303 relations: Aditya-L1, Advanced Composition Explorer, Akatsuki (spacecraft), Apollo 10, Apollo 11, Apollo 12, Apollo 13, Apollo 14, Apollo 15, Apollo 16, Apollo 17, Apollo 4, Apollo 5, Apollo 7, Apollo 8, Apollo 9, AS-201, Asahi Shimbun, Asteroid, Astrobotic Technology, Astronomical unit, Astrosat, Beagle 2, BepiColombo, BFR (rocket), Callisto (moon), Cassini–Huygens, Chandrayaan-1, Chandrayaan-2, Chang'e 1, Chang'e 2, Chang'e 3, Chang'e 4, Chang'e 5, Chang'e 5-T1, Chang'e 6, China Daily, Clementine (spacecraft), Comet, CONTOUR, Corona, Cosmic background radiation, Dawn (spacecraft), Deep Impact (spacecraft), Deep Space 1, Deep Space 2, Deep Space Climate Observatory, DESTINY+, Discovery and exploration of the Solar System, Earth, ..., Europa (moon), Europa Clipper, European Space Agency, ExoMars (rover), ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter, Exploration Flight Test 1, Exploration Mission 1, Exploration Mission 2, Exploration Mission 3, Exploration of the Moon, Explorer 1, Explorer 33, Explorer 35, Explorer 49, Fobos-Grunt, Galileo (spacecraft), Ganymede (moon), Genesis (spacecraft), Giotto (spacecraft), GRAIL, Halley's Comet, Hayabusa, Hayabusa2, Helios (spacecraft), Herschel Space Observatory, Hinode, Hisaki (satellite), Hiten, Hope Mars Mission, Hubble Space Telescope, Human mission to Mars, Huygens (spacecraft), InSight, Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph, International Cometary Explorer, International Space Station, ISRO Orbital Vehicle, James Webb Space Telescope, Juno (spacecraft), Jupiter, Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer, Jupiter trojan, Kosmos 21, LADEE, Laika, LCROSS, Lincoln Calibration Sphere 1, List of missions to the Moon, List of Solar System probes, Lucy (spacecraft), Luna 1, Luna 10, Luna 11, Luna 12, Luna 13, Luna 14, Luna 15, Luna 16, Luna 17, Luna 18, Luna 19, Luna 2, Luna 20, Luna 21, Luna 22, Luna 23, Luna 24, Luna 25, Luna 26, Luna 27, Luna 28, Luna 3, Luna 4, Luna 5, Luna 6, Luna 7, Luna 8, Luna 9, Luna E-8-5 No. 402, Luna-Glob, Lunar Orbiter 1, Lunar Orbiter 2, Lunar Orbiter 3, Lunar Orbiter 4, Lunar Orbiter 5, Lunar Prospector, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Magellan (spacecraft), Mariner 10, Mariner 2, Mariner 3, Mariner 4, Mariner 5, Mariner 6 and 7, Mariner 9, Mars 1, Mars 2, Mars 2020, Mars 3, Mars 4, Mars 5, Mars 6, Mars 7, Mars 96, Mars Climate Orbiter, Mars Exploration Rover, Mars Express, Mars Global Remote Sensing Orbiter and Small Rover, Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Observer, Mars Orbiter Mission, Mars Pathfinder, Mars Polar Lander, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mars rover, Mars Science Laboratory, Mars Terahertz Microsatellite, Martian Moons Exploration, MAVEN, Mercury-Atlas 6, Mercury-P, Mercury-Redstone 3, MESSENGER, Minor-planet moon, Mir, Moon Express, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, NEAR Shoemaker, Near-Earth object, Neptune, New Frontiers program, New Horizons, Nozomi (spacecraft), Opportunity (rover), Orion (spacecraft), OSIRIS-REx, Out of the Cradle (book), Outer planets, Parker Solar Probe, PAS-22, Philae (spacecraft), Phobos 1, Phobos 2, Phoenix (spacecraft), Picard (satellite), Pioneer 10, Pioneer 11, Pioneer 4, Pioneer 5, Pioneer 6, 7, 8, and 9, Pioneer Venus Multiprobe, Pioneer Venus Orbiter, Pluto, PROCYON, Psyche (spacecraft), PTScientists, Ranger 1, Ranger 2, Ranger 3, Ranger 4, Ranger 5, Ranger 6, Ranger 7, Ranger 8, Ranger 9, Rock comet, Rosetta (spacecraft), Sakigake, Salyut 1, Sample-return mission, Saturn, Schiaparelli EDM lander, SELENE, Shenzhou 5, Skylab, Small satellite, Smart Lander for Investigating Moon, SMART-1, Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, Solar Dynamics Observatory, Solar Orbiter, Space Launch System, Space probe, Space Race, Space telescope, Spacecraft, SpaceX, Spirit (rover), Sputnik 1, Sputnik 2, Stardust (spacecraft), STEREO, Suisei (spacecraft), Surveyor 1, Surveyor 2, Surveyor 3, Surveyor 4, Surveyor 5, Surveyor 6, Surveyor 7, The New York Times, Tiangong program, Timeline of artificial satellites and space probes, Timeline of discovery of Solar System planets and their moons, Timeline of first orbital launches by country, Timeline of space travel by nationality, Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite, Ulysses (spacecraft), Uranus, Van Allen Probes, Van Allen radiation belt, Vanguard 1, Vega 1, Vega 2, Venera 1, Venera 10, Venera 11, Venera 12, Venera 13, Venera 14, Venera 15, Venera 16, Venera 2, Venera 3, Venera 4, Venera 5, Venera 6, Venera 7, Venera 8, Venera 9, Venera-D, Venus Express, Viking 1, Viking 2, Vostok 1, Voyager 1, Voyager 2, WIND (spacecraft), Yinghuo-1, Yohkoh, Zond 1, Zond 2, Zond 3, Zond 4, Zond 5, Zond 6, Zond 7, Zond 8, 16 Psyche, 2001 Mars Odyssey, 21P/Giacobini–Zinner, 4179 Toutatis, 433 Eros. Expand index (253 more) » « Shrink index
Aditya (publisher) or Aditya-L1 is a spacecraft whose mission is to study the Sun.
Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) is a NASA Explorers program Solar and space exploration mission to study matter comprising energetic particles from the solar wind, the interplanetary medium, and other sources.
, also known as the Venus Climate Orbiter (VCO) and Planet-C, is a Japanese (JAXA) space probe tasked to study the atmosphere of Venus.
Apollo 10 was the fourth manned mission in the United States Apollo space program, and the second (after Apollo 8) to orbit the Moon.
Apollo 11 was the spaceflight that landed the first two humans on the Moon.
Apollo 12 was the sixth manned flight in the United States Apollo program and the second to land on the Moon.
Apollo 13 was the seventh manned mission in the Apollo space program and the third intended to land on the Moon.
Apollo 14 was the eighth manned mission in the United States Apollo program, and the third to land on the Moon.
Apollo 15 was the ninth manned mission in the United States' Apollo program, the fourth to land on the Moon, and the eighth successful manned mission.
Apollo 16 was the tenth manned mission in the United States Apollo space program, the fifth and penultimate to land on the Moon and the first to land in the lunar highlands.
Apollo 17 was the final mission of NASA's Apollo program.
Apollo 4, (also known as AS-501), was the first unmanned test flight of the Saturn V launch vehicle, which was used by the U.S. Apollo program to send the first astronauts to the Moon.
Apollo 5 (also known as AS-204), was the first unmanned flight of the Apollo Lunar Module (LM), which would later carry astronauts to the lunar surface.
Apollo 7 was an October 1968 human spaceflight mission carried out by the United States.
Apollo 8, the second manned spaceflight mission in the United States Apollo space program, was launched on December 21, 1968, and became the first manned spacecraft to leave Earth orbit, reach the Earth's Moon, orbit it and return safely to Earth.
Apollo 9 was the third manned mission in the United States Apollo space program and the first flight of the Command/Service Module (CSM) with the Lunar Module (LM, pronounced "lem").
The is one of the five national newspapers in Japan.
Asteroids are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System.
Astrobotic Technology is an American privately held company that is developing space robotics technology for planetary missions.
The astronomical unit (symbol: au, ua, or AU) is a unit of length, roughly the distance from Earth to the Sun.
Astrosat is India's first dedicated multi-wavelength space observatory.
The Beagle 2 was a British Mars lander that was transported by the European Space Agency's 2003 Mars Express mission. It was an astrobiology mission that would have looked for past life on the shallow surface of Mars. The spacecraft was successfully deployed from the Mars Express on 19 December 2003 and was scheduled to land on the surface of Mars on 25 December; however, no contact was received at the expected time of landing on Mars, with the ESA declaring the mission lost in February 2004, after numerous attempts to contact the spacecraft were made. The Beagle 2 fate remained a mystery until January 2015 when it was located intact on the surface of Mars in a series of images from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter HiRISE camera. The images suggest that two of the spacecraft's four solar panels failed to deploy, blocking the spacecraft's communications antenna. The Beagle 2 is named after, the ship used by Charles Darwin.
BepiColombo is a joint mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) to the planet Mercury.
BFR is a privately funded next-generation reusable launch vehicle and spacecraft system developed by SpaceX.
Callisto (Jupiter IV) is the second-largest moon of Jupiter, after Ganymede.
The Cassini–Huygens mission, commonly called Cassini, was a collaboration between NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Italian Space Agency (ASI) to send a probe to study the planet Saturn and its system, including its rings and natural satellites.
Chandrayaan-1 (lit: Moon vehicle) was India's first lunar probe.
Chandrayaan-2 (lang; lit: Moon-vehicle) is India's second lunar exploration mission after Chandrayaan-1.
Chang'e 1 was an unmanned Chinese lunar-orbiting spacecraft, part of the first phase of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program.
Chang'e 2 is a Chinese unmanned lunar probe that was launched on 1 October 2010.
Chang'e 3 is an unmanned lunar exploration mission operated by the China National Space Administration (CNSA), incorporating a robotic lander and China's first lunar rover.
Chang'e 4 is a planned Chinese lunar exploration mission, to be launched in December 2018, that will incorporate an orbiter, a robotic lander and rover.
Chang'e 5 is an unmanned Chinese lunar exploration mission currently under development, forecast for a Moon landing in 2019 after being postponed by the failure in 2017 of the Long March 5 launch vehicle.
Chang'e 5-T1 is an experimental unmanned lunar mission that was launched on 23 October 2014 by the China National Space Administration (CNSA) to conduct atmospheric re-entry tests on the capsule design planned to be used in the Chang'e 5 mission.
Chang'e 6 is an unmanned Chinese lunar exploration mission currently speculated to be under development, which is expected to land on the Moon in 2024.
China Daily is an English-language daily newspaper published in the People's Republic of China.
Clementine (officially called the Deep Space Program Science Experiment (DSPSE)) was a joint space project between the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO, previously the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization, or SDIO) and NASA.
A comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when passing close to the Sun, warms and begins to release gases, a process called outgassing.
The COmet Nucleus TOUR (CONTOUR) was a NASA Discovery-class space probe that failed shortly after its July 2002 launch.
A corona (Latin, 'crown') is an aura of plasma that surrounds the Sun and other stars.
Cosmic background radiation is electromagnetic radiation from the big bang.
Dawn is a space probe launched by NASA in September 2007 with the mission of studying two of the three known protoplanets of the asteroid belt, Vesta and Ceres.
