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Abd al-Malik Abd al-Wahid (died 1339) (also known as Abomelique or Abu Malik) was a son of the Marinid sultan of Morocco, Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn Othman.
`Abd al Mu'min (c. 1094–1163) (عبد المؤمن بن علي or عبد المومن الــكـومي; full name: Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Muʾmin ibn ʿAlī ibn ʿAlwī ibn Yaʿlā al-Kūmī) was a prominent member of the Almohad movement.
Abel Matutes y Juan (born 31 October 1941) is a Spanish politician who served as Spain's Minister of Foreign Affairs from 6 May 1996 to 2000.
Abu Al-Hasan 'Ali ibn 'Othman (c. 1297 – May 24, 1351) was a sultan of the Marinid dynasty who reigned in Morocco between 1331 and 1348.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Adolfo John Canepa, CMG OBE, GMH (17 December 1940) is a Gibraltarian politician.
Albert J. Risso, GMH was a Gibraltarian trade unionist and politician.
Alfonso XI of Castile (13 August 131126/27 March 1350), called the Avenger (el Justiciero), was the king of Castile, León and Galicia.
Alfredo Pérez Rubalcaba (born 28 July 1951) is a Spanish politician who was General Secretary of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) from 2012 to 2014.
Algeciras (translit) is a port city in the south of Spain, and is the largest city on the Bay of Gibraltar (in Spanish, the Bahía de Algeciras).
The Alhambra Decree (also known as the Edict of Expulsion; Spanish: Decreto de la Alhambra, Edicto de Granada) was an edict issued on 31 March 1492, by the joint Catholic Monarchs of Spain (Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon) ordering the expulsion of practicing Jews from the Kingdoms of Castile and Aragon and its territories and possessions by 31 July of that year.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Almería is a city in Andalusia, Spain, located in the southeast of Spain on the Mediterranean Sea, and is the capital of the province of the same name.
The Almohad Caliphate (British English:, U.S. English:; ⵉⵎⵡⴻⵃⵃⴷⴻⵏ (Imweḥḥden), from Arabic الموحدون, "the monotheists" or "the unifiers") was a Moroccan Berber Muslim movement and empire founded in the 12th century.
Alonso Pérez de Guzmán (1256–1309), known as Guzmán el Bueno ("Guzmán the Good"), was a Spanish nobleman and hero of Spain during the medieval period, the founder of the line from which the dukes of Medina Sidonia descend.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Andalusia (Andalucía) is an autonomous community in southern Spain.
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.
The Anglo-Spanish War of 1727–1729 was a limited war that took place between Great Britain and Spain during the late 1720s, and consisted of a failed British attempt to blockade Porto Bello and a failed Spanish attempt to capture Gibraltar.
Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) was the Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland between 8 March 1702 and 1 May 1707.
An apostolic vicariate is a form of territorial jurisdiction of the Roman Catholic Church centered in missionary regions and countries where a diocese has not yet been established.
The Archimede class were a group of submarines built for the Italian Navy in the early 1930s.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
The Armistice of 22 June 1940 was signed at 18:36.
The Association for the Advancement of Civil Rights (AACR) was a political party in Gibraltar.
The Attack on Mers-el-Kébir (3 July 1940) also known as the Battle of Mers-el-Kébir, was part of Operation Catapult.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
In Spain, an autonomous community (comunidad autónoma, autonomia erkidegoa, comunitat autònoma, comunidade autónoma, comunautat autonòma) is a first-level political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish constitution of 1978, with the aim of guaranteeing limited autonomy of the nationalities and regions that make up Spain.
The Barbary Coast, or Berber Coast, was the term used by Europeans from the 16th until the early 19th century to refer to much of the collective land of the Berber people.
The Barbary pirates, sometimes called Barbary corsairs or Ottoman corsairs, were Ottoman pirates and privateers who operated from North Africa, based primarily in the ports of Salé, Rabat, Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli.
Barcelona is a city in Spain.
The Basque Country (Euskadi; País Vasco; Pays Basque), officially the Basque Autonomous Community (Euskal Autonomia Erkidegoa, EAE; Comunidad Autónoma Vasca, CAV) is an autonomous community in northern Spain.
