412 relations: 'Ali ibn al-'Abbas al-Majusi, Aaron of Alexandria, Aëtius of Amida, Acupuncture, African trypanosomiasis, Akkadian language, Al-Kindi, Al-Tasrif, Al-Zahrawi, Alchemy, Alcmaeon of Croton, Alexander Fleming, Alexander of Tralles, Alfred G. Gilman, Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari, Alois Alzheimer, Alzheimer's disease, Amato Lusitano, Ambroise Paré, Ammonia, Andreas Vesalius, Androtomy, Anesthetic, Anna Komnene, António Egas Moniz, Anthimus (physician), Anthrax, Antiseptic Principle of the Practice of Surgery, Antitoxin, Antiviral drug, Antonio Benivieni, Antonio Scarpa, Appendectomy, Aretaeus of Cappadocia, Artificial cardiac pacemaker, Artificial heart, Artificial pancreas, Artificial skin, Asclepiades of Bithynia, Asclepius, Ashurbanipal, Astley Cooper, Augustine of Hippo, Aulus Cornelius Celsus, Averroes, Avicenna, Ayurveda, Balloon catheter, Bartholomeus Anglicus, Baruch Samuel Blumberg, ..., Basil of Caesarea, Ben Carson, Benedict of Nursia, Benjamin Bell, Bernard Brodie (biochemist), Beta blocker, Bian Que, Blood transfusion, Blood type, Bloodletting, Botany, Bruce Reitz, Brugsch Papyrus, Byzantine Empire, C. Walton Lillehei, Caelius Aurelianus, Caesarea, Cappadocia, Capsule endoscopy, Cardiopulmonary bypass, Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, Carlo Urbani, Cassiodorus, Cassius Felix, Cataract surgery, Celsus, Cerebellum, Cerebrum, Charaka Samhita, Charles Bell, Chemotherapy, Cholera, Christiaan Barnard, Church of the East, Ciclosporin, Circulatory system, Citrus, Claudius Amyand (surgeon), Clinic, Cloning, Cochlear implant, Code of Hammurabi, Combined oral contraceptive pill, Compendium of Materia Medica, Constantine the African, Coronary circulation, Craniopagus twins, Crawford Long, CT scan, Darius I, David S. Sheridan, De Gradibus, De Materia Medica, Defibrillation, Dialysis, Digitalis, Diocles of Carystus, Diogenes of Apollonia, Diphtheria, DNA microarray, DNA profiling, DNA sequencer, Dolly (sheep), Dominique Jean Larrey, Drug delivery, Ebers Papyrus, Edema, Edessa, Edward Jenner, Edward Mellanby, Edwin Smith Papyrus, Electroactive polymers, Electrocardiography, Electroconvulsive therapy, Electroencephalography, Elizabeth Blackwell, Ellis Reynolds Shipp, Emil von Behring, Empedocles, Empiricism, Encyclopedia, Ephrem the Syrian, Epidural administration, Erasistratus, Ergotism, Ether, Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus, Extracorporeal shockwave therapy, Face transplant, Far-sightedness, Felix Würtz, Fidel Pagés, Frank Pantridge, Frederick Banting, Frederick Gowland Hopkins, Fruit, Galen, Gamow bag, Garcia de Orta, General paresis of the insane, Genetically modified organism, Gentile da Foligno, Gerhard Domagk, Germ theory of disease, Giacomo Pylarini, Girolamo Fracastoro, Glasses, Godfrey Hounsfield, Guillaume Dupuytren, Guy de Chauliac, Hans Berger, Hans Christian Jacobaeus, Harold Ridley (ophthalmologist), Hôtel-Dieu de Paris, Health technology, Hearst papyrus, Heart, Henri de Mondeville, Hepatitis A vaccine, Hepatitis B vaccine, Herbalism, Herodotus, Herophilos, Hesiod, Hieronymus Fabricius, Hip replacement, Hippocrates, Hippocratic Oath, History of medicine, Homeopathy, Homer, Hospital, HPV vaccines, Huangdi Neijing, Huangfu Mi, Human brain, Human Genome Project, Humorism, Humphry Davy, Hunayn ibn Ishaq, Hydrogen chloride, Ibn al-Baitar, Ibn al-Nafis, Ibn Butlan, Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya, Ibn Zuhr, Idomeneus, Ignaz Semmelweis, Imhotep, Immunosuppressive drug, In vitro fertilisation, Inoculation, Insulin, Insulin (medication), Insulin pump, Insulin shock therapy, Intracytoplasmic sperm injection, Intraocular lens, Intrauterine device, Isaac Israeli ben Solomon, Ishaq ibn Hunayn, Isidore of Seville, J. Marion Sims, Jacques Marescaux, James Black (pharmacologist), James Blundell (physician), James Hardy (surgeon), James Lind, Jean-Michel Dubernard, Joannes Actuarius, John Arderne, John Bell (surgeon), John Charnley, John F. Burke, John Hughes Bennett, John Hunter (surgeon), John Woodall, Jonas Salk, Joseph Lister, Joseph Murray, Joseph Priestley, Julian (emperor), Julius Axelrod, Julius Wagner-Jauregg, Kahun Gynaecological Papyrus, Karl Landsteiner, Kary Mullis, Kidney, Knidos, Kos, Ladislas J. Meduna, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, Laparoscopy, LASIK, Latin, Laurent Lantieri, Lens (optics), Leo the Mathematician, Li Shizhen, Liposuction, Liver, Lobotomy, London Medical Papyrus, Lorenz Heister, Louis IX of France, Louis Pasteur, Louis S. Goodman, Lucio Bini, Lung, Magnetic resonance imaging, Manfred Sakel, Mani Lal Bhaumik, Marcus Terentius Varro, Masawaiyh, Matthaeus Platearius, Médecins Sans Frontières, Measles, Medical imaging, Medical ultrasound, Metered-dose inhaler, Michael Psellos, Michael Servetus, Microscope, Mondino de Luzzi, Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi, Mumps, Napoleon, Natural History (Pliny), Near-sightedness, Nervous system, Nestor (mythology), Nineveh, Nitric oxide, Nitrous oxide, Numisianus, Occult, Order of Saint Benedict, Organ transplantation, Oribasius, Oxygen, Pancreas, Pandora, Paracelsus, Paracetamol, Paul Ehrlich, Paul of Aegina, Pedanius Dioscorides, Pediatrics, Penicillin, Pentylenetetrazol, Percivall Pott, Pharmacopoeia, Pharmacy, Philinus of Cos, Philip II of Macedon, Philistion of Locri, Physics of magnetic resonance imaging, Pierre-Joseph Desault, Pietro d'Abano, Pliny the Elder, Polio vaccine, Poliomyelitis, Polydamna, Polymerase chain reaction, Pope Innocent III, Positron emission tomography, Postpartum infections, Praxagoras, Preimplantation genetic diagnosis, Pulmonary circulation, Quintus Gargilius Martialis, Rabies, Rahere, Raymond Damadian, Realdo Colombo, Remote surgery, René Laennec, Richard Wiseman (surgeon), Rickets, Robert Koch, Robot-assisted surgery, Roger Bacon, Rogerius (physician), Rotavirus vaccine, Roy Porter, Royal College of Physicians, Rudolf Virchow, Rufus of Ephesus, Saffron, Saint Fabiola, Samuel Hahnemann, Sasanian Empire, Schola Medica Salernitana, Scurvy, Sergius of Reshaina, Severe acute respiratory syndrome, Shabbethai Donnolo, Shanghan Lun, Sidney Pestka, Simeon Seth, Smallpox, Sophocles, Soranus of Ephesus, St Bartholomew's Hospital, Statin, Stem-cell therapy, Stent, Stereotactic surgery, Stethoscope, Stone Age, Streptococcus, Surgery, Surgical instrument, Sushruta Samhita, Syriac language, Tacuinum Sanitatis, Taddeo Alderotti, Tetanus, Tetracycline, The Canon of Medicine, Thomas Gale (surgeon), Thomas Starzl, Timeline of antibiotics, Timeline of hospitals, Timeline of vaccines, Tissue engineering, Traditional Chinese medicine, Transdermal patch, Tropical medicine, Trotula, Troy, Tuberculosis, Ugo Cerletti, Ultrasound, University, Urine, Vaccination, Vein, Ventouse, Ventricle (heart), Veterinary medicine, Victor Horsley, Visual prosthesis, Vitamin, Vitamin D, Whooping cough, Wilhelm Röntgen, Willem Einthoven, Willem Johan Kolff, William Cheselden, William Clowes (surgeon), William Grey Walter, William Harvey, William of Saliceto, William Withering, Woman's Medical College of Pennsylvania, World Health Organization, X-ray, Yahya ibn Sarafyun, Yellow fever, Zhang Zhongjing, 3D printing. 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'Ali ibn al-'Abbas al-Majusi (died 982–994), also known as Masoudi, or Latinized as Haly Abbas, was a Persian physician and psychologist from the Islamic Golden Age, most famous for the Kitab al-Maliki or Complete Book of the Medical Art, his textbook on medicine and psychology.
