeast of Turin and about southeast of Alessandria.
Ashlar is finely dressed (cut, worked) stone, either an individual stone that has been worked until squared or the structure built of it.
Aspergillus niger is a fungus and one of the most common species of the genus Aspergillus.
An auger is a drilling device, or drill bit, that usually includes a rotating helical screw blade called a "flighting" to act as a screw conveyor to remove the drilled out material.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
Bad Urach is a town in the district of Reutlingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
Baden-Württemberg is a state in southwest Germany, east of the Rhine, which forms the border with France.
Balbridie is the site of a Neolithic long house in Aberdeenshire, Scotland, situated on the south bank of the River Dee, east of Banchory.
The Baltic states, also known as the Baltic countries, Baltic republics, Baltic nations or simply the Baltics (Balti riigid, Baltimaad, Baltijas valstis, Baltijos valstybės), is a geopolitical term used for grouping the three sovereign countries in Northern Europe on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.
Barbagia (Barbàgia or Barbàza) is a mountain area of inner Sardinia.
A barn is an agricultural building usually on farms and used for various purposes.
A baserri (Spanish: caserío vasco; French: maison basque) is a traditional half-timbered or stone-built type of housebarn farmhouse found in the Basque Country in Northern Spain and Southwestern France.
The Basque Country (Euskadi; País Vasco; Pays Basque), officially the Basque Autonomous Community (Euskal Autonomia Erkidegoa, EAE; Comunidad Autónoma Vasca, CAV) is an autonomous community in northern Spain.
Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.
A bent in American English is a two-dimensional transverse rigid frame (or similar structures such three-hinged arches).
The Berg house (Bergische Haus, also Bergischer Dreiklang or Bergische Bauweise) is a type of timber framed house that is widespread in the German region of Bergisches Land.
Beverly Hills is an affluent city in Los Angeles County, California, United States, surrounded by the cities of Los Angeles and West Hollywood.
Biberach is a town in the south of Germany.
Biella ((Bugella) is a town and comune in the northern Italian region of Piedmont, the capital of the province of the same name, with a population of 44 616. It is located about northeast of Turin and about west-northwest of Milan. It lies in the foothills of the Alps, in the Bo mountain range near Mt. Mucrone and Camino, an area rich in springs and lakes, the heart of the Biellese Alps irrigated by several mountain streams: the Elvo to the west of the town, the Oropa and the Cervo to the east. Nearby natural and notable tourist attractions include the Zegna Viewpoint, the Bielmonte Ski Resort, Burcina Natural Reserve, and the moors to the south of town. The Sanctuary of Oropa is a site of religious pilgrimages. In 2003, the Sacred Mountain of Oropa was inserted by UNESCO in the World Heritage List. Biella is an important wool processing and textile centre. There is a small airport in the nearby comune of Cerrione.
Bishops' House is a half-timbered house in the Norton Lees district of the City of Sheffield, England.
Blekinge is one of the traditional provinces of Sweden (landskap), situated in the south of the country.
Boat building, one of the oldest branches of engineering, is concerned with constructing the hulls of boats and, for sailboats, the masts, spars and rigging.
Bokrijk is a park and museum complex in the municipality of Genk in the Province of Limburg, Belgium.
Bologna (Bulåggna; Bononia) is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna Region in Northern Italy.
Borgund Stave Church (Borgund stavkyrkje) is a stave church located in the village of Borgund in the municipality of Lærdal in Sogn og Fjordane county, Norway.
Bourges is a city in central France on the Yèvre river.
Bousillage (bouzillage,McDermott, John Francis. "bousillage, bouzillage, n. m.". A Glossary of Mississippi Valley French, 1673-1850. St. Louis:, 1941. 34. Print. bousille, bouzille) is a mixture of clay and grass or other fibrous substances used as the infill (chinking) between the timbers of a half-timbered building.
A brace is a hand tool used with a bit (drill bit or auger) to drill holes, usually in wood.
The Braith-Mali-Museum is a museum with several sections in Biberach an der Riss in Upper Swabia.
Braubach is a municipality in the Rhein-Lahn-Kreis, in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
A bressummer, breastsummer, summer beam (somier, sommier, sommer, somer, cross-somer, summer, summier, summer-tree, or dorman, dormant tree) are load bearing beams in a timber framed building.
A brick is building material used to make walls, pavements and other elements in masonry construction.
Brick nog, (nogging or nogged, beam filling) is a construction technique in which bricks are used to fill the vacancies in a wooden frame.
The British colonization of the Americas (including colonization by both the English and the Scots) began in 1607 in Jamestown, Virginia, and reached its peak when colonies had been established throughout the Americas.