The naval Battle of Gibraltar took place on 25 April 1607 during the Eighty Years' War when a Dutch fleet surprised and engaged a Spanish fleet anchored at the Bay of Gibraltar.
The Battle of Gibraltar (Spanish: Combate naval de Gibraltar, Dutch: Zeeslag bij Gibraltar 1621) took place on 10 August 1621 during the Eighty Years' War.
The Battle of Málaga (or Vélez-Málaga) was the largest naval battle in the War of the Spanish Succession.
The Battle of Trafalgar (21 October 1805) was a naval engagement fought by the British Royal Navy against the combined fleets of the French and Spanish Navies, during the War of the Third Coalition (August–December 1805) of the Napoleonic Wars (1796–1815).
The Bay of Gibraltar (also known as Gibraltar Bay or Bay of Algeciras) is a bay at the southern end of the Iberian Peninsula.
Berbers or Amazighs (Berber: Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⴻⵏ; singular: Amaziɣ, ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗ) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, primarily inhabiting Algeria, northern Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, northern Niger, Tunisia, Libya, and a part of western Egypt.
Bernard of Clairvaux, O.Cist (Bernardus Claraevallensis; 109020 August 1153) was a French abbot and a major leader in the reform of Benedictine monasticism that caused the formation of the Cistercian order.
The Bishop in Europe (full title: Bishop of Gibraltar in Europe) is the ordinary of the Church of England's Diocese in Europe in the Province of Canterbury.
The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.
The British Nationality Act 1981 (c.61) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom concerning British nationality since 1 January 1983.
The British Overseas Territories (BOT) or United Kingdom Overseas Territories (UKOTs) are 14 territories under the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United Kingdom.
The British Overseas Territories Act 2002 (c.8) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which superseded parts of the British Nationality Act 1981.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Cartagena (Carthago Nova) is a Spanish city and a major naval station located in the Region of Murcia, by the Mediterranean coast, south-eastern Spain.
Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the center or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now the Tunis Governorate in Tunisia.
The Castilian Civil War was a war of succession over the Kingdom of Castile that lasted from 1351 to 1369.
A castle (from castellum) is a type of fortified structure built during the Middle Ages by predominantly the nobility or royalty and by military orders.
The Catalans (Catalan, French and Occitan: catalans; catalanes, Italian: catalani) are a Pyrenean/Latin European ethnic group formed by the people from, or with origins in, Catalonia (Spain), in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula.
Catalonia (Catalunya, Catalonha, Cataluña) is an autonomous community in Spain on the northeastern extremity of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy.
The Cathedral of Saint Mary the Crowned is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Gibraltar.
The Cathedral of the Holy Trinity is the cathedral for the Church of England Diocese of Gibraltar in Europe.
The Catholic Monarchs is the joint title used in history for Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon.
Cádiz (see other pronunciations below) is a city and port in southwestern Spain.
Córdoba, also called Cordoba or Cordova in English, is a city in Andalusia, southern Spain, and the capital of the province of Córdoba.
The Charles V Wall is a 16th-century defensive curtain wall that forms part of the fortifications of the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar.
Charles V (Carlos; Karl; Carlo; Karel; Carolus; 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of both the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and the Spanish Empire (as Charles I of Spain) from 1516, as well as of the lands of the former Duchy of Burgundy from 1506.
Charles VI (1 October 1685 – 20 October 1740; Karl VI.) succeeded his elder brother, Joseph I, as Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia (as Charles II), King of Hungary and Croatia, Serbia and Archduke of Austria (as Charles III) in 1711.
The Chief Minister of Gibraltar is the head of Her Majesty's Government of Gibraltar who is elected by the Gibraltar Parliament, and formally appointed by the Governor of Gibraltar, representative of the British Monarch.
The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.
The Civil Guard (Guardia Civil) is the oldest law enforcement agency in Spain.
Prof. Clive Finlayson MBE FLS (born 15 January 1955) is a Gibraltarian zoologist, paleoanthropologist and paleontologist.
The coat of arms of Gibraltar was first granted by a Royal Warrant passed in Toledo on 10 July 1502 by Isabella I of Castile during Gibraltar's Spanish period.