Deep Impact was a NASA space probe launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station at 18:47 UTC on January 12, 2005.
Deep Space 1 (DS1) was a NASA technology demonstration spacecraft which flew by an asteroid and a comet.
Deep Space 2 was a NASA probe part of the New Millennium Program.
Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR; formerly known as Triana, unofficially known as GoreSat) is a NOAA space weather and Earth observation satellite.
DESTINY+ (Demonstration and Experiment of Space Technology for INterplanetary voYage Phaethon fLyby dUSt science) is a planned mission to flyby the meteor shower parent body 3200 Phaethon, as well as various minor bodies originating from the "rock comet".
Discovery and exploration of the Solar System is observation, visitation, and increase in knowledge and understanding of Earth's "cosmic neighborhood".
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Europa or as Ευρώπη (Jupiter II) is the smallest of the four Galilean moons orbiting Jupiter, and the sixth-closest to the planet.
Europa Clipper is an interplanetary mission in development by NASA comprising an orbiter.
The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.
The ExoMars rover is a planned robotic Mars rover, part of the international ExoMars programme led by the European Space Agency and the Russian Roscosmos State Corporation.
The ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) is a collaborative project between the European Space Agency (ESA) and Roscosmos that sent an atmospheric research orbiter and the ''Schiaparelli'' demonstration lander to Mars in 2016 as part of the European-led ExoMars programme.
Exploration Flight Test 1 or EFT-1 (previously known as Orion Flight Test 1 or OFT-1) was the first test flight of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle.
Exploration Mission 1 or EM-1 (previously known as Space Launch System 1 or SLS-1) is the uncrewed first planned flight of the Space Launch System and the second flight of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle.
The Exploration Mission 2, or EM-2, is a scheduled 2023 mission of the Space Launch System and possibly the first crewed mission of NASA's Orion spacecraft.
The Exploration Mission 3, or EM-3, is a planned 2023 mission of the Space Launch System and second crewed mission of NASA's Orion spacecraft.
The physical exploration of the Moon began when Luna 2, a space probe launched by the Soviet Union, made an impact on the surface of the Moon on September 14, 1959.
Explorer 1 was the first satellite of the United States, launched as part of its participation in the International Geophysical Year.
Explorer 33 (also known as AIMP-D, IMP-D, AIMP 1, Anchored IMP 1, Interplanetary Monitoring Platform-D) was a spacecraft in the Explorer program launched by NASA on July 1, 1966 on a mission of scientific exploration.
Explorer 35 (IMP-E, AIMP 2, Anchored IMP 2, Interplanetary Monitoring Platform-E) was a spin-stabilized spacecraft instrumented for interplanetary studies, at lunar distances, of the interplanetary plasma, magnetic field, energetic particles, and solar X rays.
Explorer 49 (also called Radio Astronomy Explorer-B(RAE-B)) was a 328 kilogram satellite launched on June 10, 1973 for long wave radio astronomy research.
Fobos-Grunt or Phobos-Grunt (Фобос-Грунт, literally "Phobos-Ground") was an attempted Russian sample return mission to Phobos, one of the moons of Mars.
Galileo was an American unmanned spacecraft that studied the planet Jupiter and its moons, as well as several other Solar System bodies.
Ganymede (Jupiter III) is the largest and most massive moon of Jupiter and in the Solar System.
Genesis was a NASA sample-return probe that collected a sample of solar wind particles and returned them to Earth for analysis.
Giotto was a European robotic spacecraft mission from the European Space Agency.
The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) was an American lunar science mission in NASA's Discovery Program which used high-quality gravitational field mapping of the Moon to determine its interior structure.
Halley's Comet or Comet Halley, officially designated 1P/Halley, is a short-period comet visible from Earth every 74–79 years.
Hayabusa2 is an asteroid sample-return mission operated by the Japanese space agency, JAXA.
Helios-A and Helios-B (also known as and), are a pair of probes launched into heliocentric orbit for the purpose of studying solar processes.
The Herschel Space Observatory was a space observatory built and operated by the European Space Agency (ESA).
Hinode (ひので,, Sunrise), formerly Solar-B, is a Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency Solar mission with United States and United Kingdom collaboration.
Hisaki, also known as the Spectroscopic Planet Observatory for Recognition of Interaction of Atmosphere (SPRINT-A) is a Japanese ultraviolet astronomy satellite operated by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA).
The Hiten Spacecraft (ひてん), given the English name Celestial Maiden and known before launch as MUSES-A (Mu Space Engineering Spacecraft A), part of the MUSES Program, was built by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science of Japan and launched on January 24, 1990.
The Hope Mars Mission or Emirates Mars Mission (مسبار الأمل) is a space exploration probe mission to Mars, set to be launched by the United Arab Emirates in 2020.
The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a space telescope that was launched into low Earth orbit in 1990 and remains in operation.
A human mission to Mars has been the subject of science fiction, aerospace engineering, and scientific proposals since the 19th century.
Huygens was an atmospheric entry probe that landed successfully on Saturn's moon Titan in 2005.
InSight is a robotic lander designed to study the interior of the planet Mars.
The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS), also called Explorer 94, is a NASA solar observation satellite.
The International Cometary Explorer (ICE) spacecraft (designed and launched as the International Sun-Earth Explorer-3 (ISEE-3) satellite), was launched August 12, 1978, into a heliocentric orbit.
The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.
The Indian manned spacecraft, temporarily named Orbital Vehicle, is intended to be the basis of the Indian human spaceflight program.
The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a space telescope developed in collaboration between NASA, the European Space Agency, and the Canadian Space Agency that will be the scientific successor to the Hubble Space Telescope.
Juno is a NASA space probe orbiting the planet Jupiter.
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.
The JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) is an interplanetary spacecraft in development by the European Space Agency (ESA) with Airbus Defence and Space as the main contractor.