A broadaxe is a large-(broad) headed axe.
The Brothers Grimm (die Brüder Grimm or die Gebrüder Grimm), Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm, were German academics, philologists, cultural researchers, lexicographers and authors who together collected and published folklore during the 19th century.
Bruges (Brugge; Bruges; Brügge) is the capital and largest city of the province of West Flanders in the Flemish Region of Belgium, in the northwest of the country.
Builders' rites are ceremonies attendant on the laying of foundation stones, including ecclesiastical, masonic or otherwise and other traditions connected with foundations or other aspects of construction.
Bundwerk is a carpentry and rural architectural term from the 19th century for a method of building with timber that was used especially in Austria, South Tyrol and Bavaria.
Bydgoszcz (Bromberg; Bydgostia) is a city in northern Poland, on the Brda and Vistula rivers.
Calw (previously pronounced and sometimes spelled Kalb accordingly) is a town in the middle of Baden-Württemberg in the south of Germany, capital and largest town of the district Calw.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Carpentry is a skilled trade in which the primary work performed is the cutting, shaping and installation of building materials during the construction of buildings, ships, timber bridges, concrete formwork, etc.
Castile and León (Castilla y León; Leonese: Castiella y Llión; Castela e León) is an autonomous community in north-western Spain.
Celle is a town and capital of the district of Celle, in Lower Saxony, Germany.
Central Italy (Italia centrale or just Centro) is one of the five official statistical regions of Italy used by the National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT), a first level NUTS region and a European Parliament constituency.
Cladding is the application of one material over another to provide a skin or layer.
Clapboard or clabbard, also called bevel siding, lap siding, and weatherboard, with regional variation in the definition of these terms, is wooden siding of a building in the form of horizontal boards, often overlapping.
Clay is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO2), metal oxides (Al2O3, MgO etc.) and organic matter.
Close studding is a form of timber work used in timber-framed buildings in which vertical timbers (studs) are set close together, dividing the wall into narrow panels.
Cob, cobb or clom (in Wales) is a natural building material made from subsoil, water, fibrous organic material (typically straw), and sometimes lime.
Cockroaches are insects of the order Blattodea, which also includes termites. About 30 cockroach species out of 4,600 are associated with human habitats. About four species are well known as pests. The cockroaches are an ancient group, dating back at least as far as the Carboniferous period, some 320 million years ago. Those early ancestors however lacked the internal ovipositors of modern roaches. Cockroaches are somewhat generalized insects without special adaptations like the sucking mouthparts of aphids and other true bugs; they have chewing mouthparts and are likely among the most primitive of living neopteran insects. They are common and hardy insects, and can tolerate a wide range of environments from Arctic cold to tropical heat. Tropical cockroaches are often much bigger than temperate species, and, contrary to popular belief, extinct cockroach relatives and 'roachoids' such as the Carboniferous Archimylacris and the Permian Apthoroblattina were not as large as the biggest modern species. Some species, such as the gregarious German cockroach, have an elaborate social structure involving common shelter, social dependence, information transfer and kin recognition. Cockroaches have appeared in human culture since classical antiquity. They are popularly depicted as dirty pests, though the great majority of species are inoffensive and live in a wide range of habitats around the world.
Colonia Tovar (Tovar Colony) is a town of Venezuela, capital of the municipality Tovar in Aragua state.
A column or pillar in architecture and structural engineering is a structural element that transmits, through compression, the weight of the structure above to other structural elements below.
Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.
The common furniture beetle or common house borer (Anobium punctatum) is a woodboring beetle.
In mechanics, compression is the application of balanced inward ("pushing") forces to different points on a material or structure, that is, forces with no net sum or torque directed so as to reduce its size in one or more directions.
Coping or scribing is the woodworking technique of shaping the end of a moulding or frame component to neatly fit the contours of an abutting member.
Corsica (Corse; Corsica in Corsican and Italian, pronounced and respectively) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 18 regions of France.
Cressing Temple is an ancient monument situated between Witham and Braintree in Essex,http://www.visitparks.co.uk/places/cressing-temple/ Retrieved 9 October 2014 close to the villages of Cressing and White Notley.
In construction, cross bracing is a system utilized to reinforce building structures in which diagonal supports intersect.
A cruck or crook frame is a curved timber, one of a pair, which supports the roof of a building, used particularly in England.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
Decomposition is the process by which organic substances are broken down into simpler organic matter.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
Dinan is a walled Breton town and a commune in the Côtes-d'Armor department in northwestern France.
Dinkelsbühl is a historic town in Central Franconia, a region of Germany that is now part of the state of Bavaria, in southern Germany.
A drawknife (drawing knife, draw shave, shaving knife) is a traditional woodworking hand tool used to shape wood by removing shavings.