In Christianity, a collegiate church is a church where the daily office of worship is maintained by a college of canons; a non-monastic or "secular" community of clergy, organised as a self-governing corporate body, which may be presided over by a dean or provost.
In international law, a condominium (plural either condominia, as in Latin, or condominiums) is a political territory (state or border area) in or over which multiple sovereign powers formally agree to share equal dominium (in the sense of sovereignty) and exercise their rights jointly, without dividing it into "national" zones.
The Condor Legion (Legion Condor) was a unit composed of military personnel from the air force and army of Nazi Germany, which served with the Nationalists during the Spanish Civil War of July 1936 to March 1939.
The Córdoba Agreement was an agreement between the Governments of Spain, the United Kingdom and Gibraltar to establish a Tripartite forum for co-operation on Gibraltar.
Crown colony, dependent territory and royal colony are terms used to describe the administration of United Kingdom overseas territories that are controlled by the British Government.
The Crown of Aragon (Corona d'Aragón, Corona d'Aragó, Corona de Aragón),Corona d'AragónCorona AragonumCorona de Aragón) also referred by some modern historians as Catalanoaragonese Crown (Corona catalanoaragonesa) or Catalan-Aragonese Confederation (Confederació catalanoaragonesa) was a composite monarchy, also nowadays referred to as a confederation of individual polities or kingdoms ruled by one king, with a personal and dynastic union of the Kingdom of Aragon and the County of Barcelona. At the height of its power in the 14th and 15th centuries, the Crown of Aragon was a thalassocracy (a state with primarily maritime realms) controlling a large portion of present-day eastern Spain, parts of what is now southern France, and a Mediterranean "empire" which included the Balearic Islands, Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia, Malta, Southern Italy (from 1442) and parts of Greece (until 1388). The component realms of the Crown were not united politically except at the level of the king, who ruled over each autonomous polity according to its own laws, raising funds under each tax structure, dealing separately with each Corts or Cortes. Put in contemporary terms, it has sometimes been considered that the different lands of the Crown of Aragon (mainly the Kingdom of Aragon, the Principality of Catalonia and the Kingdom of Valencia) functioned more as a confederation than as a single kingdom. In this sense, the larger Crown of Aragon must not be confused with one of its constituent parts, the Kingdom of Aragon, from which it takes its name. In 1469, a new dynastic familial union of the Crown of Aragon with the Crown of Castile by the Catholic Monarchs, joining what contemporaries referred to as "the Spains" led to what would become the Kingdom of Spain under King Philip II. The Crown existed until it was abolished by the Nueva Planta decrees issued by King Philip V in 1716 as a consequence of the defeat of Archduke Charles (as Charles III of Aragon) in the War of the Spanish Succession.
A customs union was defined by the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade as a type of trade bloc which is composed of a free trade area with a common external tariff.
Devil's Tower Cave is a cave in the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar.
Don Diego Esteban Gómez de Salinas y Rodríguez de Villarroel (Madrid, August 3, 1649 – November 27, 1720) was the last Spanish Governor of Gibraltar.
The Diocese in Europe (short form for "The Diocese of Gibraltar in Europe") is geographically the largest diocese of the Church of England and the largest diocese in the Anglican Communion, covering some one-sixth of the Earth's landmass, including Morocco, Europe (excluding the British Isles), Turkey, Mongolia and the territory of the former Soviet Union.
Gibraltar, a British Overseas Territory, located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula, is the subject of an irredentist territorial claim by Spain.
"The Doves" ("Los Palomos") was the pseudonym under which a group of six Gibraltarian lawyers and businessmen published a letter on 15 March 1968 in the Gibraltar Chronicle advocating a political settlement with Spain to solve the disputed status of Gibraltar.
A driver's license is an official document permitting a specific individual to operate one or more types of motorized vehicles, such as a motorcycle, car, truck, or bus on a public road.
The Duke of Medina Sidonia is a grandee of Spain in Medina-Sidonia, holding the oldest extant dukedom in the kingdom, first awarded by King John II of Castile in 1445.
The United East India Company, sometimes known as the United East Indies Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie; or Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie in modern spelling; abbreviated to VOC), better known to the English-speaking world as the Dutch East India Company or sometimes as the Dutch East Indies Company, was a multinational corporation that was founded in 1602 from a government-backed consolidation of several rival Dutch trading companies.
