350 relations: A Brief History of Time, A priori and a posteriori, Aboriginal groupings of Western Australia, About Time (book), Absolute space and time, Abstract structure, Alan Lightman, Albert Einstein, Amenhotep I, An Experiment with Time, Anachronism, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek philosophy, Ancient history, Ancient philosophy, Anthropology, Antiphon (orator), Antiquarian Horological Society, Apophatic theology, Arabic, Aristotle, Arlie Russell Hochschild, Arrow of time, Astronomy, Atomic clock, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Attosecond, Augustine of Hippo, Austin Independent School District, Awareness, Babylonia, Barycentric Dynamical Time, Basal ganglia, Being and Time, Bell, Bernard Stiegler, Big Bang, Buddhism, Byrhtferth, Caesium, Calendar, Calendar date, Cam timer, Causality, Causality (physics), Celestial navigation, Cerebellum, Cerebral cortex, Chaldea, Charlie Gere, ..., Chart, Christiaan Huygens, Christian eschatology, Chronology, Chronometer watch, Chronometrophilia, Chronometry, Chronos, Circadian rhythm, Circular definition, Classical mechanics, Clock, Clock of the Long Now, Computer simulation, Computus, Conceptual metaphor, Confessions (Augustine), Configuration space (physics), Consciousness, Coordinated Universal Time, COSC, CP violation, CPT symmetry, Creation myth, Critique of Pure Reason, Culmination, Date and time representation by country, Daylight saving time, Depressant, Derivative, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Chronometrie, Dimension, Discrete event simulation, Dopamine, Dotdash, Duodecimal, Duration (philosophy), Earth, Earth's orbit, Ecclesiastes, Einstein's Dreams, Electric power transmission, Empirical evidence, Encyclopædia Britannica, End time, Engineering technologist, Entropy, Entropy (arrow of time), Ephemeris time, Equinox, Era, Escapement, Eternalism (philosophy of time), Event (philosophy), Event (relativity), Existence, Exponential decay, Ferdinand Magellan, Fiscal year, Fixed stars, Frame of reference, Free will, French Republican Calendar, French Revolution, Frequency, Future, Galilean transformation, Galileo Galilei, General relativity, Geologic time scale, Global Positioning System, Gnomon, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Grandfather paradox, Greece, Greenwich Mean Time, Gregorian calendar, Growing block universe, H. Dieter Zeh, Half-life, Harvard University Press, Hebrew language, Henri Bergson, Heraclitus, Hexadecimal time, Hindu cosmology, Hindu philosophy, Hinduism, History of science and technology in China, Homogeneous polynomial, Hopi, Horology, Hourglass, Human behavior, Hypnosis, Illusion, Immanuel Kant, Inca Empire, Indian philosophy, Industrial Revolution, Inertial frame of reference, Instant, Intercalation (timekeeping), International Astronomical Union, International Atomic Time, International Meridian Conference, International System of Quantities, International System of Units, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Irreversible process, Isaac Newton, ISO 8601, J. M. E. McTaggart, J. W. Dunne, Jainism, John Harrison, John Meiklejohn, Judeo-Christian, Julian Barbour, Julian calendar, Julius Caesar, June Goodfield, Kabbalah, Kairos, Kappa effect, Leap second, Lee Smolin, Leibniz–Clarke correspondence, Life expectancy, Light cone, Light-year, Linearity, List of Chinese inventions, List of cycles, List of UTC timing centers, Literacy, Longitude, Loop quantum gravity, Lorentz transformation, Lunar calendar, Lunar month, Lunisolar calendar, Many-worlds interpretation, Marine chronometer, Martin Heidegger, Maya civilization, Measurement, Measurement in quantum mechanics, Measuring instrument, Mental chronometry, Minkowski space, Mircea Eliade, Modern Hebrew, Molecular electronic transition, Multiverse, National Association of Watch and Clock Collectors, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Natural philosophy, Natural units, Navigation, Network Time Protocol, Neuron, Neurotransmitter, Nonlinear narrative, Norbert Elias, Norepinephrine, Novikov self-consistency principle, Object (philosophy), Old Testament, Operational definition, Orrery, Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, Paleolithic, Papua New Guinea, Paradox, Parkinson's disease, Parmenides, Particle physics, Past, Paul Davies, Pendulum, Perception, Performing arts, Periodization, Persian language, Phenomenon, Philosophical presentism, Philosophical realism, Philosophy of physics, Physical cosmology, Physical quantity, Physical Review Letters, Physics (Aristotle), Plan, Planck time, Planck units, Plato, Platonia (philosophy), Plot device, Pope Gregory XIII, Position of the Sun, Predestination, Present, Prime meridian, Procedure (term), Process (engineering), Qualia, Quantification (science), Quantity, Quantum mechanics, Rate (mathematics), Reference.com, Relative direction, Relativity of simultaneity, Result, Revolution in Time, Richard of Wallingford, Roman Empire, Royal Navy, Royal Observatory, Greenwich, Schedule (project management), Scientific realism, Sean M. Carroll, Season, Second law of thermodynamics, Seconds From Disaster, Sequence, Sequence of events recorder, Ship's bell, SI base unit, Sidereal time, Social currency, Social cycle theory, Society, Solar calendar, Solar time, Solomon, Solstice, Sophist, Space, Spacetime, Special relativity, Specious present, Standard Model, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Star, Stephen Hawking, Stephen Toulmin, Stimulant, Subatomic particle, Subjectivity, Substance theory, Sun, Sundial, Suprachiasmatic nucleus, T-square, Table (information), Technics and Time, 1, Temporal paradox, Term (time), Terrestrial Time, The End of Time (book), The New York Times Magazine, The Singular Universe and the Reality of Time, The Unreality of Time, Three-dimensional space, Timaeus (dialogue), Time, Time bind, Time discipline, Time in physics, Time management, Time perception, Time Reborn, Time travel, Time value of money, Time zone, Time-use research, Timeline of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, Timestamp, Tithi, Travel behavior, Tropical year, Ultradian rhythm, Unit of time, United States Naval Observatory, Universal Time, Universe, Unix time, Vedas, Velocity, Water clock, Wheel of time, William James, World line, Writing system, Zeno of Elea, Zeno's paradoxes, 2nd millennium BC. 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A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes is a popular-science book on cosmology (the study of the universe) by British physicist Stephen Hawking.