Drosnay is a commune in the Marne department in north-eastern France.
Dry rot is wood decay caused by certain species of fungi that digest parts of the wood which give the wood strength and stiffness.
Dutch barn is the name given to markedly different types of barns in the United States and Canada, and in the United Kingdom.
East Anglia is a geographical area in the East of England.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
The English barn, or three bay barn, is a barn style that was most popular in the northeast region of the USA,Auer, Michael J., Preservation Briefs, National Park Service, first published October 1989.
is a town in the district of Heilbronn in Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany.
Eugène Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc (27 January 1814 – 17 September 1879) was a French architect and author who restored many prominent medieval landmarks in France, including those which had been damaged or abandoned during the French Revolution.
A facade (also façade) is generally one exterior side of a building, usually, but not always, the front.
Flag Fen, east of Peterborough,Pryor 2005.
A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land that is usually dry.
Framing, in construction, is the fitting together of pieces to give a structure support and shape.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Franconia (Franken, also called Frankenland) is a region in Germany, characterised by its culture and language, and may be roughly associated with the areas in which the East Franconian dialect group, locally referred to as fränkisch, is spoken.
Frisia (Fryslân, Dutch and Friesland) is a coastal region along the southeastern corner of the North Sea in what today is mostly a large part of the Netherlands, including modern Friesland, and smaller parts of northern Germany.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
A gable is the generally triangular portion of a wall between the edges of intersecting roof pitches.
Garmo stave church (Garmo stavkyrkje) is a stave church situated at the Maihaugen museum at Lillehammer in Oppland, Norway.
Gelbensande is a municipality in the German state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.
The German Timber-Frame Road (German: Deutsche Fachwerkstraße) is a German tourist route leading from the river Elbe in the north to Lake Constance in the south.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Goslar is a historic town in Lower Saxony, Germany.
Gottlieb Wilhelm Daimler (17 March 1834 – 6 March 1900) was an engineer, industrial designer and industrialist born in Schorndorf (Kingdom of Württemberg, a federal state of the German Confederation), in what is now Germany.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
In architecture, a hall is a relatively large space enclosed by a roof and walls.
A hall church is a church with nave and side aisles of approximately equal height, often united under a single immense roof.
The hall house is a type of vernacular house traditional in many parts of England, Wales, Ireland and lowland Scotland, as well as northern Europe, during the Middle Ages, centring on a hall.
is one of the traditional provinces of Sweden (landskap in Swedish), on the western coast of Sweden.
A hammerbeam roof is a decorative, open timber roof truss typical of English Gothic architecture and has been called "...the most spectacular endeavour of the English Medieval carpenter." They are traditionally timber framed, using short beams projecting from the wall on which the rafters land, essentially a tie beam which has the middle cut out.
Hanau is a town in the Main-Kinzig-Kreis, in Hesse, Germany.
Hardwood is wood from dicot trees.
The Harz is a Mittelgebirge that has the highest elevations in Northern Germany and its rugged terrain extends across parts of Lower Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, and Thuringia.
Hesse or Hessia (Hessen, Hessian dialect: Hesse), officially the State of Hesse (German: Land Hessen) is a federal state (''Land'') of the Federal Republic of Germany, with just over six million inhabitants.
In woodworking, hewing is the process of converting a log from its rounded natural form into lumber (timber) with more or less flat surfaces using primarily an axe.
Hornburg is a town and a former municipality in the Wolfenbüttel district, in the German state of Lower Saxony.
The Hudson's Bay Company (HBC; Compagnie de la Baie d'Hudson) is a Canadian retail business group.
Huf Haus GmbH & Co.
The infill wall is the supported wall that closes the perimeter of a building constructed with a three-dimensional framework structure (generally made of steel or reinforced concrete).
The Jamestown settlement in the Colony of Virginia was the first permanent English settlement in the Americas.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Japanese carpentry is carpentry in Japan.
Jettying (jetty, jutty, getee (obsolete) from Old French getee, jette) is a building technique used in medieval timber-frame buildings in which an upper floor projects beyond the dimensions of the floor below.
A jig is a type of custom-made tool used to control the location and/or motion of parts or other tools.
A joist is a horizontal structural member used in framing to span an open space, often between beams that subsequently transfer loads to vertical members.
Joseph Gwilt (January 11, 1784 – September 14, 1863) was an English architect and writer.
Kaupanger is a village situated along the northern shore of the Sognefjorden in the municipality of Sogndal in Sogn og Fjordane county, Norway.
Kaupanger Stave Church (Kaupanger stavkyrkje) is the largest stave church in Sogn og Fjordane county, Norway.
Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties.
Kluge House, also known as Maverick House, is a rare example of Silesian fachwerk, log and half-timber construction, located in Helena, Montana.
Labourd (Lapurdi in Basque; Lapurdum in Latin; Labord in Gascon) is a former French province and part of the present-day Pyrénées Atlantiques département.
Lake Mohawk is an unincorporated residential development and census-designated place (CDP) split between Byram Township and Sparta Township, in Sussex County, New Jersey, United States.
Langonnet is a commune in the Morbihan department of Brittany in north-western France.
A lap joint or overlap joint is a joint in which the members overlap.
Liège (Lidje; Luik,; Lüttich) is a major Walloon city and municipality and the capital of the Belgian province of Liège. The city is situated in the valley of the Meuse, in the east of Belgium, not far from borders with the Netherlands (Maastricht is about to the north) and with Germany (Aachen is about north-east). At Liège, the Meuse meets the River Ourthe. The city is part of the sillon industriel, the former industrial backbone of Wallonia. It still is the principal economic and cultural centre of the region. The Liège municipality (i.e. the city proper) includes the former communes of Angleur, Bressoux, Chênée, Glain, Grivegnée, Jupille-sur-Meuse, Rocourt, and Wandre. In November 2012, Liège had 198,280 inhabitants. The metropolitan area, including the outer commuter zone, covers an area of 1,879 km2 (725 sq mi) and had a total population of 749,110 on 1 January 2008. Population of all municipalities in Belgium on 1 January 2008. Retrieved on 2008-10-19. Definitions of metropolitan areas in Belgium. The metropolitan area of Liège is divided into three levels. First, the central agglomeration (agglomeratie) with 480,513 inhabitants (2008-01-01). Adding the closest surroundings (banlieue) gives a total of 641,591. And, including the outer commuter zone (forensenwoonzone) the population is 810,983. Retrieved on 2008-10-19. This includes a total of 52 municipalities, among others, Herstal and Seraing. Liège ranks as the third most populous urban area in Belgium, after Brussels and Antwerp, and the fourth municipality after Antwerp, Ghent and Charleroi.
Liège (Lîdje; Luik,; Lüttich) is the easternmost province of Wallonia and Belgium.
Lierneux is a municipality of Belgium.
Limburg (Dutch and Limburgish: Limburg; Limbourg) is a province in Belgium.
A lintel or lintol is a structural horizontal block that spans the space or opening between two vertical supports.
Tools used in traditional timber framing date back thousands of years.
Living history is an activity that incorporates historical tools, activities and dress into an interactive presentation that seeks to give observers and participants a sense of stepping back in time.
A load-bearing wall or bearing wall is a wall that is an active structural element of a building, that is, it bears the weight of the elements above said wall, resting upon it by conducting its weight to a foundation structure.
Log buildings and structures can be categorized as historic and modern.
A log cabin is a dwelling constructed of logs, especially a less finished or architecturally sophisticated structure.
A log house, or log building, is a structure built with horizontal logs interlocked at the corners by notching.
Lombardy (Lombardia; Lumbardia, pronounced: (Western Lombard), (Eastern Lombard)) is one of the twenty administrative regions of Italy, in the northwest of the country, with an area of.
Louisiana (La Louisiane; La Louisiane française) or French Louisiana was an administrative district of New France.
The Low German house or Fachhallenhaus is a type of timber-framed farmhouse found in Northern Germany and the Netherlands, which combines living quarters, byre and barn under one roof.
A low-energy house is any type of house that from design, technologies and building products uses less energy, from any source, than a traditional or average contemporary house.
Lower Fort Garry was built in 1830 by the Hudson's Bay Company on the western bank of the Red River, north of the original Fort Garry (now in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada).
Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen, Neddersassen) is a German state (Land) situated in northwestern Germany.
Lower Silesian Voivodeship, or Lower Silesia Province (''Polish'': województwo dolnośląskie), in southwestern Poland, is one of the 16 voivodeships (provinces) into which Poland is divided.
A lozenge (◊), often referred to as a diamond, is a form of rhombus.
Luxembourg (Luxembourg; Luxemburg; Luxemburg; Lëtzebuerg; Lussimbork) is the southernmost province of Wallonia and of Belgium.
Marbach am Neckar (population approximately 15,000) is a town on the river Neckar in Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
Marking out or layout means the process of transferring a design or pattern to a workpiece, as the first step in the manufacturing process.
Mary Martha Sherwood (née Butt; 6 May 1775 – 22 September 1851) was a prolific and influential writer of children's literature in 19th-century Britain.
A mason's mark is a symbol often found on dressed stone in buildings and other public structures.