Aaron of Alexandria was a physician active in the 7th century.
Aëtius of Amida (Ἀέτιος Ἀμιδηνός; Latin: Aëtius Amidenus; fl. mid-5th century to mid-6th century) was a Byzantine Greek physician and medical writer, particularly distinguished by the extent of his erudition.
Acupuncture is a form of alternative medicine in which thin needles are inserted into the body.
African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness, is an insect-borne parasitic disease of humans and other animals.
Akkadian (akkadû, ak-ka-du-u2; logogram: URIKI)John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages.
Abu Yūsuf Yaʻqūb ibn ʼIsḥāq aṣ-Ṣabbāḥ al-Kindī (أبو يوسف يعقوب بن إسحاق الصبّاح الكندي; Alkindus; c. 801–873 AD) was an Arab Muslim philosopher, polymath, mathematician, physician and musician.
The Kitab at-Tasrif (Arabic: كتاب التصريف لمن عجز عن التأليف) (The Method of Medicine) was an Arabic encyclopedia on medicine and surgery, written near the year 1000 by Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis).
Abū al-Qāsim Khalaf ibn al-‘Abbās al-Zahrāwī al-Ansari (أبو القاسم خلف بن العباس الزهراوي;‎ 936–1013), popularly known as Al-Zahrawi (الزهراوي), Latinised as Abulcasis (from Arabic Abū al-Qāsim), was an Arab Muslim physician, surgeon and chemist who lived in Al-Andalus.
Alchemy is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Africa, Brazil and Asia.
Alcmaeon of Croton (in Magna Graecia) (Ἀλκμαίων ὁ Κροτωνιάτης, Alkmaiōn, gen.: Ἀλκμαίωνος; 5th century BC) has been described as one of the most eminent natural philosophers and medical theorists of antiquity.
Sir Alexander Fleming (6 August 1881 – 11 March 1955) was a Scottish physician, microbiologist, and pharmacologist.
Alexander (Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Τραλλιανός) of Tralles in Lydia (or Alexander Trallianus, c. 525 – c. 605) was one of the most eminent of the ancient physicians.
Alfred Goodman Gilman (July 1, 1941 – December 23, 2015) was an American pharmacologist and biochemist.
Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari (علی ابن سهل ربان طبری) (c. 838 – c. 870 CE; also given as 810–855 or 808–864 also 783–858), was a Persian Muslim scholar, physician and psychologist, who produced one of the first encyclopedia of medicine entitled Firdous al-Hikmah ("Paradise of wisdom").
Aloysius Alzheimer (also known as Alois Alzheimer;;; 14 June 1864 – 19 December 1915) was a German psychiatrist and neuropathologist and a colleague of Emil Kraepelin.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
João Rodrigues de Castelo Branco, better known as Amato Lusitano and Amatus Lusitanus (1511–1568), was a notable Portuguese Jewish physician of the 16th century.
Ambroise Paré (c. 1510 – 20 December 1590) was a French barber surgeon who served in that role for kings Henry II, Francis II, Charles IX and Henry III.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
Andreas Vesalius (31 December 1514 – 15 October 1564) was a 16th-century Flemish anatomist, physician, and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica (On the Fabric of the Human Body).
Androtomy ("dissection of a male" in Ancient Greek) is the dissection of the human body.
An anesthetic (or anaesthetic) is a drug to prevent pain during surgery, completely blocking any feeling as opposed to an analgesic.
Anna Komnene (Ἄννα Κομνηνή, Ánna Komnēnḗ; 1 December 1083 – 1153), commonly latinized as Anna Comnena, was a Byzantine princess, scholar, physician, hospital administrator, and historian.
António Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz (29 November 1874 – 13 December 1955), known as Egas Moniz, was a Portuguese neurologist and the developer of cerebral angiography.
Anthimus (Ἄνθιμος; fl. 511–534) was a Byzantine physician at the court of the Ostrogoth king Theodoric the Great and author of De observatione ciborum ("On the Observance of Foods"), which is a valuable source for Late Latin linguistics as well as Byzantine dietetics.
Anthrax is an infection caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis.
"Antiseptic Principle of the Practice of Surgery" is a paper regarding antiseptics written by Joseph Lister in 1867.
An antitoxin is an antibody with the ability to neutralize a specific toxin.
Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections rather than bacterial ones.
Antonio Benivieni (1443–1502) was a Florentine physician who pioneered the use of the autopsy, a postmortum dissection of a deceased patient's body used to understand the cause of death.
Antonio Scarpa (9 May 1752 – 31 October 1832) was an Italian anatomist and professor.
An appendectomy (known outside the United States as appendisectomy or appendicectomy) is a surgical operation in which the vermiform appendix (a portion of the intestine) is removed.
Aretaeus (Ἀρεταῖος) is one of the most celebrated of the ancient Greek physicians, of whose life, however, few particulars are known.
A pacemaker (or artificial pacemaker, so as not to be confused with the heart's natural pacemaker) is a medical device that generates electrical impulses delivered by electrodes to contract the heart muscles and regulate the electrical conduction system of the heart.
An artificial heart is a device that replaces the heart.
The artificial pancreas is a technology in development to help people with diabetes automatically control their blood glucose level by providing the substitute endocrine functionality of a healthy pancreas.
Artificial skin is a collagen scaffold that induces regeneration of skin in mammals such as humans.
Asclepiades (Ἀσκληπιάδης; c. 124 or 129 – 40 BC), sometimes called Asclepiades of Bithynia or Asclepiades of Prusa, was a Greek physician born at Prusias-on-Sea in Bithynia in Asia Minor and who flourished at Rome, where he established Greek medicine near the end of the 2nd century BC.
Asclepius (Ἀσκληπιός, Asklēpiós; Aesculapius) was a hero and god of medicine in ancient Greek religion and mythology.
Ashurbanipal (Aššur-bāni-apli; ܐܫܘܪ ܒܢܐ ܐܦܠܐ; 'Ashur is the creator of an heir'), also spelled Assurbanipal or Ashshurbanipal, was King of the Neo-Assyrian Empire from 668 BC to c. 627 BC, the son of Esarhaddon and the last strong ruler of the empire, which is usually dated between 934 and 609 BC.
Sir Astley Paston Cooper, 1st Baronet (23 August 176812 February 1841) was a British surgeon and anatomist, who made historical contributions to otology, vascular surgery, the anatomy and pathology of the mammary glands and testicles, and the pathology and surgery of hernia.
Saint Augustine of Hippo (13 November 354 – 28 August 430) was a Roman African, early Christian theologian and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy.
Aulus Cornelius Celsus (25 BC 50 AD) was a Roman encyclopaedist, known for his extant medical work, De Medicina, which is believed to be the only surviving section of a much larger encyclopedia.
Ibn Rushd (ابن رشد; full name; 1126 – 11 December 1198), often Latinized as Averroes, was an Andalusian philosopher and thinker who wrote about many subjects, including philosophy, theology, medicine, astronomy, physics, Islamic jurisprudence and law, and linguistics.
Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.
Ayurveda is a system of medicine with historical roots in the Indian subcontinent.
A balloon catheter is a type of "soft" catheter with an inflatable "balloon" at its tip which is used during a catheterization procedure to enlarge a narrow opening or passage within the body.
Bartholomeus Anglicus (before 1203 – 1272), also known as Bartholomew the Englishman and Berthelet, was an early 13th-century scholastic of Paris, a member of the Franciscan order.
Baruch Samuel Blumberg (July 28, 1925April 5, 2011) — known as Barry Blumberg — was an American physician, geneticist, and co-recipient of the 1976 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (with Daniel Carleton Gajdusek), for his work on the hepatitis B virus while an investigator at the NIH.
Basil of Caesarea, also called Saint Basil the Great (Ἅγιος Βασίλειος ὁ Μέγας, Ágios Basíleios o Mégas, Ⲡⲓⲁⲅⲓⲟⲥ Ⲃⲁⲥⲓⲗⲓⲟⲥ; 329 or 330 – January 1 or 2, 379), was the bishop of Caesarea Mazaca in Cappadocia, Asia Minor (modern-day Turkey).
Benjamin Solomon Carson Sr. (born September 18, 1951) is an American politician, author and former neurosurgeon serving as the 17th and current United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development since 2017, under the Trump Administration.
Benedict of Nursia (Benedictus Nursiae; Benedetto da Norcia; Vulgar Latin: *Benedecto; Benedikt; 2 March 480 – 543 or 547 AD) is a Christian saint, who is venerated in the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Churches, the Oriental Orthodox Churches, the Anglican Communion and Old Catholic Churches.
Benjamin Bell of Hunthill FRSE FRCSEd (6 September 1749 – 5 April 1806) is considered to be the first Scottish scientific surgeon.
Bernard Beryl Brodie (7 August 1907 – 28 February 1989), a leading researcher on drug therapy, is considered by many to be the founder of modern pharmacology and brought the field to prominence in the 1940s and 1950s.