The Jupiter trojans, commonly called Trojan asteroids or just Trojans, are a large group of asteroids that share the planet Jupiter's orbit around the Sun.
Kosmos 21 (Космос 21 meaning Cosmos 21) was a Soviet spacecraft with an unknown mission.
The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) was a NASA lunar exploration and technology demonstration mission.
Laika (Лайка; c. 1954 – 3 November 1957) was a Soviet space dog who became one of the first animals in space, and the first animal to orbit the Earth.
The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) was a robotic spacecraft operated by NASA.
The Lincoln Calibration Sphere 1, or LCS-1, is a large aluminium sphere in Earth orbit since 6 May 1965.
As part of human exploration of the Moon, numerous space missions have been undertaken to study Earth's natural satellite.
This is a list of space probes that have left Earth orbit (or were launched with that intention but failed), organized by their planned destination.
Lucy is a planned NASA space probe that will tour five Jupiter trojans, asteroids which share Jupiter's orbit around the Sun, orbiting either ahead of or behind the planet.
Luna 1, also known as Mechta (Мечта, lit.: Dream), E-1 No.4 and First Lunar Rover, was the first spacecraft to reach the vicinity of the Earth's Moon, and the first spacecraft to be placed in heliocentric orbit.
Luna 10 (E-6S series) was a 1966 Soviet Luna program, robotic spacecraft mission, also called Lunik 10.
Luna 11 (E-6LF series) was an unmanned space mission of the Soviet Union's Luna program.
Luna 12 (E-6LF series) was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program, also called Lunik 12.
Luna 13 (E-6M series) was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program.
Luna 14 (E-6LS series) was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program run by the Soviet Union.
Luna 15 was an unmanned space mission of the Soviet Luna programme.
Luna 16, also known as Lunik 16, was an unmanned space mission, part of the Soviet Luna program.
Luna 17 (Ye-8 series) was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program, also called Lunik 17.
Luna 18, part of the Ye-8-5 series, was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program.
Luna 19 (a.k.a. Lunik 19) (E-8-LS series), was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program.
Luna 2 (E-1A series) or Lunik 2 was the second of the Soviet Union's Luna programme spacecraft launched to the Moon.
Luna 20 was the second of three successful Soviet lunar sample return missions.
Luna 21 (Ye-8 series) was an unmanned space mission, and its spacecraft, of the Luna program, also called Lunik 21, in 1973.
Luna 22 (Ye-8-LS series) was an unmanned space mission, part of the Soviet Luna program, also called Lunik 22.
Luna 23 was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program.
Luna 24 was an unmanned space mission of the Soviet Union's Luna programme.
Luna 25 (Luna-Glob lander Luna-27. The Planetary Society.) is a planned lunar lander mission by the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos).
Luna 26 (Luna-Resurs-Orbiter. Russian Research Institute (IKI). 2017.) is a planned lunar polar orbiter, part of the Luna-Glob program, by the Russian space agency Roscosmos.
Luna 27 (Luna-Resurs lander) Luna-27.
Luna 28 (Luna Resource 2 or Luna-Grunt rover) is a proposed sample-return mission from the south polar region of the Moon.
Luna 3, or E-2A No.1 was a Soviet spacecraft launched in 1959 as part of the Luna programme.
Luna 4, or E-6 No.4 was a Soviet spacecraft launched as part of the Luna program to attempt the first soft landing on the Moon.
Luna 5, or E-6 No.10, was an unmanned Soviet spacecraft intended to land on the Moon as part of the Luna programme.
Luna 6, or E-6 No.7 was an unmanned Soviet spacecraft which was intended to perform a landing on the Moon as part of the Luna program.
Luna 7 (E-6 series) was an unmanned space mission of the Soviet Luna program, also called Lunik 7.
Luna 8 (E-6 series), also known as Lunik 8, was a lunar space probe of the Luna program.
Luna 9 (Луна-9), internal designation Ye-6 No.13, was an unmanned space mission of the Soviet Union's Luna programme.
Luna E-8-5 No.402, also known as Luna Ye-8-5 No.402, and sometimes identified by NASA as Luna 1969C, was a Soviet spacecraft under Luna programme which was lost in a launch failure in 1969.
Luna-Glob (Луна-Глоб, meaning Lunar sphere) is a Moon exploration programme by the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) meant to progress toward the creation of a fully robotic lunar base.
The Lunar Orbiter 1 unmanned robotic spacecraft, part of the Lunar Orbiter Program, was the first American spacecraft to orbit the Moon.
The Lunar Orbiter 2 robotic spacecraft, part of the Lunar Orbiter Program, was designed primarily to photograph smooth areas of the lunar surface for selection and verification of safe landing sites for the Surveyor and Apollo missions.
The Lunar Orbiter 3 was a spacecraft launched by NASA in 1967 as part of the Lunar Orbiter Program.
Lunar Orbiter 4 was an unmanned U.S. spacecraft, part of the Lunar Orbiter Program, designed to orbit the Moon, after the three previous orbiters had completed the required needs for Apollo mapping and site selection.
Lunar Orbiter 5, the last of the Lunar Orbiter series, was designed to take additional Apollo and Surveyor landing site photography and to take broad survey images of unphotographed parts of the Moon's far side.
Lunar Prospector was the third mission selected by NASA for full development and construction as part of the Discovery Program.
The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is a NASA robotic spacecraft currently orbiting the Moon in an eccentric polar mapping orbit.
The Magellan spacecraft, also referred to as the Venus Radar Mapper, was a robotic space probe launched by NASA of the United States, on May 4, 1989, to map the surface of Venus by using synthetic aperture radar and to measure the planetary gravitational field.
Mariner 10 was an American robotic space probe launched by NASA on November 3, 1973, to fly by the planets Mercury and Venus.