Mass production, also known as flow production or continuous production, is the production of large amounts of standardized products, including and especially on assembly lines.
Maulbronn Monastery (Kloster Maulbronn) is a former Roman Catholic Cistercian Abbey and Protestant seminary at Maulbronn, Germany, in the state of Baden-Württemberg.
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (often Mecklenburg-West Pomerania in English and commonly shortened to "Meck-Pomm" or even "McPom" or "M-V" in German) is a federal state in northern Germany.
The Mennonites are members of certain Christian groups belonging to the church communities of Anabaptist denominations named after Menno Simons (1496–1561) of Friesland (which today is a province of the Netherlands).
Metelen is a municipality in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
Monza (Mùnscia; Modoetia) is a city and comune on the River Lambro, a tributary of the Po in the Lombardy region of Italy, about north-northeast of Milan.
A mortise (or mortice) and tenon joint is a type of joint that connects two pieces of wood or other material.
Mosbach is the capital of the Neckar-Odenwald district in the north of Baden-Württemberg, Germany, about 58 km east of Heidelberg.
Mount Vesuvius (Monte Vesuvio; Vesuvio; Mons Vesuvius; also Vesevus or Vesaevus in some Roman sources) is a somma-stratovolcano located on the Gulf of Naples in Campania, Italy, about east of Naples and a short distance from the shore.
A mouse (Mus), plural mice, is a small rodent characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, a body-length scaly tail and a high breeding rate.
A mudbrick or mud-brick is a brick, made of a mixture of loam, mud, sand and water mixed with a binding material such as rice husks or straw.
In woodworking and construction, a nail is a pin-shaped object of metal (or wood, called a tree nail or "trunnel") which is used as a fastener, as a peg to hang something, or sometimes as a decoration.
The nave is the central aisle of a basilica church, or the main body of a church (whether aisled or not) between its rear wall and the far end of its intersection with the transept at the chancel.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
New England is a geographical region comprising six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut.
The New England Barn was the most common style of barn built in most of the 19th century in rural New England and variants are found throughout the United States.
New France (Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France in North America during a period beginning with the exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Great Britain and Spain in 1763.
New Netherland (Dutch: Nieuw Nederland; Latin: Nova Belgica or Novum Belgium) was a 17th-century colony of the Dutch Republic that was located on the east coast of North America.
Sir Nikolaus Bernhard Leon Pevsner (30 January 1902 – 18 August 1983) was a German, later British scholar of the history of art, and especially that of architecture.
The term Norman architecture is used to categorise styles of Romanesque architecture developed by the Normans in the various lands under their dominion or influence in the 11th and 12th centuries.
North Holland (Noord-Holland, West Frisian Dutch: Noard-Holland) is a province of the Netherlands located in the northwestern part of the country.
Notre-Dame de Paris (meaning "Our Lady of Paris"), also known as Notre-Dame Cathedral or simply Notre-Dame, is a medieval Catholic cathedral on the Île de la Cité in the fourth arrondissement of Paris, France.
Computer numerical control (CNC) is the automation of machine tools by means of computers executing pre-programmed sequences of machine control commands.
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae.
An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.
Olędrzy (Singluar form: Olęder; Holländer, Hauländer) were people, often of Dutch or German ancestry, who lived in settlements in Poland organized under a particular type of law.
Old Salem is a historic district of Winston-Salem, North Carolina.
An open-air museum (or open air museum) is a museum that exhibits collections of buildings and artifacts out-of-doors.
Opus craticum or craticii is an ancient Roman construction technique described by Vitruvius in his books De architectura as wattlework which is plastered over.
Oybin is a municipality in the Görlitz district, in Saxony, Germany, located very close to the border of the Czech Republic.
Ozzano Monferrato is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Alessandria in the Italian region Piedmont, located about east of Turin and about northwest of Alessandria.
A palisade—sometimes called a stakewall or a paling—is typically a fence or wall made from wooden stakes or tree trunks and used as a defensive structure or enclosure.
A palisade church is a church building that is constructed with palisade walls, standing split logs of timber, rammed into the ground, set in gravel or resting on a sill.
Panelling (or paneling in the U.S.) is a millwork wall covering constructed from rigid or semi-rigid components.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
Piedmont (Piemonte,; Piedmontese, Occitan and Piemont; Piémont) is a region in northwest Italy, one of the 20 regions of the country.
Pierrotage is a half-timbered timber framing technique in which stone infill is used between posts.
A hand plane is a tool for shaping wood using muscle power to force the cutting blade over the wood surface.
Plymouth (historically known as Plimouth and Plimoth) is a town in Plymouth County, Massachusetts, United States.