The Latin phrases a priori ("from the earlier") and a posteriori ("from the latter") are philosophical terms of art popularized by Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason (first published in 1781, second edition in 1787), one of the most influential works in the history of philosophy.
An overview of Australian Aboriginal kinship groupings within Western Australia, 1979.
About Time, published in 1995, is the second book written by Paul Davies, regarding the subject of time.
Absolute space and time is a concept in physics and philosophy about the properties of the universe.
An abstract structure is a formal object that is defined by a set of laws, properties and relationships in a way that is logically if not always historically independent of the structure of contingent experiences, for example, those involving physical objects.
Alan Paige Lightman is an American physicist, writer, and social entrepreneur.
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
Amenhotep I from Ancient Egyptian "jmn-ḥtp" or "yamānuḥātap" meaning "Amun is satisfied" or Amenophis I,, from Ancient Greek Ἀμένωφις,Dodson & Hilton (2004) p.126 additionally King Zeserkere (transliteration: Ḏśr-k-R), was the second Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt.
An Experiment with Time is a book by the British soldier, aeronautical engineer and philosopher J. W. Dunne (1875–1949) on the subjects of precognitive dreams and a theory of time which he later called Serialism.
An anachronism (from the Greek ἀνά ana, "against" and χρόνος khronos, "time") is a chronological inconsistency in some arrangement, especially a juxtaposition of persons, events, objects, or customs from different periods of time.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC and continued throughout the Hellenistic period and the period in which Ancient Greece was part of the Roman Empire.
Ancient history is the aggregate of past events, "History" from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the post-classical history.
This page lists some links to ancient philosophy.
Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.
Antiphon of Rhamnus (Ἀντιφῶν ὁ Ῥαμνούσιος) (480–411 BC) was the earliest of the ten Attic orators, and an important figure in fifth-century Athenian political and intellectual life.
The Antiquarian Horological Society, abbreviated to AHS, is the UK-based learned society for scholars and enthusiasts of horology.
Apophatic theology, also known as negative theology, is a form of theological thinking and religious practice which attempts to approach God, the Divine, by negation, to speak only in terms of what may not be said about the perfect goodness that is God.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Arlie Russell Hochschild (born January 15, 1940) is an American sociologist and academic.
The Arrow of Time, or Time's Arrow, is a concept developed in 1927 by the British astronomer Arthur Eddington involving the "one-way direction" or "asymmetry" of time.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
An atomic clock is a clock device that uses an electron transition frequency in the microwave, optical, or ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spectrum of atoms as a frequency standard for its timekeeping element.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.
An attosecond is 1×10−18 of a second (one quintillionth of a second).
Saint Augustine of Hippo (13 November 354 – 28 August 430) was a Roman African, early Christian theologian and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy.
Austin Independent School District is a school district based in the city of Austin, Texas, United States.
Awareness is the ability to directly know and perceive, to feel, or to be cognizant of events.
Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).
Barycentric Dynamical Time (TDB, from the French Temps Dynamique Barycentrique) is a relativistic coordinate time scale, intended for astronomical use as a time standard to take account of time dilation when calculating orbits and astronomical ephemerides of planets, asteroids, comets and interplanetary spacecraft in the Solar System.
The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) is a group of subcortical nuclei, of varied origin, in the brains of vertebrates including humans, which are situated at the base of the forebrain.
Being and Time (Sein und Zeit) is a 1927 book by the German philosopher Martin Heidegger, in which the author seeks to analyse the concept of Being.
A bell is a directly struck idiophone percussion instrument.
Bernard Stiegler (born 1 April 1952) is a French philosopher.
The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Byrhtferth (Byrhtferð) was a priest and monk who lived at Ramsey Abbey in Huntingdonshire.
Caesium (British spelling and IUPAC spelling) or cesium (American spelling) is a chemical element with symbol Cs and atomic number 55.
A calendar is a system of organizing days for social, religious, commercial or administrative purposes.
A calendar date is a reference to a particular day represented within a calendar system.
A cam timer or drum sequencer is an electromechanical system for controlling a sequence of events automatically.
Causality (also referred to as causation, or cause and effect) is what connects one process (the cause) with another process or state (the effect), where the first is partly responsible for the second, and the second is partly dependent on the first.
Causality is the relationship between causes and effects.
Celestial navigation, also known as astronavigation, is the ancient and modern practice of position fixing that enables a navigator to transition through a space without having to rely on estimated calculations, or dead reckoning, to know their position.
The cerebellum (Latin for "little brain") is a major feature of the hindbrain of all vertebrates.
The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.
Chaldea or Chaldaea was a Semitic-speaking nation that existed between the late 10th or early 9th and mid-6th centuries BC, after which it and its people were absorbed and assimilated into Babylonia.
Charlie Gere is a British academic who is professor of media theory and history at The Lancaster Institute for the Contemporary Arts, The University of Lancaster and previously, director of research at the Institute for Cultural Research at The University of Lancaster.
A chart is a graphical representation of data, in which "the data is represented by symbols, such as bars in a bar chart, lines in a line chart, or slices in a pie chart".