Beta blockers, also written β-blockers, are a class of medications that are particularly used to manage abnormal heart rhythms, and to protect the heart from a second heart attack (myocardial infarction) after a first heart attack (secondary prevention).
Bian Que (also pronounced Pien Chueh, Wade–Giles: Pien Ch'iao; died 310 BC) was, according to legend, the earliest known Chinese physician.
Blood transfusion is generally the process of receiving blood or blood products into one's circulation intravenously.
A blood type (also called a blood group) is a classification of blood based on the presence and absence of antibodies and also based on the presence or absence of inherited antigenic substances on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs).
Bloodletting (or blood-letting) is the withdrawal of blood from a patient to prevent or cure illness and disease.
Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology.
Bruce A. Reitz is a Board Certified Cardiothoracic Surgeon.
The Brugsch Papyrus (Pap. Berl. 3038), also known as the Greater Berlin Papyrus, or simply Berlin Papyrus Following Nunn, the Berlin Papyrus is "sometimes known as the Papyrus Brugsch" (p. 37).
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Clarence Walton "Walt" Lillehei (October 23, 1918 – July 5, 1999), was an American surgeon who pioneered open-heart surgery, as well as numerous techniques, equipment and prostheses for cardiothoracic surgery.
Caelius Aurelianus of Sicca in Numidia was a Roman physician and writer on medical topics.
Caesarea (קֵיסָרְיָה, Kaysariya or Qesarya; قيسارية, Qaysaria; Καισάρεια) is a town in north-central Israel.
Cappadocia (also Capadocia; Καππαδοκία, Kappadokía, from Katpatuka, Kapadokya) is a historical region in Central Anatolia, largely in the Nevşehir, Kayseri, Kırşehir, Aksaray, and Niğde Provinces in Turkey.
Capsule endoscopy is a procedure used to record internal images of the gastrointestinal tract for use in medical diagnosis.
Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is a technique that temporarily takes over the function of the heart and lungs during surgery, maintaining the circulation of blood and the oxygen content of the patient's body.
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an emergency procedure that combines chest compressions often with artificial ventilation in an effort to manually preserve intact brain function until further measures are taken to restore spontaneous blood circulation and breathing in a person who is in cardiac arrest.
Carlo Urbani (Castelplanio, Italy October 19, 1956 – Bangkok, Thailand March 29, 2003) was an Italian doctor and microbiologist and the first to identify severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) as a new and dangerously contagious viral disease.
Flavius Magnus Aurelius Cassiodorus Senator (c. 485 – c. 585), commonly known as Cassiodorus, was a Roman statesman and writer serving in the administration of Theoderic the Great, king of the Ostrogoths.
Cassius Felix, also Cassius Felix of Cirta, was a Roman African medical writer probably native of Constantina.
Cataract surgery is the removal of the natural lens of the eye (also called "crystalline lens") that has developed an opacification, which is referred to as a cataract.
Celsus (Κέλσος. Kélsos) was a 2nd-century Greek philosopher and opponent of early Christianity.
The cerebellum (Latin for "little brain") is a major feature of the hindbrain of all vertebrates.
The cerebrum is a large part of the brain containing the cerebral cortex (of the two cerebral hemispheres), as well as several subcortical structures, including the hippocampus, basal ganglia, and olfactory bulb.
The Charaka Saṃhitā or Compendium of Charaka (Sanskrit चरक संहिता IAST: caraka-saṃhitā) is a Sanskrit text on Ayurveda (Indian traditional medicine).
Sir Charles Bell (12 November 177428 April 1842) was a Scottish surgeon, anatomist, physiologist, neurologist, artist, and philosophical theologian.
Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
Christiaan Neethling Barnard (8 November 1922 – 2 September 2001) was a South African cardiac surgeon who performed the world's first human-to-human heart transplant on 3 December 1967 at Groote Schuur Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa.
The Church of the East (ܥܕܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ Ēdṯāʾ d-Maḏenḥā), also known as the Nestorian Church, was an Eastern Christian Church with independent hierarchy from the Nestorian Schism (431–544), while tracing its history to the late 1st century AD in Assyria, then the satrapy of Assuristan in the Parthian Empire.
Ciclosporin, also spelled cyclosporine and cyclosporin, is an immunosuppressant medication and natural product.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Citrus is a genus of flowering trees and shrubs in the rue family, Rutaceae.
Claudius Amyand (c. 1660 – 6 July 1740) was a French born surgeon who performed the first recorded successful appendectomy.
A clinic (or outpatient clinic or ambulatory care clinic) is a healthcare facility that is primarily focused on the care of outpatients.
Cloning is the process of producing genetically identical individuals of an organism either naturally or artificially.
A cochlear implant (CI) is a surgically implanted electronic device that provides a sense of sound to a person with severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss in both ears.
The Code of Hammurabi is a well-preserved Babylonian code of law of ancient Mesopotamia, dated back to about 1754 BC (Middle Chronology).
The combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP), often referred to as the birth control pill or colloquially as "the pill", is a type of birth control that is designed to be taken orally by women.
The Compendium of Materia Medica (also known by the romanizations Bencao Gangmu or Pen-tsao Kang-mu) is a Chinese herbology volume written by Li Shizhen during the Ming dynasty; its first draft was completed in 1578.
Constantine the African (Constantinus Africanus; died before 1098/1099, Monte Cassino) was a physician who lived in the 11th century.
Coronary circulation is the circulation of blood in the blood vessels of the heart muscle (myocardium).
Craniopagus twins are conjoined twins that are fused at the cranium.
Crawford Williamson Long (November 1, 1815 – June 16, 1878) was an American surgeon and pharmacist best known for his first use of inhaled sulfuric ether as an anesthetic.
A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.
Darius I (Old Persian: Dārayava(h)uš, New Persian: rtl Dāryuš;; c. 550–486 BCE) was the fourth king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire.
David S. Sheridan (10 July 1908, Brooklyn – 29 April 2004, Argyle, New York) was the inventor of the "disposable" plastic endotracheal tube.
De Gradibus was an Arabic book published by the Arab physician Al-Kindi (c. 801–873 CE).
De Materia Medica (Latin name for the Greek work Περὶ ὕλης ἰατρικῆς, Peri hulēs iatrikēs, both meaning "On Medical Material") is a pharmacopoeia of herbs and the medicines that can be obtained from them.
Defibrillation is a treatment for life-threatening cardiac dysrhythmias, specifically ventricular fibrillation (VF) and non-perfusing ventricular tachycardia (VT).
In medicine, dialysis (from Greek διάλυσις, diàlysis, "dissolution"; from διά, dià, "through", and λύσις, lỳsis, "loosening or splitting") is the process of removing excess water, solutes and toxins from the blood in those whose native kidneys have lost the ability to perform these functions in a natural way.
Digitalis is a genus of about 20 species of herbaceous perennials, shrubs, and biennials commonly called foxgloves.
Diocles of Carystus (Διοκλῆς ὁ Καρύστιος; Diocles Carystius; also known by the Latin name Diocles Medicus, i.e. "Diocles the physician"; c. 375 BC – c. 295 BC) was a well regarded Greek physician, born in Carystus, a city on Euboea, Greece.
Diogenes of Apollonia (Διογένης ὁ Ἀπολλωνιάτης; fl. 5th century BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, and was a native of the Milesian colony Apollonia in Thrace.
Diphtheria is an infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae.
A DNA microarray (also commonly known as DNA chip or biochip) is a collection of microscopic DNA spots attached to a solid surface.
DNA profiling (also called DNA fingerprinting, DNA testing, or DNA typing) is the process of determining an individual's DNA characteristics, which are as unique as fingerprints.
A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process.
Dolly (5 July 1996 – 14 February 2003) was a female domestic sheep, and the first mammal cloned from an adult somatic cell, using the process of nuclear transfer.
Dominique Jean Larrey (8 July 1766 – 25 July 1842) was a French surgeon in Napoleon's Grande Armée and an important innovator in battlefield medicine and triage.
Drug delivery refers to approaches, formulations, technologies, and systems for transporting a pharmaceutical compound in the body as needed to safely achieve its desired therapeutic effect.
The Ebers Papyrus, also known as Papyrus Ebers, is an Egyptian medical papyrus of herbal knowledge dating to circa 1550 BC.
Edema, also spelled oedema or œdema, is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitium, located beneath the skin and in the cavities of the body, which can cause severe pain.
Edessa (Ἔδεσσα; الرها ar-Ruhā; Şanlıurfa; Riha) was a city in Upper Mesopotamia, founded on an earlier site by Seleucus I Nicator ca.
Edward Jenner, FRS FRCPE (17 May 1749 – 26 January 1823) was an English physician and scientist who was the pioneer of smallpox vaccine, the world's first vaccine.
Sir Edward Mellanby (8 April 1884 – 30 January 1955) discovered vitamin D and its role in preventing rickets in 1919.
The Edwin Smith Papyrus is an ancient Egyptian medical text, named after the dealer who bought it in 1862, and the oldest known surgical treatise on trauma.