Pomerania (Pomorze; German, Low German and North Germanic languages: Pommern; Kashubian: Pòmòrskô) is a historical region on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea in Central Europe, split between Germany and Poland.
A post is a main vertical or leaning support in a structure similar to a column or pillar but the term post generally refers to a timber but may be metal or stone.
In architecture, post and lintel (also called prop and lintel or a trabeated system) is a building system where strong horizontal elements are held up by strong vertical elements with large spaces between them.
Post in ground construction, also called earthfast or hole-set posts, is a type of construction in which vertical, roof-bearing timbers, called posts, are in direct contact with the ground.
The method of building wooden buildings with a traditional timber frame with horizontal plank or log infill has many names, the most common of which are piece sur piece (French. Also used to describe log building), corner post construction, post-and-plank, standerbohlenbau (German) and skiftesverk (Swedish).
Poteaux-sur-sol ("posts on a sill" – sol is also spelled sole and solle) is a style of timber framing, in which relatively closely spaced posts rest on a timber sill.
Powderpost beetles are a group of seventy species of woodboring beetles classified in the insect subfamily Lyctinae.
Provence (Provençal: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France, which extends from the left bank of the lower Rhône River to the west to the Italian border to the east, and is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the south.
The country of Belgium is divided into three regions.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
In architecture, structural engineering or building, a purlin (or historically purline, purloyne, purling, perling) is any longitudinal, horizontal, structural member in a roof except a type of framing with what is called a crown plate.
A quatrefoil (anciently caterfoil) is a decorative element consisting of a symmetrical shape which forms the overall outline of four partially overlapping circles of the same diameter.
Quedlinburg is a town situated just north of the Harz mountains, in the district of Harz in the west of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.
The Queen Anne style in Britain refers to either the English Baroque architectural style approximately of the reign of Queen Anne (reigned 1702–1714), or a revived form that was popular in the last quarter of the 19th century and the early decades of the 20th century (when it is also known as Queen Anne revival).
Race knife also known as a timber scribe (scorer, tree marker) is a knife with a U-shaped end sometimes called a scoop knife for cutting marks in wood by lumbermen, carpenters, coopers, surveyors, and others.
A rafter is one of a series of sloped structural members that extend from the ridge or hip to the wall plate, downslope perimeter or eave, and that are designed to support the roof deck and its associated loads.
Rats are various medium-sized, long-tailed rodents in the superfamily Muroidea.
The Red River Colony (or Selkirk Settlement) was a colonization project set up in 1811 by Thomas Douglas, 5th Earl of Selkirk on of land.
Rennes (Roazhon,; Gallo: Resnn) is a city in the east of Brittany in northwestern France at the confluence of the Ille and the Vilaine.
Rhode Island, officially the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, is a state in the New England region of the United States.
Ribnitz-Damgarten is a town in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany, situated on Lake Ribnitz (Ribnitzer See).
Richard Norman Shaw RA (7 May 1831 – 17 November 1912), sometimes known as Norman Shaw, was a Scottish architect who worked from the 1870s to the 1900s, known for his country houses and for commercial buildings.
Ridge-post framing is an old type of timber framing.
Rio Grande do Sul (lit. Great Southern River) is a state located in the southern region of Brazil.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Romano-British culture is the culture that arose in Britain under the Roman Empire following the Roman conquest in AD 43 and the creation of the province of Britannia.
Ronald William Brunskill OBE (3 January 1929 – 9 October 2015) was an English academic who was Reader in Architecture at the University of Manchester.
A roof is part of a building envelope.
Rostock is a city in the north German state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.
Rothenburg ob der Tauber is a town in the district of Ansbach of Mittelfranken (Middle Franconia), the Franconia region of Bavaria, Germany.
Rouen (Frankish: Rodomo; Rotomagus, Rothomagus) is a city on the River Seine in the north of France.
Saint-Hubert is a Walloon municipality of Belgium located in the province of Luxembourg.
Saint-Sulpice-de-Grimbouville is a commune in the Eure department in Normandy in northern France.
Santa Catarina (Saint Catherine) is a state in the southern region of Brazil.
A sawmill or lumber mill is a facility where logs are cut into lumber.
The Free State of Saxony (Freistaat Sachsen; Swobodny stat Sakska) is a landlocked federal state of Germany, bordering the federal states of Brandenburg, Saxony Anhalt, Thuringia, and Bavaria, as well as the countries of Poland (Lower Silesian and Lubusz Voivodeships) and the Czech Republic (Karlovy Vary, Liberec, and Ústí nad Labem Regions).
Saxony-Anhalt (Sachsen-Anhalt,, official: Land Sachsen-Anhalt) is a landlocked federal state of Germany surrounded by the federal states of Lower Saxony, Brandenburg, Saxony and Thuringia.