Christiaan Huygens (Hugenius; 14 April 1629 – 8 July 1695) was a Dutch physicist, mathematician, astronomer and inventor, who is widely regarded as one of the greatest scientists of all time and a major figure in the scientific revolution.
Christian eschatology is a major branch of study within Christian theology dealing with the "last things." Eschatology, from two Greek words meaning "last" (ἔσχατος) and "study" (-λογία), is the study of 'end things', whether the end of an individual life, the end of the age, the end of the world and the nature of the Kingdom of God.
Chronology (from Latin chronologia, from Ancient Greek χρόνος, chrónos, "time"; and -λογία, -logia) is the science of arranging events in their order of occurrence in time.
A chronometer is a specific type of mechanical timepiece tested and certified to meet certain precision standards.
Chronometrophilia is described in its byline as the "Swiss Association for the History of Timekeeping / Association suisse pour l'histoire de la mesure du temps / Schweizerische Gesellschaft für die Geschichte der Zeitmessung".
Chronometry (from Greek χρόνος chronos, "time" and μέτρον metron, "measure") is the science of the measurement of time, or timekeeping.
Chronos (Χρόνος, "time",, also transliterated as Khronos or Latinised as Chronus) is the personification of Time in pre-Socratic philosophy and later literature.
A circadian rhythm is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours.
A circular definition is one that uses the term(s) being defined as a part of the definition or assumes a prior understanding of the term being defined.
Classical mechanics describes the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, and astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars and galaxies.
A clock is an instrument to measure, keep, and indicate time.
The Clock of the Long Now, also called the 10,000-year clock, is a mechanical clock under construction, that is designed to keep time for 10,000 years.
Computer simulation is the reproduction of the behavior of a system using a computer to simulate the outcomes of a mathematical model associated with said system.
Computus (Latin for "computation") is a calculation that determines the calendar date of Easter.
In cognitive linguistics, conceptual metaphor, or cognitive metaphor, refers to the understanding of one idea, or conceptual domain, in terms of another.
Confessions (Latin: Confessiones) is the name of an autobiographical work, consisting of 13 books, by Saint Augustine of Hippo, written in Latin between AD 397 and 400.
In classical mechanics, the parameters that define the configuration of a system are called generalized coordinates, and the vector space defined by these coordinates is called the configuration space of the physical system.
Consciousness is the state or quality of awareness, or, of being aware of an external object or something within oneself.
COSC is Contrôle Officiel Suisse des Chronomètres, the Official Swiss Chronometer Testing Institute, which is the institute responsible for certifying the accuracy and precision of wristwatches in Switzerland.
In particle physics, CP violation is a violation of CP-symmetry (or charge conjugation parity symmetry): the combination of C-symmetry (charge conjugation symmetry) and P-symmetry (parity symmetry).
Charge, parity, and time reversal symmetry is a fundamental symmetry of physical laws under the simultaneous transformations of charge conjugation (C), parity transformation (P), and time reversal (T).
A creation myth (or cosmogonic myth) is a symbolic narrative of how the world began and how people first came to inhabit it.
The Critique of Pure Reason (Kritik der reinen Vernunft, KrV) (1781, Riga; second edition 1787) is a book by Immanuel Kant that has exerted an enduring influence on Western philosophy.
In astronomy, the culmination of a planet, star, or constellation is its transit over an observer's meridian.
Different conventions exist around the world for date and time representation, both written and spoken.
Daylight saving time (abbreviated DST), sometimes referred to as daylight savings time in U.S., Canadian, and Australian speech, and known as summer time in some countries, is the practice of advancing clocks during summer months so that evening daylight lasts longer, while sacrificing normal sunrise times.
A depressant, or central depressant, is a drug that lowers neurotransmission levels, which is to depress or reduce arousal or stimulation, in various areas of the brain.
The derivative of a function of a real variable measures the sensitivity to change of the function value (output value) with respect to a change in its argument (input value).
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Chronometrie (DGC), (German Society for Timekeeping) today is an organization of scholars, collectors and enthusiasts in Germany interested in the science, art and history of horology.
In physics and mathematics, the dimension of a mathematical space (or object) is informally defined as the minimum number of coordinates needed to specify any point within it.
A discrete-event simulation (DES) models the operation of a system as a discrete sequence of events in time.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
Dotdash (formerly About.com) is an American Internet-based network of content that publishes articles and videos about various subjects on its "topic sites", of which there are nearly 1,000.
The duodecimal system (also known as base 12 or dozenal) is a positional notation numeral system using twelve as its base.
Duration (French: la durée) is a theory of time and consciousness posited by the French philosopher Henri Bergson.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Earth's orbit is the trajectory along which Earth travels around the Sun.
Ecclesiastes (Greek: Ἐκκλησιαστής, Ekklēsiastēs, קֹהֶלֶת, qōheleṯ) is one of 24 books of the Tanakh or Hebrew Bible, where it is classified as one of the Ketuvim (or "Writings").
Einstein's Dreams is a 1992 novel by Alan Lightman that was an international bestseller and has been translated into thirty languages.
Electric power transmission is the bulk movement of electrical energy from a generating site, such as a power plant, to an electrical substation.
Empirical evidence, also known as sensory experience, is the information received by means of the senses, particularly by observation and documentation of patterns and behavior through experimentation.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
The end time (also called end times, end of time, end of days, last days, final days, or eschaton) is a future time-period described variously in the eschatologies of several world religions (both Abrahamic and non-Abrahamic), which believe that world events will reach a final climax.
An engineering technologist is a professional trained in certain aspects of development and implementation of a respective area of technology.
In statistical mechanics, entropy is an extensive property of a thermodynamic system.
Entropy is the only quantity in the physical sciences (apart from certain rare interactions in particle physics; see below) that requires a particular direction for time, sometimes called an arrow of time.