Electroactive polymers, or EAPs, are polymers that exhibit a change in size or shape when stimulated by an electric field.
Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG) is the process of recording the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time using electrodes placed on the skin.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), formerly known as electroshock therapy, and often referred to as shock treatment, is a psychiatric treatment in which seizures are electrically induced in patients to provide relief from mental disorders.
Electroencephalography (EEG) is an electrophysiological monitoring method to record electrical activity of the brain.
Elizabeth Blackwell (3 February 1821 – 31 May 1910) was a British physician, notable as the first woman to receive a medical degree in the United States and the first woman on the Medical Register of the General Medical Council.
Ellis Reynolds Shipp MD FAAP (January 20, 1847 – January 31, 1939) was one of the first female doctors in Utah and west of the Mississippi.
Emil von Behring (Emil Adolf von Behring), born as Emil Adolf Behring (15 March 1854 – 31 March 1917), was a German physiologist who received the 1901 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, the first one awarded, for his discovery of a diphtheria antitoxin.
Empedocles (Ἐμπεδοκλῆς, Empedoklēs) was a Greek pre-Socratic philosopher and a citizen of Akragas, a Greek city in Sicily.
In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.
An encyclopedia or encyclopaedia is a reference work or compendium providing summaries of information from either all branches of knowledge or from a particular field or discipline.
Ephrem the Syrian (ܡܪܝ ܐܦܪܝܡ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ Mār Aprêm Sûryāyâ; Greek: Ἐφραίμ ὁ Σῦρος; Ephraem Syrus, also known as St. Ephraem (Ephrem, Ephraim); c. 306 – 373) was a Syriac Christian deacon and a prolific Syriac-language hymnographer and theologian of the 4th century.
Epidural administration (from Ancient Greek ἐπί, "on, upon" + dura mater) is a medical route of administration in which a drug such as epidural analgesia and epidural anaesthesia or contrast agent is injected into the epidural space around the spinal cord.
Erasistratus (Ἐρασίστρατος; c. 304 – c. 250 BC) was a Greek anatomist and royal physician under Seleucus I Nicator of Syria.
Ergotism (pron.) is the effect of long-term ergot poisoning, traditionally due to the ingestion of the alkaloids produced by the Claviceps purpurea fungus that infects rye and other cereals, and more recently by the action of a number of ergoline-based drugs.
Ethers are a class of organic compounds that contain an ether group—an oxygen atom connected to two alkyl or aryl groups.
Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus (Latin for "An Anatomical Exercise on the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Living Beings"), commonly called De Motu Cordis, is the best-known work of the physician William Harvey.
Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) is a treatment mostly used to treat kidney stones and in physical therapy and orthopedics.
A face transplant is a medical procedure to replace all or part of a person's face using tissue from a cadaver.
Far-sightedness, also known as hyperopia, is a condition of the eye in which light is focused behind, instead of on, the retina.
Felix Würtz was a surgeon of the 16th century.
Fidel Pagés Miravé (January 26, 1886 – September 21, 1923) was a Spanish military surgeon, known for developing the technique of epidural anesthesia.
Professor James Francis "Frank" Pantridge, CBE, MC, MD, (3 October 1916 – 26 December 2004) was a physician and cardiologist from Northern Ireland who transformed emergency medicine and paramedic services with the invention of the portable defibrillator.
Sir Frederick Grant Banting (November 14, 1891 – February 21, 1941) was a Canadian medical scientist, physician, painter, and Nobel laureate noted as the co-discoverer of insulin and its therapeutic potential.
Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins (20 June 1861 – 16 May 1947) was an English biochemist who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1929, with Christiaan Eijkman, for the discovery of vitamins, even though Casimir Funk, a Polish biochemist, is widely credited with discovering vitamins.
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering.
Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.
A Gamow bag (pronounced Gam-Off) is an inflatable pressure bag large enough to accommodate a person inside.
Garcia de Orta (or Garcia d'Orta) (1501? – 1568) was a Portuguese Renaissance Sephardi Jewish physician, herbalist and naturalist.
General paresis, also known as general paralysis of the insane or paralytic dementia, is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder, classified as an organic mental disorder and caused by the chronic meningoencephalitis that leads to cerebral atrophy in late-stage syphilis.
A genetically modified organism (GMO) is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques (i.e., a genetically engineered organism).
Gentile Gentili da Foligno (died 18 June 1348) was an Italian professor and doctor of medicine, trained at Padua and the University of Bologna, and teaching probably first at Bologna, then at the University of Perugia, Siena (1322-24), where his annual stipend was 60 gold florins; he was called to Padua (1325-35) by Ubertino I da Carrara, Lord of Padua, then returned to Perugia for the remainder of his career.
Gerhard Johannes Paul Domagk (30 October 1895 – 24 April 1964) was a German pathologist and bacteriologist.
The germ theory of disease is the currently accepted scientific theory of disease.
Giacomo Pylarini (Jacob) (1659–1718) was a Venetian physician and consul for the republic of Venice in Smyrna who in 1701 on the children of the English ambassador to Constantinople, gave the first smallpox inoculation outside of Asia.
Girolamo Fracastoro (Hieronymus Fracastorius; c. 1476/86 August 1553) was an Italian physician, poet, and scholar in mathematics, geography and astronomy.
Glasses, also known as eyeglasses or spectacles, are devices consisting of glass or hard plastic lenses mounted in a frame that holds them in front of a person's eyes, typically using a bridge over the nose and arms which rest over the ears.
Sir Godfrey Newbold Hounsfield, CBE, FRS, (28 August 1919 – 12 August 2004) was an English electrical engineer who shared the 1979 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine with Allan McLeod Cormack for his part in developing the diagnostic technique of X-ray computed tomography (CT).
Baron Guillaume Dupuytren (5 October 1777 – 8 February 1835) was a French anatomist and military surgeon.
Guy de Chauliac, also called Guido or Guigo de Cauliaco (c. 1300 – 25 July 1368), was a French physician and surgeon who wrote a lengthy and influential treatise on surgery in Latin, titled Chirurgia Magna.
Hans Berger (21 May 1873 – 1 June 1941) was a German psychiatrist.
Hans Christian Jacobaeus (29 May 1879 – 29 October 1937) was a Swedish internist born in Skarhult.
Sir Nicholas Harold Lloyd Ridley (10 July 1906, Kibworth Harcourt, Leicestershire – 25 May 2001, Salisbury, Wiltshire) was an English ophthalmologist who invented the intraocular lens and pioneered intraocular lens surgery for cataract patients.
The Hôtel-Dieu de Paris founded by Saint Landry in 651 AD is the oldest hospital in the city of Paris, France, and is the most central of the Assistance publique - hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP) hospitals.
Health technology is defined by the World Health Organization as the application of organized knowledge and skills in the form of devices, medicines, vaccines, procedures and systems developed to solve a health problem and improve quality of life.
The Hearst Papyrus, also called the Hearst Medical Papyrus, is one of the medical papyri of ancient Egypt.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
Henri de Mondeville (c. 1260 – 1316), a medieval Frenchman, has been claimed as the "Father of French Surgery".
Hepatitis A vaccine is a vaccine that prevents hepatitis A. It is effective in around 95% of cases and lasts for at least fifteen years and possibly a person's entire life.
Hepatitis B vaccine is a vaccine that prevents hepatitis B. The first dose is recommended within 24 hours of birth with either two or three more doses given after that.
Herbalism (also herbal medicine or phytotherapy) is the study of botany and use of plants intended for medicinal purposes or for supplementing a diet.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
Herophilos (Ἡρόφιλος; 335–280 BC), sometimes Latinised Herophilus, was a Greek physician deemed to be the first anatomist.
Hesiod (or; Ἡσίοδος Hēsíodos) was a Greek poet generally thought by scholars to have been active between 750 and 650 BC, around the same time as Homer.
Hieronymus Fabricius or Girolamo Fabrizio, known also by his full Latin and Italian names, Fabricius ab Aquapendente or Girolamo Fabrizi d'Acquapendente, (20 May 1537 – 21 May 1619) was a pioneering anatomist and surgeon known in medical science as "The Father of Embryology.".
Hip replacement is a surgical procedure in which the hip joint is replaced by a prosthetic implant, that is, a hip prosthesis.
Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.
The Hippocratic Oath is an oath historically taken by physicians.
The history of medicine shows how societies have changed in their approach to illness and disease from ancient times to the present.
Homeopathy or homœopathy is a system of alternative medicine developed in 1796 by Samuel Hahnemann, based on his doctrine of like cures like (similia similibus curentur), a claim that a substance that causes the symptoms of a disease in healthy people would cure similar symptoms in sick people.
Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.
A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialized medical and nursing staff and medical equipment.
Human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccines are vaccines that prevent infection by certain types of human papillomavirus.
Huangdi Neijing, literally the Inner Canon of the Yellow Emperor or Esoteric Scripture of the Yellow Emperor, is an ancient Chinese medical text that has been treated as the fundamental doctrinal source for Chinese medicine for more than two millennia.