Mariner 2 (Mariner-Venus 1962), an American space probe to Venus, was the first robotic space probe to conduct a successful planetary encounter.
Mariner 3 (together with Mariner 4 known as Mariner-Mars 1964) was one of two identical deep-space probes designed and built by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for NASA's Mariner-Mars 1964 project that were intended to conduct close-up (flyby) scientific observations of the planet Mars and transmit information on interplanetary space and the space surrounding Mars, televised images of the Martian surface and radio occultation data of spacecraft signals as affected by the Martian atmosphere back to Earth.
Mariner 4 (together with Mariner 3 known as Mariner–Mars 1964) was the fourth in a series of spacecraft intended for planetary exploration in a flyby mode.
Mariner 5 (Mariner Venus 1967) was a spacecraft of the Mariner program that carried a complement of experiments to probe Venus' atmosphere by radio occultation, measure the hydrogen Lyman-alpha (hard ultraviolet) spectrum, and sample the solar particles and magnetic field fluctuations above the planet.
As part of NASA's wider Mariner program, Mariner 6 and Mariner 7 (Mariner Mars 69A and Mariner Mars 69B) completed the first dual mission to Mars in 1969.
Mariner 9 (Mariner Mars '71 / Mariner-I) was an unmanned NASA space probe that contributed greatly to the exploration of Mars and was part of the Mariner program.
Mars 1 Mars 1, also known as 1962 Beta Nu 1, Mars 2MV-4 and Sputnik 23, was an automatic interplanetary station launched in the direction of Mars on November 1, 1962, the first of the Soviet Mars probe program, with the intent of flying by the planet at a distance of about.
The Mars 2 was an unmanned space probe of the Mars program, a series of unmanned Mars landers and orbiters launched by the Soviet Union May 19, 1971.
Mars 2020 is a Mars rover mission by NASA's Mars Exploration Program with a planned launch in 2020.
Mars 3 was an unmanned space probe of the Soviet Mars program which spanned the years between 1960 and 1973.
Mars 4, also known as 3MS No.52S was a Soviet spacecraft intended to explore Mars.
Mars 5, also known as 3MS No.53S was a Soviet spacecraft launched to explore Mars.
Mars 6, also known as 3MP No.50P was a Soviet spacecraft launched to explore Mars.
Mars 7, also known as 3MP No.51P was a Soviet spacecraft launched to explore Mars.
Mars 96 (sometimes called Mars 8) was a failed Mars mission launched in 1996 to investigate Mars by the Russian Space Forces and not directly related to the Soviet Mars probe program of the same name.
The Mars Climate Orbiter (formerly the Mars Surveyor '98 Orbiter) was a robotic space probe launched by NASA on December 11, 1998 to study the Martian climate, Martian atmosphere, and surface changes and to act as the communications relay in the Mars Surveyor '98 program for Mars Polar Lander.
NASA's Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission is an ongoing robotic space mission involving two Mars rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, exploring the planet Mars.
Mars Express is a space exploration mission being conducted by the European Space Agency (ESA).
The Mars Global Remote Sensing Orbiter, Lander and Small Rover is a planned project by China to deploy a Mars orbiter, lander and rover on Mars.
Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) was an American robotic spacecraft developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and launched November 1996.
The Mars Observer spacecraft, also known as the Mars Geoscience/Climatology Orbiter, was a robotic space probe launched by NASA on September 25, 1992 to study the Martian surface, atmosphere, climate and magnetic field.
The Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM), also called Mangalyaan ("Mars-craft", from मंगल mangala, "Mars" and यान yāna, "craft, vehicle"), is a space probe orbiting Mars since 24 September 2014.
Mars Pathfinder (MESUR Pathfinder) is an American robotic spacecraft that landed a base station with a roving probe on Mars in 1997.
The Mars Polar Lander, also known as the Mars Surveyor '98 Lander, was a 290-kilogram robotic spacecraft lander launched by NASA on January 3, 1999 to study the soil and climate of Planum Australe, a region near the south pole on Mars.
Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) is a multipurpose spacecraft designed to conduct reconnaissance and exploration of Mars from orbit.
A Mars rover is an automated motor vehicle that propels itself across the surface of the planet Mars upon arrival.
Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is a robotic space probe mission to Mars launched by NASA on November 26, 2011, which successfully landed Curiosity, a Mars rover, in Gale Crater on August 6, 2012.
The Mars Terahertz Microsatellite is a planned spacecraft that will be carrying a terahertz sensor to the surface of Mars to measure the oxygen isotope ratios of various molecules in the Martian atmosphere.
The Martian Moons Exploration (MMX) is a robotic space probe set for launch in 2024 to bring back the first samples from Mars' largest moon Phobos.
Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission (MAVEN) is a space probe developed by NASA to study the Martian atmosphere while orbiting Mars.
Mercury-Atlas 6 (MA-6) was the third human spaceflight for the U.S. and part of Project Mercury.
Mercury-P (Меркурий-П) is a mission concept for an orbiter and lander by the Russian Federal Space Agency to study the planet Mercury.
Mercury-Redstone 3, or Freedom 7, was the first United States human spaceflight, on May 5, 1961, piloted by astronaut Alan Shepard.
Messenger (stylized as MESSENGER, whose backronym is "MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging", and which is a reference to the messenger of the same name from Roman mythology) was a NASA robotic spacecraft that orbited the planet Mercury between 2011 and 2015.
A minor-planet moon is an astronomical object that orbits a minor planet as its natural satellite.
Mir (Мир,; lit. peace or world) was a space station that operated in low Earth orbit from 1986 to 2001, operated by the Soviet Union and later by Russia.
Moon Express (MoonEx), is an American privately held early-stage company formed by a group of Silicon Valley and space entrepreneurs, with the goal winning the Google Lunar X Prize, and of ultimately mining the Moon for natural resources of economic value.