The Dutch Republic was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from the Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.
Sir Edward Richard George Heath (9 July 1916 – 17 July 2005), often known as Ted Heath, was a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1970 to 1974 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1965 to 1975.
Edward Montagu, 1st Earl of Sandwich, KG, FRS (27 July 1625 – 28 May 1672) was an English landowner and Infantry officer who later became a naval officer and a politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1645 and 1660.
The Eighty Years' War (Tachtigjarige Oorlog; Guerra de los Ochenta Años) or Dutch War of Independence (1568–1648) was a revolt of the Seventeen Provinces of what are today the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg against the political and religious hegemony of Philip II of Spain, the sovereign of the Habsburg Netherlands.
Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.
The Emirate of Granada (إمارة غرﻧﺎﻃﺔ, trans. Imarat Gharnāṭah), also known as the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada (Reino Nazarí de Granada), was an emirate established in 1230 by Muhammad ibn al-Ahmar.
The seat or cathedra of the Bishop of Rome in the Basilica of San Giovanni in Laterano An episcopal see is, in the usual meaning of the phrase, the area of a bishop's ecclesiastical jurisdiction.
Estepona is a town and municipality in the comarca of the Costa del Sol, southern Spain.
Europa Point (Spanish and Llanito: Punta de Europa or Punta Europa), is the southernmost point of Gibraltar (the Southeast most point of the Iberian Peninsula being Punta de Tarifa 25 km southwest of Gibraltar).
European early modern humans (EEMH) in the context of the Upper Paleolithic in Europe refers to the early presence of anatomically modern humans in Europe.
The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The Naval Armament vessel formerly RFA Bedenham was a naval armament carrier that exploded while docked in Gibraltar on 27 April 1951, killing 13 people and causing a great deal of damage to the town.
Fabian Raymond Picardo QC (born 18 February 1972) is a Gibraltarian politician and barrister who is the current Chief Minister of Gibraltar.
The Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) is an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean on the Patagonian Shelf.
The Fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called Fall of the Roman Empire or Fall of Rome) was the process of decline in the Western Roman Empire in which it failed to enforce its rule, and its vast territory was divided into several successor polities.
Faro is a municipality and bishopric, the southernmost city and seat of the district of the same name, in the Algarve region of southern Portugal.
Felipe González Márquez (born 5 March 1942) is a Spanish lawyer, professor, and politician, who was the Secretary-General of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) from 1974 to 1997, and the 3rd Prime Minister of Spain since the restoration of democracy, from 1982 to 1996.
Ferdinand II (Ferrando, Ferran, Errando, Fernando) (10 March 1452 – 23 January 1516), called the Catholic, was King of Sicily from 1468 and King of Aragon from 1479 until his death.
Ferdinand IV of Castile (6 December 1285 – 7 September 1312) called the Summoned (el Emplazado), was a King of Castile and León from 1295 until his death.
Fernando María Castiella y Maíz (Bilbao, 9 December 1907 - Madrid, 25 November 1976) was a Spanish diplomat, Professor of Private International Law, politician, and the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Spain (1957-1969) during Spain under Franco's regime.
Forbes' Quarry is located on the northern face of the Rock of Gibraltar within the Upper Rock Nature Reserve in the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar.
Force H was a British naval formation during the Second World War.
The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO), commonly called the Foreign Office, is a department of the Government of the United Kingdom.
Francisco Castillo Fajardo, 2nd Marquis of Villadarias (es: Francisco Castillo Fajardo, segundo marqués de Villadarias) (Málaga, 17 December 1642 – 1716), was a Spanish general.
Francisco Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892 – 20 November 1975) was a Spanish general who ruled over Spain as a military dictator from 1939, after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War, until his death in 1975.
Francisco Javier Castaños Aragorri Urioste y Olavide, 1st Duke of Bailén (es: Francisco Javier Castaños Aragorri Urioste y Olavide, primer Duque de Bailén.; 22 April 1758 – 24 September 1852), was a Spanish general during the Peninsular War.