Huangfu Mi (215–282) was a Chinese scholar and physician who lived through the late Eastern Han dynasty, Three Kingdoms period and early Western Jin dynasty.
The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system.
The Human Genome Project (HGP) was an international scientific research project with the goal of determining the sequence of nucleotide base pairs that make up human DNA, and of identifying and mapping all of the genes of the human genome from both a physical and a functional standpoint.
Humorism, or humoralism, was a system of medicine detailing the makeup and workings of the human body, adopted by Ancient Greek and Roman physicians and philosophers, positing that an excess or deficiency of any of four distinct bodily fluids in a person—known as humors or humours—directly influences their temperament and health.
Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet (17 December 177829 May 1829) was a Cornish chemist and inventor, who is best remembered today for isolating, using electricity, a series of elements for the first time: potassium and sodium in 1807 and calcium, strontium, barium, magnesium and boron the following year, as well as discovering the elemental nature of chlorine and iodine.
Hunayn ibn Ishaq al-Ibadi (also Hunain or Hunein) (أبو زيد حنين بن إسحاق العبادي;, Iohannitius, ܚܢܝܢ ܒܪ ܐܝܣܚܩ) (809 – 873) was an influential Arab Nestorian Christian translator, scholar, physician, and scientist.
The compound hydrogen chloride has the chemical formula and as such is a hydrogen halide.
Ḍiyāʾ Al-Dīn Abū Muḥammad ʿAbdllāh Ibn Aḥmad al-Mālaqī, commonly known as Ibn al-Bayṭār (1197–1248 AD) was an Andalusian Arab pharmacist, botanist, physician and scientist.
Ala-al-din abu Al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi (Arabic: علاء الدين أبو الحسن عليّ بن أبي حزم القرشي الدمشقي), known as Ibn al-Nafis (Arabic: ابن النفيس), was an Arab physician mostly famous for being the first to describe the pulmonary circulation of the blood.
Ibn Butlan (ابن بطلان; 1038, 1075) was an Arab Nestorian Christian physician who was active in Baghdad during the Islamic Golden Age.
Shams al-Dīn Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Abī Bakr ibn Ayyūb al-Zurʿī l-Dimashqī l-Ḥanbalī (1292–1350 CE / 691 AH–751 AH), commonly known as Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya ("The son of the principal of Jawziyyah") or Ibn al-Qayyim ("Son of the principal"; ابن قيم الجوزية) for short, or reverentially as Imam Ibn al-Qayyim in Sunni tradition, was an important medieval Islamic jurisconsult, theologian, and spiritual writer.
Ibn Zuhr (ابن زهر; 1094–1162), traditionally known by his Latinized name of Avenzoar, was an Arab physician, surgeon, and poet.
In Greek mythology, Idomeneus (Ἰδομενεύς) was a Cretan commander, father of Orsilochus, Cleisithyra and Iphiclus, son of Deucalion and Cleopatra, grandson of Minos and king of Crete.
Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis (Semmelweis Ignác Fülöp; 1 July 1818 – 13 August 1865) was a Hungarian physician of ethnic-German ancestry, now known as an early pioneer of antiseptic procedures.
Imhotep (Egyptian: ỉỉ-m-ḥtp *jā-im-ḥātap, in Unicode hieroglyphs: 𓇍𓅓𓊵:𓏏*𓊪, "the one who comes in peace"; fl. late 27th century BC) was an Egyptian chancellor to the pharaoh Djoser, probable architect of the step pyramid, and high priest of the sun god Ra at Heliopolis.
Immunosuppressive drugs or immunosuppressive agents or antirejection medications are drugs that inhibit or prevent activity of the immune system.
In vitro fertilisation (IVF) is a process of fertilisation where an egg is combined with sperm outside the body, in vitro ("in glass").
The terms inoculation, vaccination and immunization are often used synonymously to refer to artificial induction of immunity against various infectious diseases.
Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.
Insulin is a protein hormone that is used as a medication to treat high blood glucose.
An insulin pump is a medical device used for the administration of insulin in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, also known as continuous subcutaneous insulin therapy.
Insulin shock therapy or insulin coma therapy (ICT) was a form of psychiatric treatment in which patients were repeatedly injected with large doses of insulin in order to produce daily comas over several weeks.
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is an in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedure in which a single sperm cell is injected directly into the cytoplasm of an egg.
Intraocular lens (IOL) is a lens implanted in the eye as part of a treatment for cataracts or myopia.
An intrauterine device (IUD), also known as intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD or ICD) or coil, is a small, often T-shaped birth control device that is inserted into a woman's uterus to prevent pregnancy.
Isaac Israeli ben Solomon (Hebrew: Yitzhak ben Shlomo ha-Yisraeli; Arabic: Abu Ya'qub Ishaq ibn Suleiman al-Isra'ili) (c. 832 – c. 932), also known as Isaac Israeli the Elder and Isaac Judaeus, was one of the foremost Arab Jewish physicians and philosophers of his time.
Abū Yaʿqūb Isḥāq ibn Ḥunayn (إسحاق بن حنين) (c. 830 Baghdad, – c. 910-1) was an influential Arab physician and translator, known for writing the first biography of physicians in the Arabic language.
Saint Isidore of Seville (Isidorus Hispalensis; c. 560 – 4 April 636), a scholar and, for over three decades, Archbishop of Seville, is widely regarded as the last of the Fathers of the Church, as the 19th-century historian Montalembert put it in an oft-quoted phrase, "The last scholar of the ancient world." At a time of disintegration of classical culture, and aristocratic violence and illiteracy, he was involved in the conversion of the Arian Visigothic kings to Catholicism, both assisting his brother Leander of Seville, and continuing after his brother's death.
James Marion Sims (January 25, 1813 – November 13, 1883) was an American physician and a pioneer in the field of surgery, known as the "father of modern gynecology".
Jacques Marescaux (born August 8, 1948) is a French doctor of international renown.
Sir James Whyte Black (14 June 1924 – 22 March 2010) was a Scottish physician and pharmacologist.
James Blundell (27 December 1790 Holborn, London – 15 January 1878 St George Hanover Square, London) was an English obstetrician who performed the first successful transfusion of human blood to a patient for treatment of a haemorrhage.
James D. Hardy (May 14, 1918 – February 19, 2003) was a United States surgeon who performed the world's first lung transplant with patient John Russell living for 18 days.
James Lind (4 October 1716 – 13 July 1794) was a Scottish physician.
Jean-Michel Dubernard (born 17 May 1941 in Lyon) is a medical doctor specializing in transplant surgery, as well as a former Deputy in the French National Assembly.
Johannes Zacharias Actuarius (c. 1275 – c. 1328), son of Zacharias, was a Byzantine physician in Constantinople.
John Arderne (1307–1392) was an English surgeon, and one of the first of his time to devise some workable cures.
John Bell (12 May 176315 April 1820) was a Scottish anatomist and surgeon.
Sir John Charnley, (29 August 1911 – 5 August 1982) was a British orthopaedic surgeon.
John F. Burke (July 22, 1922 – 2011) was an American medical researcher at Harvard University widely known for his co-invention of synthetic skin in 1981, together with Dr.
John Hughes Bennett PRCPE FRSE (31 August 1812 – 25 September 1875) was an English physician, physiologist and pathologist.
John Hunter (13 February 1728 – 16 October 1793) was a Scottish surgeon, one of the most distinguished scientists and surgeons of his day.
John Woodall (1570–1643) was an English military surgeon, Paracelsian chemist, businessman, linguist and diplomat.
Jonas Edward Salk (October 28, 1914June 23, 1995) was an American medical researcher and virologist.
Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister, (5 April 182710 February 1912), known between 1883 and 1897 as Sir Joseph Lister, Bt., was a British surgeon and a pioneer of antiseptic surgery.
Joseph Edward Murray (April 1, 1919 – November 26, 2012) was an American plastic surgeon who performed the first successful human kidney transplant on identical twins Richard and Ronald Herrick on December 23, 1954.
Joseph Priestley FRS (– 6 February 1804) was an 18th-century English Separatist theologian, natural philosopher, chemist, innovative grammarian, multi-subject educator, and liberal political theorist who published over 150 works.
Julian (Flavius Claudius Iulianus Augustus; Φλάβιος Κλαύδιος Ἰουλιανὸς Αὔγουστος; 331/332 – 26 June 363), also known as Julian the Apostate, was Roman Emperor from 361 to 363, as well as a notable philosopher and author in Greek.
Julius Axelrod (May 30, 1912 – December 29, 2004) was an American biochemist.
Julius Wagner-Jauregg (7 March 1857 – 27 September 1940) was an Austrian physician, who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1927, and is the only psychiatrist to have done so.
The Kahun Gynaecological Papyrus (also Petrie Medical Papyrus, Kahun Medical Papyrus, Lahun Medical Papyrus, or UC32057) is the oldest known medical text in Egypt, although not the oldest in the world as in Philadelphia museum a Sumerian medical clay tablet from 3rd millennium is preserved.
Karl Landsteiner,, (June 14, 1868 – June 26, 1943) was an Austrian biologist, physician, and immunologist.