The term ephemeris time (often abbreviated ET) can in principle refer to time in connection with any astronomical ephemeris.
An equinox is commonly regarded as the moment the plane (extended indefinitely in all directions) of Earth's equator passes through the center of the Sun, which occurs twice each year, around 20 March and 22-23 September.
An era is a span of time defined for the purposes of chronology or historiography, as in the regnal eras in the history of a given monarchy, a calendar era used for a given calendar, or the geological eras defined for the history of Earth.
An escapement is a device in mechanical watches and clocks that transfers energy to the timekeeping element (the "impulse action") and allows the number of its oscillations to be counted (the "locking action").
Eternalism is a philosophical approach to the ontological nature of time, which takes the view that all existence in time is equally real, as opposed to presentism or the growing block universe theory of time, in which at least the future is not the same as any other time.
In philosophy, events are objects in time or instantiations of properties in objects.
In physics, and in particular relativity, an event is the instantaneous physical situation or occurrence associated with a point in spacetime (that is, a specific place and time).
Existence, in its most generic terms, is the ability to, directly or indirectly, interact with reality or, in more specific cases, the universe.
A quantity is subject to exponential decay if it decreases at a rate proportional to its current value.
Ferdinand Magellan (or; Fernão de Magalhães,; Fernando de Magallanes,; c. 1480 – 27 April 1521) was a Portuguese explorer who organised the Spanish expedition to the East Indies from 1519 to 1522, resulting in the first circumnavigation of the Earth, completed by Juan Sebastián Elcano.
A fiscal year (or financial year, or sometimes budget year) is the period used by governments for accounting and budget purposes, which vary between countries.
The fixed stars (stellae fixae) comprise the background of astronomical objects that appear to not move relative to each other in the night sky compared to the foreground of Solar System objects that do.
In physics, a frame of reference (or reference frame) consists of an abstract coordinate system and the set of physical reference points that uniquely fix (locate and orient) the coordinate system and standardize measurements.
Free will is the ability to choose between different possible courses of action unimpeded.
The French Republican Calendar (calendrier républicain français), also commonly called the French Revolutionary Calendar (calendrier révolutionnaire français), was a calendar created and implemented during the French Revolution, and used by the French government for about 12 years from late 1793 to 1805, and for 18 days by the Paris Commune in 1871.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.
The future is what will happen in the time after the present.
In physics, a Galilean transformation is used to transform between the coordinates of two reference frames which differ only by constant relative motion within the constructs of Newtonian physics.
Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564Drake (1978, p. 1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar. – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath.
General relativity (GR, also known as the general theory of relativity or GTR) is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics.
The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that relates geological strata (stratigraphy) to time.
The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Air Force.
A gnomon (from Greek γνώμων, gnōmōn, literally: "one that knows or examines") is the part of a sundial that casts a shadow.
Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz (or; Leibnitz; – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath and philosopher who occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy.
The grandfather paradox is a paradox of time travel in which inconsistencies emerge through changing the past.
Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is the mean solar time at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, London.
The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used civil calendar in the world.
According to the growing block universe theory of time (or the growing block view), the past and present exist and the future does not exist.
Heinz-Dieter Zeh (born 8 May 1932 in Braunschweig, Germany; died 15 April 2018 while on holiday in the Black Forest), usually referred to as H. Dieter Zeh, was a professor (later professor emeritus) of the University of Heidelberg and theoretical physicist.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
Henri-Louis Bergson (18 October 1859 – 4 January 1941) was a French-Jewish philosopher who was influential in the tradition of continental philosophy, especially during the first half of the 20th century until World War II.
Heraclitus of Ephesus (Hērákleitos ho Ephésios) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, and a native of the city of Ephesus, then part of the Persian Empire.
Hexadecimal time is the representation of the time of day as a hexadecimal number in the interval.
In Hindu cosmology, the universe is cyclically created and destroyed.
Hindu philosophy refers to a group of darśanas (philosophies, world views, teachings) that emerged in ancient India.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
Ancient Chinese scientists and engineers made significant scientific innovations, findings and technological advances across various scientific disciplines including the natural sciences, engineering, medicine, military technology, mathematics, geology and astronomy.
In mathematics, a homogeneous polynomial is a polynomial whose nonzero terms all have the same degree.
The Hopi are a Native American tribe, who primarily live on the Hopi Reservation in northeastern Arizona.
Horology ("the study of time", related to Latin horologium from Greek ὡρολόγιον, "instrument for telling the hour", from ὥρα hṓra "hour; time" and -o- interfix and suffix -logy) is the study of the measurement of time.
An hourglass (or sandglass, sand timer, or sand clock) is a device used to measure the passage of time.
Human behavior is the responses of individuals or groups of humans to internal and external stimuli.
Hypnosis is a state of human consciousness involving focused attention and reduced peripheral awareness and an enhanced capacity to respond to suggestion.
An illusion is a distortion of the senses, which can reveal how the human brain normally organizes and interprets sensory stimulation.
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
The Inca Empire (Quechua: Tawantinsuyu, "The Four Regions"), also known as the Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America, and possibly the largest empire in the world in the early 16th century.
Indian philosophy refers to ancient philosophical traditions of the Indian subcontinent.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
An inertial frame of reference in classical physics and special relativity is a frame of reference in which a body with zero net force acting upon it is not accelerating; that is, such a body is at rest or it is moving at a constant speed in a straight line.
An instant is an infinitesimal moment in time, a moment whose passage is instantaneous.
Intercalation or embolism in timekeeping is the insertion of a leap day, week, or month into some calendar years to make the calendar follow the seasons or moon phases.
The International Astronomical Union (IAU; Union astronomique internationale, UAI) is an international association of professional astronomers, at the PhD level and beyond, active in professional research and education in astronomy.