Francoist Spain (España franquista) or the Franco regime (Régimen de Franco), formally known as the Spanish State (Estado Español), is the period of Spanish history between 1939, when Francisco Franco took control of Spain after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War establishing a dictatorship, and 1975, when Franco died and Prince Juan Carlos was crowned King of Spain.
The Freedom of the City is an honour bestowed by a municipality upon a valued member of the community, or upon a visiting celebrity or dignitary.
The French protectorate in Morocco (Protectorat français au Maroc; حماية فرنسا في المغرب Ḥimāyat Faransā fi-l-Maḡrib) was established by the Treaty of Fez.
Fuel oil (also known as heavy oil, marine fuel or furnace oil) is a fraction obtained from petroleum distillation, either as a distillate or a residue.
A galley is a type of ship that is propelled mainly by rowing.
A general strike (or mass strike) is a strike action in which a substantial proportion of the total labour force in a city, region, or country participates.
Genoa (Genova,; Zêna; English, historically, and Genua) is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy.
George Augustus Eliott, 1st Baron Heathfield, PC, KB (25 December 1717 – 6 July 1790) was a British Army officer who served in three major wars during the eighteenth century.
George I (George Louis; Georg Ludwig; 28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1 August 1714 and ruler of the Duchy and Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) in the Holy Roman Empire from 1698 until his death.
Admiral of the Fleet Sir George Rooke (1650 – 24 January 1709) was an English naval officer.
Sir Gerald Bernard Kaufman (21 June 1930 – 26 February 2017) was a British Labour politician who served as a Member of Parliament (MP) from 1970 until his death in 2017, first for Manchester Ardwick and then for Manchester Gorton.
Deutschland was the lead ship of her class of heavy cruisers (often termed a pocket battleship) which served with the Kriegsmarine of Nazi Germany during World War II.
Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Gibraltar Chronicle is a national newspaper published in Gibraltar since 1801.
The Gibraltar Constitution Order 1969 was published on 30 May 1969 as an Order in Council.
The Gibraltar Constitution Order 2006 was taken to a referendum in Gibraltar on 30 November 2006.
General elections were held in Gibraltar on 11 October 2007.
General elections were held in Gibraltar on 8 December 2011.
Gibraltar International Airport or North Front Airport is the civilian airport that serves the British overseas territory of Gibraltar.
The Gibraltar Museum is a national museum of history, culture and natural history located within the city centre of the British overseas territory of Gibraltar.
The Gibraltar Parliament is the legislature of the British overseas territory of Gibraltar.
The Gibraltar Social Democrats (GSD) is a centre-right political party in Gibraltar.
The Gibraltar Socialist Labour Party (GSLP) is a social-democratic political party in Gibraltar.
The Gibraltar sovereignty referendum of 1967 was held on 10 September 1967, in which Gibraltarian citizens were asked whether they wished to pass under Spanish sovereignty, with Gibraltarians keeping their British citizenship and a special status for Gibraltar within Spain; or remain under British sovereignty, with institutions of self-government.
The Gibraltar sovereignty referendum of 2002 was a referendum which was called by the Government of Gibraltar and was held on 7 November 2002 within the British overseas territory on a proposal by the UK Government to share sovereignty of the territory between Spain and the United Kingdom.
The Gibraltarians (colloquially Llanitos) are a cultural group native to Gibraltar, a British overseas territory located near the southernmost tip of the Iberian Peninsula at the entrance to the Mediterranean Sea.
Giovanni Battista Calvi (also known as Giovan Battista Calvi, Gianbattista Calvi and/or Juan Bautista Calvi) was an Italian military engineer at the service of the Spanish Monarchy during the 16th century.
A goatherd or goatherder is a person who herds goats as a vocational activity.
Gorham's Cave is a natural sea cave in the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar.
The Goths (Gut-þiuda; Gothi) were an East Germanic people, two of whose branches, the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths, played an important role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire through the long series of Gothic Wars and in the emergence of Medieval Europe.
Her Majesty's Government of Gibraltar is the democratically elected government of the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar.
Granada is the capital city of the province of Granada, in the autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain.
The Great Siege of Gibraltar was an unsuccessful attempt by Spain and France to capture Gibraltar from the British during the American War of Independence.