Kary Banks Mullis (born December 28, 1944) is a Nobel Prize-winning American biochemist.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
Knidos or Cnidus (Κνίδος) was an ancient Greek city of Caria and part of the Dorian Hexapolis, in south-western Asia Minor, modern-day Turkey.
Kos or Cos (Κως) is a Greek island, part of the Dodecanese island chain in the southeastern Aegean Sea, off the Anatolian coast of Turkey.
Ladislas Joseph Meduna (27 March 1896 – 31 October 1964), the Hungarian psychiatrist and neuropathologist, chemically induced grand mal epileptic seizures as treatment for schizophrenia.
Lady Mary Wortley Montagu (baptised 26 May 1689 – 21 August 1762) (née Pierrepont) was an English aristocrat, letter writer and poet.
Laparoscopy is an operation performed in the abdomen or pelvis through small incisions (usually 0.5–1.5 cm) with the aid of a camera.
LASIK or Lasik (laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis), commonly referred to as laser eye surgery or laser vision correction, is a type of refractive surgery for the correction of myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Professor Laurent Lantieri, M.D. is a French plastic surgeon who is a pioneer in the field of face transplantation.
A lens is a transmissive optical device that focuses or disperses a light beam by means of refraction.
Leo the Mathematician or the Philosopher (Λέων ὁ Μαθηματικός or ὁ Φιλόσοφος, Léōn ho Mathēmatikós or ho Philósophos; c. 790 – after 869) was a Byzantine philosopher and logician associated with the Macedonian Renaissance and the end of Iconoclasm.
Li Shizhen (July 3, 1518 – 1593), courtesy name Dongbi, was a Chinese polymath, physician, scientist, pharmacologist, herbalist and acupuncturist of the Ming dynasty.
Liposuction, or simply lipo, is a type of cosmetic surgery that removes fat from the human body in an attempt to change its shape.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Lobotomy, also known as leucotomy, is a neurosurgical and form of psychosurgery. Operation that involves severing connections in the brain's prefrontal lobe.
The London Medical Papyrus is an ancient Egyptian papyrus in the British Museum, London, England.
Lorenz Heister (Latin: Laurentius Heister) (19 September 1683 – 18 April 1758) was a German anatomist, surgeon and botanist born in Frankfurt am Main.
Louis IX (25 April 1214 – 25 August 1270), commonly known as Saint Louis, was King of France and is a canonized Catholic and Anglican saint.
Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French biologist, microbiologist and chemist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization.
Louis Sanford Goodman (August 27, 1906 – November 19, 2000) was an American pharmacologist.
Lucio Bini (1908–1964) was an Italian psychiatrist and professor at the University of Rome La Sapienza, Italy.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.
Manfred Joshua Sakel (June 6, 1900 – December 2, 1957) was an Austrian-Jewish (later Austrian-American) neurophysiologist and psychiatrist, credited with developing insulin shock therapy in 1927.
Mani Lal Bhaumik is an Indian-born American physicist and a bestselling author.
Marcus Terentius Varro (116 BC – 27 BC) was an ancient Roman scholar and writer.
Yuhanna ibn Masawaih (circa 777–857), (يوحنا بن ماسويه), also written Ibn Masawaih, Masawaiyh, and in Latin Mesue, Masuya, Mesue Major, Msuya, and Mesue the Elder was a Persian or Assyrian Nestorian Christian physician from the Academy of Gundishapur.
Matthaeus Platearius was a physician from the medical school at Salerno, and is thought to have produced a twelfth-century Latin manuscript on medicinal herbs titled "Circa Instans" (also known as "The Book of Simple Medicines"), later translated into French as "Le Livre des simples medecines".
Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF; pronounced), also known in English as Doctors Without Borders, is an international humanitarian medical non-governmental organisation (NGO) of French origin best known for its projects in conflict zones and in countries affected by endemic diseases.
Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the measles virus.
Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology).
Medical ultrasound (also known as diagnostic sonography or ultrasonography) is a diagnostic imaging technique based on the application of ultrasound.
A metered-dose inhaler (MDI) is a device that delivers a specific amount of medication to the lungs, in the form of a short burst of aerosolized medicine that is usually self-administered by the patient via inhalation.
Michael Psellos or Psellus (translit; Michaël Psellus) was a Byzantine Greek monk, savant, writer, philosopher, politician and historian.
Michael Servetus (Miguel Serveto, Michel Servet), also known as Miguel Servet, Miguel Serveto, Michel Servet, Revés, or Michel de Villeneuve (29 September 1509 or 1511 – 27 October 1553), was a Spanish (then French) theologian, physician, cartographer, and Renaissance humanist.
A microscope (from the μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") is an instrument used to see objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye.
Mondino de Luzzi, or de Liuzzi or de Lucci, (ca. 1270 – 1326), also known as Mundinus, was an Italian physician, anatomist and professor of surgery, who lived and worked in Bologna.
Abū Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyyā al-Rāzī (Abūbakr Mohammad-e Zakariyyā-ye Rāzī, also known by his Latinized name Rhazes or Rasis) (854–925 CE), was a Persian polymath, physician, alchemist, philosopher, and important figure in the history of medicine.
Mumps is a viral disease caused by the mumps virus.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Natural History (Naturalis Historia) is a book about the whole of the natural world in Latin by Pliny the Elder, a Roman author and naval commander who died in 79 AD.
Near-sightedness, also known as short-sightedness and myopia, is a condition of the eye where light focuses in front of, instead of on, the retina.
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
Nestor of Gerenia (Νέστωρ Γερήνιος, Nestōr Gerēnios) was the wise King of Pylos described in Homer's Odyssey.
Nineveh (𒌷𒉌𒉡𒀀 URUNI.NU.A Ninua); ܢܝܼܢܘܹܐ was an ancient Assyrian city of Upper Mesopotamia, located on the outskirts of Mosul in modern-day northern Iraq.
Nitric oxide (nitrogen oxide or nitrogen monoxide) is a colorless gas with the formula NO.
Nitrous oxide, commonly known as laughing gas or nitrous, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula.
Numisianus, (Νουμισιανός; 2nd century) an eminent Greek physician at Corinth, whose lectures Galen attended c. 150, having gone to Corinth for that very reason.
The term occult (from the Latin word occultus "clandestine, hidden, secret") is "knowledge of the hidden".
The Order of Saint Benedict (OSB; Latin: Ordo Sancti Benedicti), also known as the Black Monksin reference to the colour of its members' habitsis a Catholic religious order of independent monastic communities that observe the Rule of Saint Benedict.
Organ transplantation is a medical procedure in which an organ is removed from one body and placed in the body of a recipient, to replace a damaged or missing organ.
Oribasius or Oreibasius (Ὀρειβάσιος; c. 320 – 403) was a Greek medical writer and the personal physician of the Roman emperor Julian the Apostate.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.
In Greek mythology, Pandora (Greek: Πανδώρα, derived from πᾶν, pān, i.e. "all" and δῶρον, dōron, i.e. "gift", thus "the all-endowed", "all-gifted" or "all-giving") was the first human woman created by the gods, specifically by Hephaestus and Athena on the instructions of Zeus.
Paracelsus (1493/4 – 24 September 1541), born Theophrastus von Hohenheim (full name Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim), was a Swiss physician, alchemist, and astrologer of the German Renaissance.