Scandinavian Heritage Park is a park located in the Upper Brooklyn neighborhood of Minot, North Dakota.
Scania, also known as Skåne, is the southernmost province (landskap) of Sweden.
Schorndorf is a town in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, located approx.
Schwerin (or; Mecklenburgian: Swerin; Polish: Swarzyn or Zwierzyn; Latin: Suerina) is the capital and second-largest city of the northeastern German state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
Sheffield is a city and metropolitan borough in South Yorkshire, England.
Silesia (Śląsk; Slezsko;; Silesian German: Schläsing; Silesian: Ślůnsk; Šlazyńska; Šleska; Silesia) is a region of Central Europe located mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic and Germany.
A sill plate or sole plate in construction and architecture is the bottom horizontal member of a wall or building to which vertical members are attached.
Slovincian is the language formerly spoken by the Slovincians (Słowińcë, Słowińcy, Slowinzen, Lebakaschuben), a West Slavic tribe living between lakes Gardno and Łebsko near Słupsk in Pomerania.
Soule (Basque: Zuberoa; Zuberoan Basque: Xiberoa or Xiberua; Gascon: Sola) is a former viscounty and French province and part of the present day Pyrénées-Atlantiques département.
South Tyrol is an autonomous province in northern Italy.
South Yorkshire is a metropolitan county in England.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Spoleto (Latin Spoletium) is an ancient city in the Italian province of Perugia in east-central Umbria on a foothill of the Apennines.
A stave church is a medieval wooden Christian church building once common in north-western Europe.
Straw-bale construction is a building method that uses bales of straw (commonly wheat, rice, rye and oats straw) as structural elements, building insulation, or both.
A structural insulated panel, or structural insulating panel, (SIP), is a form of sandwich panel used in the construction industry.
Structural loads or actions are forces, deformations, or accelerations applied to a structure or its components.
Sułów (Sulau) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Milicz, within Milicz County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
Subsidence is the motion of a surface (usually, the earth's surface) as it shifts downward relative to a datum such as sea level.
Sugny is a commune in the Ardennes department in northern France.
Susa (Segusio) is a town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Turin, Piedmont, Italy.
Swabia (Schwaben, colloquially Schwabenland or Ländle; in English also archaic Suabia or Svebia) is a cultural, historic and linguistic region in southwestern Germany.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Tally marks, also called hash marks, are a unary numeral system.
In physics, tension may be described as the pulling force transmitted axially by the means of a string, cable, chain, or similar one-dimensional continuous object, or by each end of a rod, truss member, or similar three-dimensional object; tension might also be described as the action-reaction pair of forces acting at each end of said elements.
Termites are eusocial insects that are classified at the taxonomic rank of infraorder Isoptera, or as epifamily Termitoidae within the cockroach order Blattodea.
In architecture and city planning, a terraced or terrace house (UK) or townhouse (US) exhibits a style of medium-density housing that originated in Europe in the 16th century, where a row of identical or mirror-image houses share side walls.
The Shambles (officially known as just Shambles) is an old street in York, England, with overhanging timber-framed buildings, some dating back as far as the fourteenth century.
Thermal insulation is the reduction of heat transfer (i.e. the transfer of thermal energy between objects of differing temperature) between objects in thermal contact or in range of radiative influence.
Theux is a Walloon municipality of Belgium in Province of Liège.
Thiers (Auvergnat: Tièrn) is a commune in the Puy-de-Dôme department in Auvergne in central France.
The Free State of Thuringia (Freistaat Thüringen) is a federal state in central Germany.
A tile is a manufactured piece of hard-wearing material such as ceramic, stone, metal, or even glass, generally used for covering roofs, floors, walls, showers, or other objects such as tabletops.
Timber framing and "post-and-beam" construction are traditional methods of building with heavy timbers, creating structures using squared-off and carefully fitted and joined timbers with joints secured by large wooden pegs.
Tirschenreuth (Northern Bavarian: Landgreis Tirschenreith) is a ''Landkreis'' (district) in the northeastern part of Bavaria, Germany.
In building construction, topping out (sometimes referred to as topping off) is a builders' rite traditionally held when the last beam (or its equivalent) is placed atop a structure during its construction.
Toruń (Thorn) is a city in northern Poland, on the Vistula River.
A tower house is a particular type of stone structure, built for defensive purposes as well as habitation.
A treenail, also trenail, trennel, or trunnel, is a wooden peg, pin, or dowel used to fasten pieces of wood together, especially in timber frames, covered bridges, wooden shipbuilding and boat building.
Troyes is a commune and the capital of the department of Aube in north-central France.