The Great Siege Tunnels in the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar, also known as the Upper Galleries, are a series of tunnels inside the northern end of the Rock of Gibraltar.
A grenadier (derived from the word grenade) was originally a specialized soldier, first established as a distinct role in the mid-to-late 17th century, for the throwing of grenades and sometimes assault operations.
Guard mounting, or changing the guard, is a formal ceremony in which sentries providing ceremonial guard duties at important institutions are relieved by a new batch of sentries.
Guernica, official and Basque name Gernika, is a town in the province of Biscay, in the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country, Spain.
The Memorandum by Her Majesty's Government on the Report of the Constitution Committee, or the Hattersley Memorandum for short (by Roy Hattersley, Minister of State, Foreign and Commonwealth Office of the United Kingdom), dated 26 June 1976, was the answer of the Labour British Government to proposed constitutional changes in Gibraltar ruling out the possibility of integration of Gibraltar with the United Kingdom.
Hayreddin Barbarossa (Arabic: Khayr ad-Din Barbarus خير الدين بربروس), (Ariadenus Barbarussa), or Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha (Barbaros Hayreddin (Hayrettin) Paşa or Hızır Hayreddin (Hayrettin) Paşa; also Hızır Reis before being promoted to the rank of Pasha and becoming the Kapudan Pasha), born Khizr or Khidr (Turkish: Hızır; c. 1478 – 4 July 1546), was an Ottoman admiral of the fleet who was born on the island of Lesbos and died in Constantinople, the Ottoman capital.
Henry II (13 January 1334 – 29 May 1379), called Henry of Trastámara or the Fratricide (el Fratricida), was the first King of Castile and León from the House of Trastámara.
Henry IV of Castile (Castilian: Enrique IV) (5 January 1425 – 11 December 1474), King of the Crown of Castile, nicknamed the Impotent (ruled 1454–1474), was the last of the weak late medieval kings of Castile.
The history of Gibraltar, a small peninsula on the southern Iberian coast near the entrance of the Mediterranean Sea, spans over 2,900 years.
Gibraltar is a juridically independent area in western Europe, and forms part of the Commonwealth of Nations as a British overseas territory.
The history of Spain dates back to the Middle Ages.
The history of the United Kingdom as a unified state can be treated as beginning in 1707 with the political union of the kingdoms of England and Scotland, into a united kingdom called Great Britain.
HMS Anson was the last of six ironclad battleships built for the Royal Navy during the 1880s.
HMS Arethusa was the name ship of her class of light cruisers built for the Royal Navy.
HMS Hunter was a H-class destroyer built for the Royal Navy in the mid-1930s.
HMS Tireless was the third nuclear submarine of the Royal Navy.
HMS Victory is a 104-gun first-rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, ordered in 1758, laid down in 1759 and launched in 1765.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
The Hominidae, whose members are known as great apes or hominids, are a taxonomic family of primates that includes eight extant species in four genera: Pongo, the Bornean, Sumatran and Tapanuli orangutan; Gorilla, the eastern and western gorilla; Pan, the common chimpanzee and the bonobo; and Homo, which includes modern humans and its extinct relatives (e.g., the Neanderthal), and ancestors, such as Homo erectus.
Vice Admiral Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, 1st Duke of Bronté, (29 September 1758 – 21 October 1805) was a British flag officer in the Royal Navy.
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.
Lieutenant General Humphrey Bland (1686 – 8 May 1763) was a British Army general who commanded the cavalry at the Battle of Culloden.
Iberia, legally incorporated as Iberia, Líneas Aéreas de España, S.A. Operadora, Sociedad Unipersonal, is the flag carrier airline of Spain, founded in 1927.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
Ibiza (Eivissa) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea off the east coast of Spain.
Abu Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Yusuf ibn Hud al-Judhami (died 1238), commonly known as Ibn Hud, was a taifa emir of Andalusia from 1228 to 1237.
An identity document (also called a piece of identification or ID, or colloquially as papers) is any document which may be used to prove a person's identity.
The Cervantes Institute is a worldwide non-profit organization created by the Spanish government in 1991.
The Integration with Britain Party (IWBP) was a political party in Gibraltar.