The is Japan's primary national research institute for information and communications.
The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous – Shoemaker (NEAR Shoemaker), renamed after its 1996 launch in honor of planetary scientist Eugene Shoemaker, was a robotic space probe designed by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory for NASA to study the near-Earth asteroid Eros from close orbit over a period of a year.
A near-Earth object (NEO) is any small Solar System body whose orbit can bring it into proximity with Earth.
Neptune is the eighth and farthest known planet from the Sun in the Solar System.
The New Frontiers program is a series of space exploration missions being conducted by NASA with the purpose of researching several of the Solar System bodies, including the dwarf planet Pluto.
New Horizons is an interplanetary space probe that was launched as a part of NASA's New Frontiers program.
Nozomi (のぞみ) (Japanese for "Wish" or "Hope," and known before launch as Planet-B) was a planned and launched Mars-orbiting aeronomy probe.
Opportunity, also known as MER-B (Mars Exploration Rover – B) or MER-1, is a robotic rover active on Mars since 2004.
The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (Orion MPCV) is an American interplanetary spacecraft intended to carry a crew of four astronauts to destinations at or beyond low Earth orbit (LEO).
The OSIRIS-REx (Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security, Regolith Explorer) is a NASA asteroid study and sample-return mission.
Out of the Cradle: Exploring the Frontiers beyond Earth is a book written and illustrated by planetary scientist William K. Hartmann, Ron Miller and Pamela Lee.
The outer planets are those planets in the Solar System beyond the asteroid belt, and hence refers to the gas giants and ice giants, which are in order of their distance from the Sun.
Parker Solar Probe (previously Solar Probe, Solar Probe Plus, or Solar Probe+) is a planned NASA robotic spacecraft to probe the outer corona of the Sun.
PAS-22, previously known as AsiaSat 3 and then HGS-1, was a geosynchronous communications satellite, which was salvaged from an unusable geosynchronous transfer orbit by means of the Moon's gravity.
Philae is a robotic European Space Agency lander that accompanied the ''Rosetta'' spacecraft until it separated to land on comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko, ten years and eight months after departing Earth.
Phobos 1 was an unmanned Russian space probe of the Phobos Program launched from the Baikonour launch facility on 7 July 1988.
Phobos 2 was the last space probe designed by the Soviet Union.
Phoenix was a robotic spacecraft on a space exploration mission on Mars under the Mars Scout Program.
PICARD is a satellite dedicated to the simultaneous measurement of the absolute total and spectral solar irradiance, the diameter and solar shape, and to the Sun's interior probing by the helioseismology method.
Pioneer 10 (originally designated Pioneer F) is an American space probe, launched in 1972 and weighing, that completed the first mission to the planet Jupiter.
Pioneer 11 (also known as Pioneer G) is a robotic space probe launched by NASA on April 6, 1973 to study the asteroid belt, the environment around Jupiter and Saturn, solar wind and cosmic rays.
Pioneer 4 was an American spin-stabilized unmanned spacecraft launched as part of the Pioneer program on a lunar flyby trajectory and into a heliocentric orbit making it the first probe of the United States to escape from the Earth's gravity.
Pioneer 5 (also known as Pioneer P-2, and Thor Able 4, and nicknamed the "Paddle-Wheel Satellite") was a spin-stabilized space probe in the NASA Pioneer program used to investigate interplanetary space between the orbits of Earth and Venus.
Pioneer 6, 7, 8, and 9 were space probes in the Pioneer program.
The Pioneer Venus Multiprobe, also known as Pioneer Venus 2 or Pioneer 13 was a spacecraft launched in 1978 to explore Venus as part of NASA's Pioneer program.
The Pioneer Venus Orbiter, also known as Pioneer Venus 1 or Pioneer 12, was a mission to Venus conducted by the United States as part of the Pioneer Venus project.
Pluto (minor planet designation: 134340 Pluto) is a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, a ring of bodies beyond Neptune.
PROCYON (Proximate Object Close flyby with Optical Navigation) was an asteroid flyby space probe that was launched together with Hayabusa2 on 4 December 2014 13:22:04 (JST).
Psyche is a planned orbiter mission that will explore the origin of planetary cores by studying the metallic asteroid.
PTScientists, formerly known as Part-Time Scientists, is a group of volunteer scientists and engineers based in Germany.
Ranger 1 was a prototype spacecraft launched as part of the Ranger program of unmanned space missions.
Ranger 2 was a flight test of the Ranger spacecraft system of the NASA Ranger program designed for future lunar and interplanetary missions.
Ranger 3 was a space exploration mission conducted by NASA to study the Moon.
Ranger 4 was a spacecraft of the Ranger program designed to transmit pictures of the lunar surface to Earth stations during a period of 10 minutes of flight prior to crashing upon the Moon, to rough-land a seismometer capsule on the Moon, to collect gamma-ray data in flight, to study radar reflectivity of the lunar surface, and to continue testing of the Ranger program for development of lunar and interplanetary spacecraft.
Ranger 5 was a spacecraft of the Ranger program designed to transmit pictures of the lunar surface to Earth stations during a period of 10 minutes of flight prior to impacting on the Moon, to rough-land a seismometer capsule on the Moon, to collect gamma-ray data in flight, to study radar reflectivity of the lunar surface, and to continue testing of the Ranger program for development of lunar and interplanetary spacecraft.
Ranger 6 was a lunar probe in the Ranger program, a robotic spacecraft series launched by NASA in the early and mid-1960s to obtain the first close-up images of the Moon's surface.
Ranger 7 was the first space probe of the United States to successfully transmit close images of the lunar surface back to Earth.
Ranger 8 was a lunar probe in the Ranger program, a robotic spacecraft series launched by NASA in the early-to-mid-1960s to obtain the first close-up images of the Moon's surface.