International Atomic Time (TAI, from the French name temps atomique international) is a high-precision atomic coordinate time standard based on the notional passage of proper time on Earth's geoid.
The International Meridian Conference was a conference held in October 1884 in Washington, D.C., in the United States, to determine a prime meridian for international use.
The International System of Quantities (ISQ) is a system based on seven base quantities: length, mass, time, electric current, thermodynamic temperature, amount of substance, and luminous intensity.
The International System of Units (SI, abbreviated from the French Système international (d'unités)) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.
The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (IEP) is a scholarly online encyclopedia, dealing with philosophy, philosophical topics, and philosophers.
In science, a process that is not reversible is called irreversible.
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
ISO 8601 Data elements and interchange formats – Information interchange – Representation of dates and times is an international standard covering the exchange of date- and time-related data.
John McTaggart Ellis McTaggart, FBA, commonly John McTaggart or J. M. E. McTaggart (3 September 1866 – 18 January 1925), was an idealist metaphysician.
John William Dunne FRAeS (1875–1949) was a British soldier, aeronautical engineer and philosopher.
Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.
John Harrison (– 24 March 1776) was a self-educated English carpenter and clockmaker who invented a marine chronometer, a long-sought-after device for solving the problem of calculating longitude while at sea.
John Miller Dow Meiklejohn (11 July 1836 – 5 April 1902) was a Scottish academic, journalist and author known for writing school books.
Judeo-Christian is a term that groups Judaism and Christianity, either in reference to Christianity's derivation from Judaism, both religions common use of the Torah, or due to perceived parallels or commonalities shared values between those two religions, which has contained as part of Western culture.
Julian Barbour (born 1937) is a British physicist with research interests in quantum gravity and the history of science.
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
June Goodfield is a British historian, scientist, and writer of both fiction and non-fiction.
Kabbalah (קַבָּלָה, literally "parallel/corresponding," or "received tradition") is an esoteric method, discipline, and school of thought that originated in Judaism.
Kairos (καιρός) is an Ancient Greek word meaning the right, critical, or opportune moment.
The kappa effect or perceptual time dilation is a temporal perceptual illusion that can arise when observers judge the elapsed time between sensory stimuli applied sequentially at different locations.
A leap second is a one-second adjustment that is occasionally applied to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) in order to keep its time of day close to the mean solar time as realized by UT1.
Lee Smolin (born June 6, 1955) is an American theoretical physicist, a faculty member at the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, an adjunct professor of physics at the University of Waterloo and a member of the graduate faculty of the philosophy department at the University of Toronto.
The Leibniz–Clarke correspondence was a scientific, theological and philosophical debate conducted in an exchange of letters between the German thinker Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz and Samuel Clarke, an English supporter of Isaac Newton during the years 1715 and 1716.
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.
In special and general relativity, a light cone is the path that a flash of light, emanating from a single event (localized to a single point in space and a single moment in time) and traveling in all directions, would take through spacetime.
The light-year is a unit of length used to express astronomical distances and measures about 9.5 trillion kilometres or 5.9 trillion miles.
Linearity is the property of a mathematical relationship or function which means that it can be graphically represented as a straight line.
China has been the source of many innovations, scientific discoveries and inventions.
This is a list of recurring cycles.
List of UTC timing centers is a list of over 70 recognized maintainers of atomic clocks around the world from which UTC is calculated.
Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write.
Longitude, is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface.
Loop quantum gravity (LQG) is a theory of quantum gravity, merging quantum mechanics and general relativity.
In physics, the Lorentz transformations (or transformation) are coordinate transformations between two coordinate frames that move at constant velocity relative to each other.
A lunar calendar is a calendar based upon the monthly cycles of the Moon's phases (synodic months), in contrast to solar calendars, whose annual cycles are based only directly upon the solar year.
In lunar calendars, a lunar month is the time between two successive syzygies (new moons or full moons).
A lunisolar calendar is a calendar in many cultures whose date indicates both the moon phase and the time of the solar year.
The many-worlds interpretation is an interpretation of quantum mechanics that asserts the objective reality of the universal wavefunction and denies the actuality of wavefunction collapse.
A marine chronometer is a timepiece that is precise and accurate enough to be used as a portable time standard; it can therefore be used to determine longitude by means of celestial navigation.
Martin Heidegger (26 September 188926 May 1976) was a German philosopher and a seminal thinker in the Continental tradition and philosophical hermeneutics, and is "widely acknowledged to be one of the most original and important philosophers of the 20th century." Heidegger is best known for his contributions to phenomenology and existentialism, though as the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy cautions, "his thinking should be identified as part of such philosophical movements only with extreme care and qualification".
The Maya civilization was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, and noted for its hieroglyphic script—the only known fully developed writing system of the pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, architecture, mathematics, calendar, and astronomical system.
Measurement is the assignment of a number to a characteristic of an object or event, which can be compared with other objects or events.
The framework of quantum mechanics requires a careful definition of measurement.
A measuring instrument is a device for measuring a physical quantity.
Mental chronometry is the use of response time in perceptual-motor tasks to infer the content, duration, and temporal sequencing of cognitive operations.
In mathematical physics, Minkowski space (or Minkowski spacetime) is a combining of three-dimensional Euclidean space and time into a four-dimensional manifold where the spacetime interval between any two events is independent of the inertial frame of reference in which they are recorded.
Mircea Eliade (– April 22, 1986) was a Romanian historian of religion, fiction writer, philosopher, and professor at the University of Chicago.
Molecular electronic transitions take place when electrons in a molecule are excited from one energy level to a higher energy level.The energy change associated with this transition provides information on the structure of a molecule and determines many molecular properties such as color.
The multiverse (or meta-universe) is a hypothetical group of multiple separate universes including the universe in which humans live.