Isabella I (Isabel, 22 April 1451 – 26 November 1504) reigned as Queen of Castile from 1474 until her death.
John Whitaker Straw (born 3 August 1946) is an English politician who served as the Member of Parliament (MP) for Blackburn from 1979 to 2015.
Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea.
Jebel Musa (in Berber Adrar n Moussa; meaning Mount Moses) is a mountain in the northernmost part of Morocco, on the African side of the Strait of Gibraltar.
James Francis Murphy (born 23 August 1967) is a Scottish former politician who was Leader of the Scottish Labour Party between 2014 and 2015 and a cabinet minister in the UK Government.
Sir Joseph John Bossano KCMG (born 10 June 1939) is a Gibraltarian politician, and the former leader of the Gibraltar Socialist Labour Party.
Johannesburg (also known as Jozi, Joburg and Egoli) is the largest city in South Africa and is one of the 50 largest urban areas in the world.
John Campbell (8 March 1708 – 28 December 1775) was a Scottish author.
Admiral of the Fleet Sir John Leake (4 July 1656 – 21 August 1720) was a Royal Navy officer and politician.
Major-General John Shrimpton was Governor of Gibraltar.
Sir Joshua Abraham Hassan (21 August 1915 – 1 July 1997), nicknamed "Salvador" (Saviour), was a Gibraltarian politician, and first mayor and chief minister of Gibraltar, serving four terms as chief minister for a total of over 20 years.
Juan Mateos (Gibraltar, ? - id., 1594) was a wealthy inhabitant of Gibraltar during the Spanish period.
The judiciary of Gibraltar is a branch of the Government of Gibraltar that interprets and applies the law of Gibraltar, to ensure equal justice under law, and to provide a mechanism for dispute resolution.
Kaiane Loise Aldorino Lopez, GMH (née Aldorino; born 8 July 1986) is a Gibraltarian politician and beauty queen.
The Kingdom of Fez was the name given to the northern part of Morocco, from the founding of the country by the Idrisid dynasty in the 8th century until the establishment of the French and the Spanish protectorate.
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.
La Línea de la Concepción (more often referred to as La Línea) is a town in Spain, in the province of Cádiz in Andalucia.
The Latin Bishop of Gibraltar is the ordinary of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Gibraltar, covering the British overseas territory of Gibraltar, which is exempt, i.e. immediately subject to the Holy See, not part of any ecclesiastical province, nor is it part of any (Spanish or British) episcopal conference.
Letters patent (always in the plural) are a type of legal instrument in the form of a published written order issued by a monarch, president, or other head of state, generally granting an office, right, monopoly, title, or status to a person or corporation.
The Liberal Party of Gibraltar (Libs) is a liberal political party in Gibraltar.
Lionel Kenneth Phillip Crabb, (28 January 1909 – presumed dead 19 April 1956), known as Buster Crabb, was a Royal Navy frogman and MI6 diver who vanished during a reconnaissance mission around a Soviet cruiser berthed at Portsmouth Dockyard in 1956.
The Lisbon Agreement was the first of a series of agreements between the British and Spanish governments intended to resolve their differences over Gibraltar.
Country calling codes or country dial in codes are telephone dialing prefixes for the member countries or regions of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU).
Marshal of France (Maréchal de France, plural Maréchaux de France) is a French military distinction, rather than a military rank, that is awarded to generals for exceptional achievements.
Los Barrios is a small town and municipality in the south of Spain.
Madeira is a Portuguese archipelago situated in the north Atlantic Ocean, southwest of Portugal.
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
Marbella is a city and municipality in southern Spain, belonging to the province of Málaga in the autonomous community of Andalusia.
Marcelino Oreja y Aguirre, 1st Marquis of Oreja (born 13 February 1935) is a Spanish lawyer, diplomat and politician of the People's Party.
The Marinid dynasty (Berber: Imrinen, المرينيون Marīniyūn) or Banu abd al-Haqq was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Zenata Berber descent that ruled Morocco from the 13th to the 15th century.
George Prosper Verboom, also known as Jorge Próspero de Verboom (9 January 1665 in Brussels – 19 January 1744 in Barcelona, Spain), was a Flemish-born military engineer in the service of the King of Spain.