In engineering, a truss is a structure that "consists of two-force members only, where the members are organized so that the assemblage as a whole behaves as a single object".
Trutnowy (Trutenau) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Cedry Wielkie, within Gdańsk County, Pomeranian Voivodeship, in northern Poland.
The Tudor architectural style is the final development of Medieval architecture in England, during the Tudor period (1485–1603) and even beyond, and also the tentative introduction of Renaissance architecture to England.
Tudor Revival architecture (commonly called mock Tudor in the UK) first manifested itself in domestic architecture beginning in the United Kingdom in the mid to late 19th century based on a revival of aspects of Tudor architecture or, more often, the style of English vernacular architecture of the Middle Ages that survived into the Tudor period.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of Manchester is a public research university in Manchester, England, formed in 2004 by the merger of the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology and the Victoria University of Manchester.
The Upper Lusatian house or Umgebindehaus is a special type of house that combines log house, timber-framing and building stone methods of construction.
Ustaritz (Uztaritze) is a town in the traditional Basque province of Labourd, now a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in south-western France.
Vaihingen an der Enz is located between Stuttgart and Karlsruhe, in southern Germany, on the western periphery of the Stuttgart Region.
Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).
Vernacular architecture is an architectural style that is designed based on local needs, availability of construction materials and reflecting local traditions.
A villa was originally an ancient Roman upper-class country house.
Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (c. 80–70 BC – after c. 15 BC), commonly known as Vitruvius, was a Roman author, architect, civil engineer and military engineer during the 1st century BC, known for his multi-volume work entitled De architectura.
A plate or wall plate is a horizontal, structural, load-bearing member in wooden building framing.
A wall stud is a vertical framing member in a building's wall of smaller cross section than a post.
Warwick is the county town of Warwickshire, England.
Wattle and daub is a composite building material used for making walls, in which a woven lattice of wooden strips called wattle is daubed with a sticky material usually made of some combination of wet soil, clay, sand, animal dung and straw.
Württemberg is a historical German territory.
The Weald is an area of South East England between the parallel chalk escarpments of the North and the South Downs.
The Wealden hall house is a type of vernacular medieval timber-framed hall house traditional in the south east of England.
Wernigerode is a town in the district of Harz, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.
A windmill is a mill that converts the energy of wind into rotational energy by means of vanes called sails or blades.
Wood splitting (riving,"Riving" def. 1.b. Oxford English Dictionary Second Edition on CD-ROM (v. 4.0) © Oxford University Press 2009 cleaving) is an ancient technique used in carpentry to make lumber for making wooden objects, some basket weaving, and to make firewood.
Wooden Churches of Southern Lesser Poland of the UNESCO inscription are located in Binarowa, Blizne, Dębno, Haczów, Lipnica Murowana, and Sękowa (Lesser Poland Voivodeship or Małopolska).
Woodworking is the activity or skill of making items from wood, and includes cabinet making (cabinetry and furniture), wood carving, joinery, carpentry, and woodturning.
Joinery is a part of woodworking that involves joining together pieces of timber or lumber, to produce more complex items.
Wormshill, historically Wormsell, is a small village and civil parish within the Borough of Maidstone, Kent, England.
Xylophagy is a term used in ecology to describe the habits of an herbivorous animal whose diet consists primarily (often solely) of wood.
Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
York is a historic walled city at the confluence of the rivers Ouse and Foss in North Yorkshire, England.
A zero-energy building, also known as a zero net energy (ZNE) building, net-zero energy building (NZEB), or net zero building, is a building with zero net energy consumption, meaning the total amount of energy used by the building on an annual basis is roughly equal to the amount of renewable energy created on the site, or in other definitions by renewable energy sources elsewhere.
Zgorzelec (Görlitz, Zhorjelc, Zhořelec) is a town in south-western Poland with 32,322 inhabitants (2012).
Black-and-white style, Box-frame, Braced framing, Carpenters marks, Colombage pierrote, Colombage pierroté, Fachwerk, Fachwerk (Germany), Fachwerkhaus, Frame and fill, Framed building, Half timbered, Half-Timber Work, Half-timber, Half-timber house, Half-timberd, Half-timbered, Half-timbered construction, Half-timbered house, Half-timbered houses, Half-timbering, Post and Beam, Post and beam construction, Post-and-beam, Post-and-beam construction, Principal beam, Principal brace, Principal rafter, Timber construction, Timber frame, Timber frame construction, Timber framed, Timber framed buildings, Timber-frame, Timber-frame house, Timber-framed, Timber-framed house, Timber-framed houses, Timber-framing, Timbered housing, Timberframe, Wood Frame, Wood-frame.