--> Acetanilide was the first aniline derivative serendipitously found to possess analgesic as well as antipyretic properties, and was quickly introduced into medical practice under the name of Antifebrin by A. Cahn and P. Hepp in 1886. But its unacceptable toxic effects, the most alarming being cyanosis due to methemoglobinemia, prompted the search for less toxic aniline derivatives. Harmon Northrop Morse had already synthesised paracetamol at Johns Hopkins University via the reduction of ''p''-nitrophenol with tin in glacial acetic acid in 1877, but it was not until 1887 that clinical pharmacologist Joseph von Mering tried paracetamol on humans. In 1893, von Mering published a paper reporting on the clinical results of paracetamol with phenacetin, another aniline derivative. Von Mering claimed that, unlike phenacetin, paracetamol had a slight tendency to produce methemoglobinemia. Paracetamol was then quickly discarded in favor of phenacetin. The sales of phenacetin established Bayer as a leading pharmaceutical company. Overshadowed in part by aspirin, introduced into medicine by Heinrich Dreser in 1899, phenacetin was popular for many decades, particularly in widely advertised over-the-counter "headache mixtures", usually containing phenacetin, an aminopyrine derivative of aspirin, caffeine, and sometimes a barbiturate. Paracetamol is the active metabolite of phenacetin and acetanilide, both once popular as analgesics and antipyretics in their own right. However, unlike phenacetin, acetanilide and their combinations, paracetamol is not considered carcinogenic at therapeutic doses. Von Mering's claims remained essentially unchallenged for half a century, until two teams of researchers from the United States analyzed the metabolism of acetanilide and paracetamol. In 1947 David Lester and Leon Greenberg found strong evidence that paracetamol was a major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and in a subsequent study they reported that large doses of paracetamol given to albino rats did not cause methemoglobinemia. In three papers published in the September 1948 issue of the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Bernard Brodie, Julius Axelrod and Frederick Flinn confirmed using more specific methods that paracetamol was the major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and established that it was just as efficacious an analgesic as its precursor. They also suggested that methemoglobinemia is produced in humans mainly by another metabolite, phenylhydroxylamine. A follow-up paper by Brodie and Axelrod in 1949 established that phenacetin was also metabolised to paracetamol. This led to a "rediscovery" of paracetamol. It has been suggested that contamination of paracetamol with 4-aminophenol, the substance von Mering synthesised it from, may be the cause for his spurious findings. Paracetamol was first marketed in the United States in 1950 under the name Triagesic, a combination of paracetamol, aspirin, and caffeine. Reports in 1951 of three users stricken with the blood disease agranulocytosis led to its removal from the marketplace, and it took several years until it became clear that the disease was unconnected. Paracetamol was marketed in 1953 by Sterling-Winthrop Co. as Panadol, available only by prescription, and promoted as preferable to aspirin since it was safe for children and people with ulcers. In 1955, paracetamol was marketed as Children's Tylenol Elixir by McNeil Laboratories. In 1956, 500 mg tablets of paracetamol went on sale in the United Kingdom under the trade name Panadol, produced by Frederick Stearns & Co, a subsidiary of Sterling Drug Inc. In 1963, paracetamol was added to the British Pharmacopoeia, and has gained popularity since then as an analgesic agent with few side-effects and little interaction with other pharmaceutical agents. Concerns about paracetamol's safety delayed its widespread acceptance until the 1970s, but in the 1980s paracetamol sales exceeded those of aspirin in many countries, including the United Kingdom. This was accompanied by the commercial demise of phenacetin, blamed as the cause of analgesic nephropathy and hematological toxicity. In 1988 Sterling Winthrop was acquired by Eastman Kodak which sold the over the counter drug rights to SmithKline Beecham in 1994. Available without a prescription since 1959, it has since become a common household drug. Patents on paracetamol have long expired, and generic versions of the drug are widely available.
Paul Ehrlich (14 March 1854 – 20 August 1915) was a German Jewish physician and scientist who worked in the fields of hematology, immunology, and antimicrobial chemotherapy.
Paul of Aegina or Paulus Aegineta (Παῦλος Αἰγινήτης; Aegina) was a 7th-century Byzantine Greek physician best known for writing the medical encyclopedia Medical Compendium in Seven Books.
Pedanius Dioscorides (Πεδάνιος Διοσκουρίδης, Pedianos Dioskorides; 40 – 90 AD) was a Greek physician, pharmacologist, botanist, and author of De Materia Medica (Περὶ ὕλης ἰατρικῆς, On Medical Material) —a 5-volume Greek encyclopedia about herbal medicine and related medicinal substances (a pharmacopeia), that was widely read for more than 1,500 years.
Pediatrics (also spelled paediatrics or pædiatrics) is the branch of medicine that involves the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents.
Penicillin (PCN or pen) is a group of antibiotics which include penicillin G (intravenous use), penicillin V (use by mouth), procaine penicillin, and benzathine penicillin (intramuscular use).
Pentylenetetrazol, also known as pentylenetetrazole, metrazol, pentetrazol (INN), pentamethylenetetrazol, Corazol, Cardiazol, deumacard or PTZ, is a drug formerly used as a circulatory and respiratory stimulant.
Percivall Pott (6 January 1714 in London – 22 December 1788) was an English surgeon, one of the founders of orthopedics, and the first scientist to demonstrate that a cancer may be caused by an environmental carcinogen.
A pharmacopoeia, pharmacopeia, or pharmacopoea (literally, “drug-making”), in its modern technical sense, is a book containing directions for the identification of compound medicines, and published by the authority of a government or a medical or pharmaceutical society.
Pharmacy is the science and technique of preparing and dispensing drugs.
Philinus of Cos (Φιλῖνος ὁ Κῷος; 3rd century BC) was a Greek physician.
Philip II of Macedon (Φίλιππος Β΄ ὁ Μακεδών; 382–336 BC) was the king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon from until his assassination in.
Philistion of Locri (Φιλιστίων) was a physician and writer on medicine who lived in the 4th century BC.
The physics of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) involves the interaction of biological tissue with electromagnetic fields.
Pierre-Joseph Desault (6 February 1738 – 1 June 1795) was a French anatomist and surgeon.
Pietro d'Abano, also known as Petrus de Apono, Petrus Aponensis or Peter of Abano (Premuda, Loris. "Abano, Pietro D'." in Dictionary of Scientific Biography. (1970). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Vol. 1: p.4-5.1316), was an Italian philosopher, astrologer, and professor of medicine in Padua.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
Polio vaccines are vaccines used to prevent poliomyelitis (polio).
Poliomyelitis, often called polio or infantile paralysis, is an infectious disease caused by the poliovirus.
Polydamna (Πολύδαμνα) is a figure from Greek mythology.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used in molecular biology to amplify a single copy or a few copies of a segment of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence.
Pope Innocent III (Innocentius III; 1160 or 1161 – 16 July 1216), born Lotario dei Conti di Segni (anglicized as Lothar of Segni) reigned from 8 January 1198 to his death in 1216.
Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.
Postpartum infections, also known as childbed fever and puerperal fever, are any bacterial infections of the female reproductive tract following childbirth or miscarriage.
Praxagoras (Πραξαγόρας ὁ Κῷος) was a figure of medicine in ancient Greece.
Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD or PIGD) is the genetic profiling of embryos prior to implantation (as a form of embryo profiling), and sometimes even of oocytes prior to fertilization.
The pulmonary circulation is the portion of the circulatory system which carries deoxygenated blood away from the right ventricle of the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood to the left atrium and ventricle of the heart.
Quintus Gargilius Martialis was a third-century Roman writer on horticulture, botany and medicine.
Rabies is a viral disease that causes inflammation of the brain in humans and other mammals.
Rahere, or Raher or Raherius, was an Anglo-Norman priest and monk.
Raymond Vahan Damadian (born March 16, 1936) is an American physician, medical practitioner, and inventor of the first MR (Magnetic Resonance) Scanning Machine.
Realdo Colombo (c. 1515, Cremona – 1559, Rome) was an Italian professor of anatomy and a surgeon at the University of Padua between 1544 and 1559.
Remote surgery (also known as telesurgery) is the ability for a doctor to perform surgery on a patient even though they are not physically in the same location.
René-Théophile-Hyacinthe Laennec (17 February 1781 – 13 August 1826) was a French physician.
Richard Wiseman (c. 1621–1676) was an English surgeon, the first consultant surgeon in London.
Rickets is a condition that results in weak or soft bones in children.
Robert Heinrich Hermann Koch (11 December 1843 – 27 May 1910) was a German physician and microbiologist.
Robotic surgery, computer-assisted surgery, and robotically-assisted surgery are terms for technological developments that use robotic systems to aid in surgical procedures.
Roger Bacon (Rogerus or Rogerius Baconus, Baconis, also Rogerus), also known by the scholastic accolade Doctor, was an English philosopher and Franciscan friar who placed considerable emphasis on the study of nature through empiricism.
Rogerius (before 1140 – c. 1195), also called Rogerius Salernitanus, Roger Frugard, Roger Frugardi, Roggerio Frugardo, Rüdiger Frutgard and Roggerio dei Frugardi, was a Salernitan surgeon who wrote a work on medicine entitled Practica Chirurgiae ("The Practice of Surgery") around 1180 (sometimes dated earlier to 1170; sometimes later, to 1230).
Rotavirus vaccine is a vaccine used to protect against rotavirus infections.
Roy Sydney Porter, FBA (31 December 1946 – 3 March 2002) was a British historian known for his important work on the history of medicine.
The Royal College of Physicians is a British professional body dedicated to improving the practice of medicine, chiefly through the accreditation of physicians by examination.
Rudolf Ludwig Carl Virchow (13 October 1821 – 5 September 1902) was a German physician, anthropologist, pathologist, prehistorian, biologist, writer, editor, and politician, known for his advancement of public health.
Rufus of Ephesus (Ῥοῦφος ὁ Ἐφέσιος, fl. late 1st century AD) was a Greek physician and author who wrote treatises on dietetics, pathology, anatomy, and patient care.
Saffron (pronounced or) is a spice derived from the flower of Crocus sativus, commonly known as the "saffron crocus".
Saint Fabiola was a nurse (physician) and Roman matron of rank of the company of noble Roman women who, under the influence of the Church father St. Jerome gave up all earthly pleasures and devoted themselves to the practice of Christian asceticism and charitable work.
Christian Friedrich Samuel Hahnemann (10 April 1755 – 2 July 1843) was a German physician, freemason best known for creating the system of alternative medicine called homeopathy.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
The Schola Medica Salernitana (Scuola Medica Salernitana) was a late Medieval medical school, the first and most important of its kind.
Scurvy is a disease resulting from a lack of vitamin C (ascorbic acid).