The National Association of Watch and Clock Collectors (NAWCC) is an American non-profit organization with about 13,000 members.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is one of the oldest physical science laboratories in the United States.
Natural philosophy or philosophy of nature (from Latin philosophia naturalis) was the philosophical study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science.
In physics, natural units are physical units of measurement based only on universal physical constants.
Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another.
Network Time Protocol (NTP) is a networking protocol for clock synchronization between computer systems over packet-switched, variable-latency data networks.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Nonlinear narrative, disjointed narrative or disrupted narrative is a narrative technique, sometimes used in literature, film, hypertext websites and other narratives, where events are portrayed, for example, out of chronological order or in other ways where the narrative does not follow the direct causality pattern of the events featured, such as parallel distinctive plot lines, dream immersions or narrating another story inside the main plot-line.
Norbert Elias (22 June 1897 – 1 August 1990) was a German sociologist of Jewish descent, who later became a British citizen.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
The Novikov self-consistency principle, also known as the Novikov self-consistency conjecture and Larry Niven's law of conservation of history, is a principle developed by Russian physicist Igor Dmitriyevich Novikov in the mid-1980s.
An object is a technical term in modern philosophy often used in contrast to the term subject.
The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.
An operational definition is the articulation of operationalization (or statement of procedures) used in defining the terms of a process (or set of validation tests) needed to determine the nature of an item or phenomenon (a variable, term, or object) and its properties such as duration, quantity, extension in space, chemical composition, etc.
An orrery is a mechanical model of the solar system that illustrates or predicts the relative positions and motions of the planets and moons, usually according to the heliocentric model.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.
Papua New Guinea (PNG;,; Papua Niugini; Hiri Motu: Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is an Oceanian country that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia.
A paradox is a statement that, despite apparently sound reasoning from true premises, leads to an apparently self-contradictory or logically unacceptable conclusion.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
Parmenides of Elea (Παρμενίδης ὁ Ἐλεάτης) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher from Elea in Magna Graecia (Greater Greece, included Southern Italy).
Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation.
The past is the set of all events that occurred before a given point in time.
Paul Charles William Davies, AM (born 22 April 1946) is an English physicist, writer and broadcaster, a professor at Arizona State University as well as the Director of BEYOND: Center for Fundamental Concepts in Science.
A pendulum is a weight suspended from a pivot so that it can swing freely.
Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.
Performing arts are a form of art in which artists use their voices or bodies, often in relation to other objects, to convey artistic expression.
Periodization is the process or study of categorizing the past into discrete, quantified named blocks of timeAdam Rabinowitz.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
A phenomenon (Greek: φαινόμενον, phainómenon, from the verb phainein, to show, shine, appear, to be manifest or manifest itself, plural phenomena) is any thing which manifests itself.
Philosophical presentism is the view that neither the future nor the past exist.
Realism (in philosophy) about a given object is the view that this object exists in reality independently of our conceptual scheme.
In philosophy, philosophy of physics deals with conceptual and interpretational issues in modern physics, and often overlaps with research done by certain kinds of theoretical physicists.
Physical cosmology is the study of the largest-scale structures and dynamics of the Universe and is concerned with fundamental questions about its origin, structure, evolution, and ultimate fate.
A physical quantity is a physical property of a phenomenon, body, or substance, that can be quantified by measurement.or we can say that quantities which we come across during our scientific studies are called as the physical quantities...
Physical Review Letters (PRL), established in 1958, is a peer-reviewed, scientific journal that is published 52 times per year by the American Physical Society.
The Physics (Greek: Φυσικὴ ἀκρόασις Phusike akroasis; Latin: Physica, or Naturalis Auscultationes, possibly meaning "lectures on nature") is a named text, written in ancient Greek, collated from a collection of surviving manuscripts known as the Corpus Aristotelicum because attributed to the 4th-century BC philosopher, teacher, and mentor of Macedonian rulers, Aristotle.
A plan is typically any diagram or list of steps with details of timing and resources, used to achieve an objective to do something.
In quantum mechanics, the Planck time is the unit of time in the system of natural units known as Planck units.
In particle physics and physical cosmology, Planck units are a set of units of measurement defined exclusively in terms of five universal physical constants, in such a manner that these five physical constants take on the numerical value of 1 when expressed in terms of these units.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
In Julian Barbour's book The End of Time: The Next Revolution in Our Understanding of the Universe, Platonia is the name given to his hypothetic entity of a timeless realm containing every possible "Now" or momentary configuration of the universe.
A plot device, or plot mechanism, is any technique in a narrative used to move the plot forward.
Pope Gregory XIII (Gregorius XIII; 7 January 1502 – 10 April 1585), born Ugo Boncompagni, was Pope of the Catholic Church from 13 May 1572 to his death in 1585.
The position of the Sun in the sky is a function of both the time and the geographic location of observation on Earth's surface.
Predestination, in theology, is the doctrine that all events have been willed by God, usually with reference to the eventual fate of the individual soul.
The present (or here and now) is the time that is associated with the events perceived directly and in the first time, not as a recollection (perceived more than once) or a speculation (predicted, hypothesis, uncertain).
A prime meridian is a meridian (a line of longitude) in a geographic coordinate system at which longitude is defined to be 0°.
A procedure is a document written to support a "policy directive".
In engineering, a process is a series of interrelated tasks that, together, transform inputs into outputs.
In philosophy and certain models of psychology, qualia (or; singular form: quale) are defined to be individual instances of subjective, conscious experience.
In mathematics and empirical science, quantification (or quantitation) is the act of counting and measuring that maps human sense observations and experiences into quantities.
Quantity is a property that can exist as a multitude or magnitude.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
In mathematics, a rate is the ratio between two related quantities.
Reference.com is an online encyclopedia, thesaurus, and dictionary.