Ranger 9 was a Lunar probe, launched in 1965 by NASA.
A rock comet is a rare type of small Solar System body that exhibits features of both a comet and an asteroid, mainly in that it outgasses material primarily made up of grains of rock.
Rosetta was a space probe built by the European Space Agency launched on 2 March 2004.
, known before launch as MS-T5, was Japan's first interplanetary spacecraft, and the first deep space probe to be launched by any country other than the USA or the Soviet Union.
Salyut 1 (DOS-1) (Салют-1; English translation: Salute 1) was the first space station of any kind, launched into low Earth orbit by the Soviet Union on April 19, 1971.
A sample-return mission is a spacecraft mission with the goal of collecting and returning with tangible samples from an extraterrestrial location to Earth for analysis.
Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter.
Schiaparelli EDM lander was the Entry, Descent and Landing Demonstrator Module (EDM) of the ExoMars programme—a joint mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Russian space agency Roscosmos.
SELENE (Selenological and Engineering Explorer), better known in Japan by its nickname, was the second Japanese lunar orbiter spacecraft following the Hiten probe.
Shenzhou 5 — was the first human spaceflight mission of the Chinese space program, launched on 15 October 2003.
Skylab was the United States' space station that orbited the Earth from 1973 to 1979, when it fell back to Earth amid huge worldwide media attention.
Small satellites, miniaturized satellites, or smallsats, are satellites of low mass and size, usually under.
Smart Lander for Investigating Moon (SLIM) is a lunar lander being developed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA).
SMART-1 was a Swedish-designed European Space Agency satellite that orbited around the Moon.
The Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) is a spacecraft built by a European industrial consortium led by Matra Marconi Space (now Astrium) that was launched on a Lockheed Martin Atlas II AS launch vehicle on December 2, 1995, to study the Sun, and has discovered over 3000 comets.
The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) is a NASA mission which has been observing the Sun since 2010.
Solar Orbiter (SolO) is a planned Sun-observing satellite, under development by the European Space Agency (ESA).
The Space Launch System (SLS) is an American Space Shuttle-derived heavy-lift expendable launch vehicle.
A space probe is a robotic spacecraft that does not orbit the Earth, but, instead, explores further into outer space.
The Space Race refers to the 20th-century competition between two Cold War rivals, the Soviet Union (USSR) and the United States (US), for dominance in spaceflight capability.
A space telescope or space observatory is an instrument located in outer space to observe distant planets, galaxies and other astronomical objects.
A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space.
Space Exploration Technologies Corp., doing business as SpaceX, is a private American aerospace manufacturer and space transportation services company headquartered in Hawthorne, California.
Spirit, also known as MER-A (Mars Exploration Rover – A) or MER-2, is a robotic rover on Mars, active from 2004 to 2010.
Sputnik 1 (or; "Satellite-1", or "PS-1", Простейший Спутник-1 or Prosteyshiy Sputnik-1, "Elementary Satellite 1") was the first artificial Earth satellite.
Sputnik 2 (Спутник-2, Satellite 2), or Prosteyshiy Sputnik 2 (PS-2, italic, Elementary Satellite 2) was the second spacecraft launched into Earth orbit, on 3 November 1957, and the first to carry a living animal, a Soviet space dog named Laika, who died a few hours after the launch.
Stardust was a 390 kilogram robotic space probe launched by NASA on 7 February 1999.
STEREO (Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory) is a solar observation mission.
, originally known as Planet-A, was an unmanned space probe developed by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (now part of the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency, or JAXA).
Surveyor 1 was the first lunar soft-lander in the unmanned Surveyor program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA, United States).
Surveyor 2 was to be the second lunar lander in the unmanned American Surveyor program to explore the Moon.
Surveyor 3 was the third lander of the American uncrewed Surveyor program sent to explore the surface of the Moon.
Surveyor 4 was the fourth lunar lander in the American unmanned Surveyor program sent to explore the surface of the Moon.
Surveyor 5 was the fifth lunar lander of the American unmanned Surveyor program sent to explore the surface of the Moon.
Surveyor 6 was the sixth lunar lander of the American unmanned Surveyor program that reached the surface of the Moon.
Surveyor 7 was the seventh and last lunar lander of the American unmanned Surveyor program sent to explore the surface of the Moon.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Diagram of Tiangong-1 Tiangong is a space station program of the People's Republic of China, with the goal of creating a modular space station, comparable to Mir.
This timeline of artificial satellites and space probes includes unmanned spacecraft including technology demonstrators, observatories, lunar probes, and interplanetary probes.
The timeline of discovery of Solar System planets and their natural satellites charts the progress of the discovery of new bodies over history.
This is a timeline of first orbital launches by country.
Since the first human spaceflight by the Soviet Union, citizens of 40 countries have flown in space.
The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) is a space telescope for NASA's Explorers program, designed to search for exoplanets using the transit method in an area 400 times larger than that covered by the Kepler mission.
Ulysses is a decommissioned robotic space probe whose primary mission was to orbit the Sun and study it at all latitudes.
Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun.
The Van Allen Probes, formerly known as the Radiation Belt Storm Probes, are two robotic spacecraft being used to study the Van Allen radiation belts that surround Earth.
A Van Allen radiation belt is a zone of energetic charged particles, most of which originate from the solar wind, that are captured by and held around a planet by that planet's magnetic field.
Vanguard 1 (ID: 1958-Beta 2) was the fourth artificial Earth orbital satellite to be successfully launched (following Sputnik 1, Sputnik 2, and Explorer 1).
Vega 1 (along with its twin Vega 2) is a Soviet space probe part of the Vega program.
Vega 2 (along with Vega 1) is a Soviet space probe part of the Vega program.