Sergius of Reshaina (died 536) was a physician and priest during the 6th century.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a viral respiratory disease of zoonotic origin caused by the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV).
Shabbethai Donnolo (913 – c. 982, שבתי דונולו) was a Graeco-Italian Jewish physician, and writer on medicine and astrology born at Oria, Apulia.
The Shanghan Lun or Shanghan Zabing Lun, known in English as the Treatise on Cold Damage Disorders or the Treatise on Cold Injury, is a Chinese medical treatise that was compiled by Zhang Zhongjing sometime before the year 220, at the end of the Han dynasty.
Sidney Pestka (May 29, 1936 – December 22, 2016) was an American biochemist and geneticist who is Emeritus Professor of the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at Robert Wood Johnson Medical School of Rutgers University.
Simeon Seth(i) or Symeon Seth(i) (Συμεὼν Μάγιστρος Ἀντιοχείας τοῦ Σήθι, "Symeōn Magister of Antioch, son of Sēth", sometimes also "Simeo" and "Sethus") was an 11th-century Jewish Byzantine doctor, scholar, and grand Chamberlain (protovestiarius) under Emperor Michael VII Doukas, originally from Antioch.
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
Sophocles (Σοφοκλῆς, Sophoklēs,; 497/6 – winter 406/5 BC)Sommerstein (2002), p. 41.
Soranus of Ephesus (Σωρανός ὁ Ἑφέσιος; 1st/2nd century AD) was a Greek physician.
St Bartholomew's Hospital, also known simply as Barts and later more formally as The Royal Hospital of St Bartholomew, is a hospital located at Farringdon in the City of London and founded in 1123.
Statins, also known as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, are a class of lipid-lowering medications.
Stem-cell therapy is the use of stem cells to treat or prevent a disease or condition.
In medicine, a stent is a metal or plastic tube inserted into the lumen of an anatomic vessel or duct to keep the passageway open, and stenting is the placement of a stent.
Stereotactic surgery or stereotaxy is a minimally invasive form of surgical intervention which makes use of a three-dimensional coordinate system to locate small targets inside the body and to perform on them some action such as ablation, biopsy, lesion, injection, stimulation, implantation, radiosurgery (SRS), etc.
The stethoscope is an acoustic medical device for auscultation, or listening to the internal sounds of an animal or human body.
The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric period during which stone was widely used to make implements with an edge, a point, or a percussion surface.
Streptococcus (term coined by Viennese surgeon Albert Theodor Billroth (1829-1894) from strepto- "twisted" + Modern Latin coccus "spherical bacterium," from Greek kokkos meaning "berry") is a genus of coccus (spherical) Gram-positive bacteria belonging to the phylum Firmicutes and the order Lactobacillales (lactic acid bacteria).
Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.
A surgical instrument is a specially designed tool or device for performing specific actions or carrying out desired effects during a surgery or operation, such as modifying biological tissue, or to provide access for viewing it.
The Sushruta Samhita (सुश्रुतसंहिता, IAST: Suśrutasaṃhitā, literally "Suśruta's Compendium") is an ancient Sanskrit text on medicine and surgery, and one of the most important such treatises on this subject to survive from the ancient world.
Syriac (ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ), also known as Syriac Aramaic or Classical Syriac, is a dialect of Middle Aramaic.
The Tacuinum (sometimes Taccuinum) Sanitatis is a medieval handbook mainly on health, based on the Taqwīm as‑siḥḥah تقويم الصحة ("Maintenance of Health"), an eleventh-century Arab medical treatise by Ibn Butlan of Baghdad.
Taddeo Alderotti (Latin: Thaddaeus Alderottus, French: Thaddée de Florence), born in Florence between 1206 and 1215, died in 1295, was an Italian doctor and professor of medicine at the University of Bologna, who made important contributions to the renaissance of learned medicine in Europe during the High Middle Ages.
Tetanus, also known as lockjaw, is an infection characterized by muscle spasms.
Tetracycline, sold under the brand name Sumycin among others, is an antibiotic used to treat a number of infections.
The Canon of Medicine (القانون في الطب al-Qānūn fī al-Ṭibb) is an encyclopedia of medicine in five books compiled by Persian philosopher Avicenna (Ibn Sina) and completed in 1025.
Thomas Gale (1507–1586) was an English surgeon.
Thomas Earl Starzl (March 11, 1926 – March 4, 2017) was an American physician, researcher, and expert on organ transplants.
This is the timeline of antimicrobial (anti-infective) therapy.
This is a timeline of hospitals, attempting to describe major events in the evolution of the institution.
This is a timeline of the development of prophylactic human vaccines.
Tissue engineering is the use of a combination of cells, engineering and materials methods, and suitable biochemical and physicochemical factors to improve or replace biological tissues.
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a style of traditional medicine built on a foundation of more than 2,500 years of Chinese medical practice that includes various forms of herbal medicine, acupuncture, massage (tui na), exercise (qigong), and dietary therapy, but recently also influenced by modern Western medicine.
A transdermal patch is a medicated adhesive patch that is placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication through the skin and into the bloodstream.
Tropical Medicine is an interdisciplinary branch of medicine that deals with health issues that occur uniquely, are more widespread, or are more difficult to control in tropical and subtropical regions.
Trotula is a name referring to a group of three texts on women's medicine, the Trotula, that were composed in the southern Italian port town of Salerno in the 12th century.
Troy (Τροία, Troia or Τροίας, Troias and Ἴλιον, Ilion or Ἴλιος, Ilios; Troia and Ilium;Trōia is the typical Latin name for the city. Ilium is a more poetic term: Hittite: Wilusha or Truwisha; Truva or Troya) was a city in the far northwest of the region known in late Classical antiquity as Asia Minor, now known as Anatolia in modern Turkey, near (just south of) the southwest mouth of the Dardanelles strait and northwest of Mount Ida.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
Ugo Cerletti (26 September 1877 – 25 July 1963) was an Italian neurologist who discovered the method of electroconvulsive therapy used in psychiatry.
Ultrasound is sound waves with frequencies higher than the upper audible limit of human hearing.
A university (universitas, "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen.
Veins are blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart.
Ventouse, also known as vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery or vacuum extraction (VE), is a method to assist delivery of a baby using a vacuum device.
A ventricle is one of two large chambers in the heart that collect and expel blood received from an atrium towards the peripheral beds within the body and lungs.
Veterinary medicine is the branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease, disorder and injury in non-human animals.
Sir Victor Alexander Haden Horsley, FRS (14 April 1857 – 16 July 1916) was an accomplished scientist and professor.
A visual prosthesis, often referred to as a bionic eye, is an experimental visual device intended to restore functional vision in those suffering from partial or total blindness.
A vitamin is an organic molecule (or related set of molecules) which is an essential micronutrient - that is, a substance which an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism - but cannot synthesize it (either at all, or in sufficient quantities), and therefore it must be obtained through the diet.
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects.
Whooping cough (also known as pertussis or 100-day cough) is a highly contagious bacterial disease.
Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (27 March 1845 – 10 February 1923) was a German mechanical engineer and physicist, who, on 8 November 1895, produced and detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range known as X-rays or Röntgen rays, an achievement that earned him the first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901.
Willem Einthoven (21 May 1860 – 29 September 1927) was a Dutch doctor and physiologist.
Willem Johan "Pim" Kolff (February 14, 1911 – February 11, 2009) was a pioneer of hemodialysis as well as in the field of artificial organs.
William Cheselden (19 October 1688 – 10 April 1752) was an English surgeon and teacher of anatomy and surgery, who was influential in establishing surgery as a scientific medical profession.
William Clowes the elder (c.1543 or 1544–1604) was an early English surgeon.
William Grey Walter (February 19, 1910 – May 6, 1977) was an American-born British neurophysiologist, cybernetician and robotician.
William Harvey (1 April 1578 – 3 June 1657) was an English physician who made seminal contributions in anatomy and physiology.
William of Salicet (1210–1277) (Italian: Guglielmo da Saliceto; French: Guillaume de Salicet; Latin: Guilielmus de Salicetum) was an Italian surgeon and cleric in Saliceto.
William Withering FRS (17 March 1741 – 6 October 1799) was an English botanist, geologist, chemist, physician and the discoverer of digitalis.
The Woman's Medical College of Pennsylvania (WMCP) was founded in 1850, was the second medical institution in the world established to train women in medicine and offer them the M.D. degree.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
Yahya ibn Sarafyun (9th century) a Syriac physician, known in Europe as Johannes Serapion, and commonly called Serapion the Elder to distinguish him from Serapion the Younger, with whom he was often confused.
Yellow fever is a viral disease of typically short duration.
Zhang Zhongjing (150219), formal name Zhang Ji (张机), was a Chinese physician, writer and inventor of the Eastern Han dynasty and one of the most eminent Chinese physicians during the later years of the Han dynasty.
3D printing is any of various processes in which material is joined or solidified under computer control to create a three-dimensional object, with material being added together (such as liquid molecules or powder grains being fused together).