The most common relative directions are left, right, forward(s), backward(s), up, and down.
In physics, the relativity of simultaneity is the concept that distant simultaneity – whether two spatially separated events occur at the same time – is not absolute, but depends on the observer's reference frame.
A result (also called upshot) is the final consequence of a sequence of actions or events expressed qualitatively or quantitatively.
Revolution in Time: Clocks and the Making of the Modern World, is an influential history book by David S. Landes.
Richard of Wallingford (1292–1336) was an English mathematician, astronomer, horologist, and cleric who made major contributions to astronomy and horology while serving as abbot of St Albans Abbey in Hertfordshire.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
The Royal Observatory, Greenwich (ROG; known as the Old Royal Observatory from 1957 to 1998, when the working Royal Greenwich Observatory, RGO, moved from Greenwich to Herstmonceux) is an observatory situated on a hill in Greenwich Park, overlooking the River Thames.
In project management, a schedule is a listing of a project's milestones, activities, and deliverables, usually with intended start and finish dates.
Scientific realism is the view that the universe described by science is real regardless of how it may be interpreted.
Sean Michael Carroll (born October 5, 1966) is a cosmologist and physics professor specializing in dark energy and general relativity.
A season is a division of the year marked by changes in weather, ecology, and amount of daylight.
The second law of thermodynamics states that the total entropy of an isolated system can never decrease over time.
Seconds from Disaster is a US/UK-produced documentary television programme that investigates historically relevant man-made and natural disasters of the 20th century.
In mathematics, a sequence is an enumerated collection of objects in which repetitions are allowed.
A sequence of events recorder (SER) is an intelligent standalone microprocessor based system, which monitors external inputs and records the time and sequence of the changes.
A ship's bell is used to indicate the time aboard a ship and hence to regulate the sailors' duty watches.
The International System of Units (SI) defines seven units of measure as a basic set from which all other SI units can be derived.
Sidereal time is a timekeeping system that astronomers use to locate celestial objects.
Social currency refers to the actual and potential resources from presence in social networks and communities, including both digital and offline.
Social cycle theories are among the earliest social theories in sociology.
A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.
A solar calendar is a calendar whose dates indicate the season or almost equivalently the position of the apparent position of the sun in relative to the stars.
Solar time is a calculation of the passage of time based on the position of the Sun in the sky.
Solomon (שְׁלֹמֹה, Shlomoh), also called Jedidiah (Hebrew Yədidya), was, according to the Hebrew Bible, Quran, Hadith and Hidden Words, a fabulously wealthy and wise king of Israel who succeeded his father, King David. The conventional dates of Solomon's reign are circa 970 to 931 BCE, normally given in alignment with the dates of David's reign. He is described as the third king of the United Monarchy, which would break apart into the northern Kingdom of Israel and the southern Kingdom of Judah shortly after his death. Following the split, his patrilineal descendants ruled over Judah alone. According to the Talmud, Solomon is one of the 48 prophets. In the Quran, he is considered a major prophet, and Muslims generally refer to him by the Arabic variant Sulayman, son of David. The Hebrew Bible credits him as the builder of the First Temple in Jerusalem, beginning in the fourth year of his reign, using the vast wealth he had accumulated. He dedicated the temple to Yahweh, the God of Israel. He is portrayed as great in wisdom, wealth and power beyond either of the previous kings of the country, but also as a king who sinned. His sins included idolatry, marrying foreign women and, ultimately, turning away from Yahweh, and they led to the kingdom's being torn in two during the reign of his son Rehoboam. Solomon is the subject of many other later references and legends, most notably in the 1st-century apocryphal work known as the Testament of Solomon. In the New Testament, he is portrayed as a teacher of wisdom excelled by Jesus, and as arrayed in glory, but excelled by "the lilies of the field". In later years, in mostly non-biblical circles, Solomon also came to be known as a magician and an exorcist, with numerous amulets and medallion seals dating from the Hellenistic period invoking his name.
A solstice is an event occurring when the Sun appears to reach its most northerly or southerly excursion relative to the celestial equator on the celestial sphere.
A sophist (σοφιστής, sophistes) was a specific kind of teacher in ancient Greece, in the fifth and fourth centuries BC.
Space is the boundless three-dimensional extent in which objects and events have relative position and direction.
In physics, spacetime is any mathematical model that fuses the three dimensions of space and the one dimension of time into a single four-dimensional continuum.
In physics, special relativity (SR, also known as the special theory of relativity or STR) is the generally accepted and experimentally well-confirmed physical theory regarding the relationship between space and time.
The specious present is the time duration wherein one's perceptions are considered to be in the present.
The Standard Model of particle physics is the theory describing three of the four known fundamental forces (the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, and not including the gravitational force) in the universe, as well as classifying all known elementary particles.
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible to Internet users.
A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.
Stephen William Hawking (8 January 1942 – 14 March 2018) was an English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, and author, who was director of research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology at the University of Cambridge at the time of his death.
Stephen Edelston Toulmin (25 March 1922 – 4 December 2009) was a British philosopher, author, and educator.
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
In the physical sciences, subatomic particles are particles much smaller than atoms.
Subjectivity is a central philosophical concept, related to consciousness, agency, personhood, reality, and truth, which has been variously defined by sources.
Substance theory, or substance attribute theory, is an ontological theory about objecthood, positing that a substance is distinct from its properties.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
A sundial is a device that tells the time of day when there is sunlight by the apparent position of the Sun in the sky.
The suprachiasmatic nucleus or nuclei (SCN) is a tiny region of the brain in the hypothalamus, situated directly above the optic chiasm.
A T-square is a technical drawing instrument used by draftsmen primarily as a guide for drawing horizontal lines on a drafting table.
A table is an arrangement of data in rows and columns, or possibly in a more complex structure.