Venera 1 (Венера-1 meaning Venus 1), also known as Venera-1VA No.2 and occasionally in the West as Sputnik 8 was the first spacecraft to fly past Venus, as part of the Soviet Union's Venera programme.
Venera 10 (Венера-10 meaning Venus 10), or 4V-1 No.
The Venera 11 (Венера-11 meaning Venus 11) was a Soviet unmanned space mission part of the Venera program to explore the planet Venus.
The Venera 12 (Венера-12 meaning Venus 12) was a Soviet unmanned space mission to explore the planet Venus.
Venera 13 (Венера-13 meaning Venus 13) was a probe in the Soviet Venera program for the exploration of Venus.
Venera 14 (Венера-14 meaning Venus 14) was a probe in the Soviet Venera program for the exploration of Venus.
Venera 15 (Венера-15 meaning Venus 15) was a spacecraft sent to Venus by the Soviet Union.
Venera 16 (Венера-16 meaning Venus 16) was a spacecraft sent to Venus by the Soviet Union.
Venera 2 (Венера-2 meaning Venus 2), also known as 3MV-4 No.4 was a Soviet spacecraft intended to explore Venus.
Venera 3 (Венера-3 meaning Venus 3) was a Venera program space probe that was built and launched by the Soviet Union to explore the surface of Venus.
Venera 4 (Венера-4 meaning Venus 4), also designated 1V (V-67) s/n 310 was a probe in the Soviet Venera program for the exploration of Venus.
Venera 5 (Венера-5 meaning Venus 5) was a space probe in the Soviet space program ''Venera'' for the exploration of Venus.
Venera 6 (Венера-6 meaning Venus 6), or 2V (V-69) No.331, was a Soviet spacecraft, launched towards Venus to obtain atmospheric data.
Venera 7 (Венера-7, meaning Venus 7) was a Soviet spacecraft, part of the Venera series of probes to Venus.
Venera 8 (Венера-8 meaning Venus 8) was a probe in the Soviet Venera program for the exploration of Venus and was the first robotic space probe to conduct a successful landing on the surface of Venus.
Venera 9 (Венера-9 meaning Venus 9), manufacturer's designation: 4V-1 No.
The Venera-D (Венера-Д) probe is a proposed Russian space probe to Venus, to be launched around 2026.
Venus Express (VEX) was the first Venus exploration mission of the European Space Agency (ESA).
Viking 1 was the first of two spacecraft (along with Viking 2) sent to Mars as part of NASA's Viking program.
The Viking 2 mission was part of the American Viking program to Mars, and consisted of an orbiter and a lander essentially identical to that of the Viking 1 mission.
Vostok 1 (Восто́к, East or Orient 1) was the first spaceflight of the Vostok programme and the first manned spaceflight in history.
Voyager 1 is a space probe launched by NASA on September 5, 1977.
Voyager 2 is a space probe launched by NASA on August 20, 1977, to study the outer planets.
The Global Geospace Science (GGS) Wind satellite is a NASA science spacecraft launched at 04:31:00 EST on November 1, 1994, from launch pad 17B at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) in Merritt Island, Florida aboard a McDonnell Douglas Delta II 7925-10 rocket.
Yinghuo-1 was a Chinese Mars-exploration space probe, intended to be the first Chinese spacecraft to orbit Mars.
Yohkoh (ようこう, Sunbeam in Japanese), known before launch as Solar-A, was a Solar observatory spacecraft of the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (Japan), in collaboration with space agencies in the United States and the United Kingdom. It was launched into Earth orbit on August 30, 1991 by the M-3S-5 rocket from Kagoshima Space Center. It took its first soft X-ray image on September 13, 1991 21:53:40, and movie representations of the X-ray corona over 1991-2001 are available at the.
Zond 1 was a spacecraft of the Soviet Zond program.
Zond 2 was a Soviet space probe, a member of the Zond program, and was the fifth Soviet spacecraft to attempt a flyby of Mars.
Zond 3 was a 1965 space probe which performed a flyby of the Moon far side, taking a number of quality photographs for its time.
Zond 4, part of the Soviet Zond program and an unmanned version of Soyuz 7K-L1 manned Moon-flyby spacecraft, was one of the first Soviet experiments towards manned circumlunar spaceflight.
Zond 5, a member of the Soviet Zond program, was an unmanned spacecraft that in September 1968 became the second ship to travel to and circle the Moon, and the first to return safely to Earth.
Zond 6, a formal member of the Soviet Zond program and unmanned version of Soyuz 7K-L1 manned moon-flyby spacecraft, was launched on a lunar flyby mission from a parent satellite (68-101B) in Earth parking orbit.
Zond 7, a formal member of the Soviet Zond program and unmanned version of Soyuz 7K-L1 manned moon-flyby spacecraft, the first truly successful test of L1, was launched towards the Moon from a mother spacecraft (69-067B) on a mission of further studies of the Moon and circumlunar space, to obtain color photography of Earth and the Moon from varying distances, and to flight test the spacecraft systems.
Zond 8, a formal member of the Soviet Zond program and unmanned version of Soyuz 7K-L1 manned Moon-flyby spacecraft, was launched from an Earth orbiting platform, Tyazheliy Sputnik, towards the Moon.
16 Psyche is one of the ten most massive asteroids in the asteroid belt.
2001 Mars Odyssey is a robotic spacecraft orbiting the planet Mars.
Comet Giacobini–Zinner (official designation: 21P/Giacobini–Zinner) is a periodic comet in the Solar System.
4179 Toutatis, provisional designation, is an elongated, stony asteroid and slow rotator, classified as near-Earth object and potentially hazardous asteroid of the Apollo and Alinda group, approximately 2.5 kilometers in diameter.
433 Eros, provisional designation, is a stony and elongated asteroid of the Amor group and the first discovered and second-largest near-Earth object with a mean-diameter of approximately 16.8 kilometers.