Technics and Time, 1: The Fault of Epimetheus (La technique et le temps, 1: La faute d'Épiméthée) is a book by the French philosopher Bernard Stiegler, first published by Galilée in 1994.
A temporal paradox, time paradox, or time travel paradox is a paradox, an apparent contradiction, or a logical contradiction that is associated with the idea of time and time travel.
A term is a period of duration, time or occurrence, in relation to an event.
Terrestrial Time (TT) is a modern astronomical time standard defined by the International Astronomical Union, primarily for time-measurements of astronomical observations made from the surface of Earth.
The End of Time: The Next Revolution in Our Understanding of the Universe, also sold with the alternate subtitle The Next Revolution in Physics, is a 1999 popular science book in which the author Julian Barbour argues that time exists merely as an illusion.
The New York Times Magazine is a Sunday magazine supplement included with the Sunday edition of The New York Times.
The Singular Universe and the Reality of Time: A Proposal in Natural Philosophy is a non-fiction book by the American theoretical physicist Lee Smolin and the Brazilian philosopher Roberto Mangabeira Unger.
"The Unreality of Time" is the best-known philosophical work of the Cambridge idealist J. M. E. McTaggart (1866–1925).
Three-dimensional space (also: 3-space or, rarely, tri-dimensional space) is a geometric setting in which three values (called parameters) are required to determine the position of an element (i.e., point).
Timaeus (Timaios) is one of Plato's dialogues, mostly in the form of a long monologue given by the title character Timaeus of Locri, written c. 360 BC.
Time is the indefinite continued progress of existence and events that occur in apparently irreversible succession from the past through the present to the future.
Time bind is a concept introduced by sociologist Arlie Russell Hochschild in 1997, in her book, The Time Bind: When Work Becomes Home and Home Becomes Work.
In sociology and anthropology, time discipline is the general name given to social and economic rules, conventions, customs, and expectations governing the measurement of time, the social currency and awareness of time measurements, and people's expectations concerning the observance of these customs by others.
Time in physics is defined by its measurement: time is what a clock reads.
Time management is the process of planning and exercising conscious control of time spent on specific activities, especially to increase effectiveness, efficiency or productivity.
Time perception is a field of study within psychology, cognitive linguistics and neuroscience that refers to the subjective experience, or sense, of time, which is measured by someone's own perception of the duration of the indefinite and unfolding of events.
Time Reborn: From the Crisis in Physics to the Future of the Universe is the fourth non-fiction book by the American theoretical physicist Lee Smolin.
Time travel is the concept of movement between certain points in time, analogous to movement between different points in space by an object or a person, typically using a hypothetical device known as a time machine.
The time value of money is the greater benefit of receiving money now rather than later.
A time zone is a region of the globe that observes a uniform standard time for legal, commercial, and social purposes.
Time-use research is an interdisciplinary field of study dedicated to learning how people allocate their time during an average day.
Fukushima Dai-ichi (dai-ichi means "#1"), is a multi-reactor nuclear power site in the Fukushima Prefecture of Japan.
A timestamp is a sequence of characters or encoded information identifying when a certain event occurred, usually giving date and time of day, sometimes accurate to a small fraction of a second.
In Vedic timekeeping, a tithi (also spelled thithi) is a lunar day, or the time it takes for the longitudinal angle between the Moon and the Sun to increase by 12°.
Travel behavior is the study of what people do over space, and how people use transport.
A tropical year (also known as a solar year) is the time that the Sun takes to return to the same position in the cycle of seasons, as seen from Earth; for example, the time from vernal equinox to vernal equinox, or from summer solstice to summer solstice.
In chronobiology, an ultradian rhythm is a recurrent period or cycle repeated throughout a 24-hour day.
A unit of time or time unit is any particular time interval, used as a standard way of measuring or expressing duration.
The United States Naval Observatory (USNO) is one of the oldest scientific agencies in the United States, with a primary mission to produce Positioning, Navigation and Timing (PNT) for the United States Navy and the United States Department of Defense.
Universal Time (UT) is a time standard based on Earth's rotation.
The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.
Unix time (also known as POSIX time or UNIX Epoch time) is a system for describing a point in time, defined as the number of seconds that have elapsed since 00:00:00 Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), Thursday, 1 January 1970,.
The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent.
The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position with respect to a frame of reference, and is a function of time.
A water clock or clepsydra (Greek κλεψύδρα from κλέπτειν kleptein, 'to steal'; ὕδωρ hydor, 'water') is any timepiece in which time is measured by the regulated flow of liquid into (inflow type) or out from (outflow type) a vessel where the amount is then measured.
The Wheel of time or wheel of history (also known as Kalachakra) is a concept found in several religious traditions and philosophies, notably religions of Indian origin such as Hinduism, Sikhism, and Buddhism, which regard time as cyclical and consisting of repeating ages.
William James (January 11, 1842 – August 26, 1910) was an American philosopher and psychologist, and the first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States.
The world line (or worldline) of an object is the path that object traces in -dimensional spacetime.
A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication.
Zeno of Elea (Ζήνων ὁ Ἐλεάτης) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher of Magna Graecia and a member of the Eleatic School founded by Parmenides.
Zeno's paradoxes are a set of philosophical problems generally thought to have been devised by Greek philosopher Zeno of Elea (c. 490–430 BC) to support Parmenides' doctrine that contrary to the evidence of one's senses, the belief in plurality and change is mistaken, and in particular that motion is nothing but an illusion.
The 2nd millennium BC spanned the years 2000 through 1001 BC.
Around-the-clock, Interval (time), Measurement of Time, Official world time, Physical time, Point in time, Related to Time, Sequence of events, Temporal construct, Time frame, Time interval, Time measurement, Timeframe, World time.