Marquis of Gibraltar was a short-lived Castilian noble title (1478–1501).
Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran.
His or Her Worship the Mayor of Gibraltar is the ceremonial official of the British overseas territory of Gibraltar.
Málaga is a municipality, capital of the Province of Málaga, in the Autonomous Community of Andalusia, Spain.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Melilla (مليلية, Maliliyyah; ⵎⵔⵉⵜⵙ, Mřič) is a Spanish autonomous city located on the north coast of Africa, sharing a border with Morocco, with an area of.
Menorca or Minorca (Menorca; Menorca; from Latin: Insula Minor, later Minorica "smaller island") is one of the Balearic Islands located in the Mediterranean Sea belonging to Spain.
A military air base (sometimes referred to as a military airfield, military airport, air force station, air force base or short air base) is an aerodrome (military base) used by a military force for the operation of military aircraft.
Miss World is the oldest running international beauty pageant.
Monte Hacho is a low mountain that overlooks the Spanish city of Ceuta, on the north coast of Africa.
The Moorish Castle is the name given to a medieval fortification in Gibraltar comprising various buildings, gates, and fortified walls, with the dominant features being the Tower of Homage and the Gate House.
The term "Moors" refers primarily to the Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, and Malta during the Middle Ages.
Moriscos (mouriscos,; meaning "Moorish") were former Muslims who converted or were coerced into converting to Christianity, after Spain finally outlawed the open practice of Islam by its sizeable Muslim population (termed mudéjar) in the early 16th century.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
The Mousterian (or Mode III) is a techno-complex (archaeological industry) of flint lithic tools associated primarily with Neanderthals, as well as with the earliest anatomically modern humans in Eurasia.
Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Yusuf ibn Nasr (1195 – 22 January 1273), also known as Ibn al-Aḥmar (ابن الأحمر) and by his epithet al-Ghalib billah ("The Victor by the Grace of God"), was the first ruler of the Emirate of Granada, the last independent Muslim state on the Iberian Peninsula, and the founder of its ruling Nasrid dynasty.
Muhammed II (also known by his epithet al-Faqih, "the canon-lawyer", born, reigned 1273–1302 until his death) was the second Nasrid ruler of the Emirate of Granada in Al-Andalus on the Iberian Peninsula, succeeding his father Muhammad I. Already experienced in matters of state by the time he ascended the throne, he continued his father's policy of maintaining independence in the face of Granada's larger neighbors, Castile and the Marinids, and an internal rebellion by his family's former allies Banu Ashqilula.
Muhammed V (4 January 1338 – 16 January 1391) was the eighth Nasrid ruler of the Emirate of Granada in Al-Andalus on the Iberian Peninsula.
MV Fedra was a Liberian-registered bulk-carrier cargo ship.
The Nasrid dynasty (بنو نصر banū Naṣr or banū al-Aḥmar) was the last Arab Muslim dynasty in Iberia, ruling the Emirate of Granada from 1230 until 1492.
The Neandertal (sometimes called "the Neander Valley" in English) is a small valley of the river Düssel in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, located about east of Düsseldorf, the capital city of North Rhine-Westphalia.
Neanderthals (also; also Neanderthal Man, taxonomically Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens neanderthalensis) are an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo, who lived in Eurasia during at least 430,000 to 38,000 years ago.
The Neanderthals in Gibraltar were among the first to be discovered by modern scientists and may have been among the last of their species according to a number of extinction hypotheses which emphasize regional differences, usually claiming the Iberian Peninsula acted as a “refuge” for the retreating Neanderthal populations and Gibraltar community as having been the last, existing until around 24,000 years ago.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
The Korps Mariniers is the elite amphibious infantry component of the Royal Netherlands Navy.
A non-belligerent is a person, a state, or other organization that does not fight in a given conflict.
Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written.
Oliver Cromwell (25 April 15993 September 1658) was an English military and political leader.
Operation Flavius (also referred to as the "Gibraltar killings") was a controversial military operation in which three members of the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) were shot dead by the British Special Air Service (SAS) in Gibraltar on 6 March 1988.
Operation Torch (8–16 November 1942, formerly Operation Gymnast) was a Anglo–American invasion of French North Africa, during the North African Campaign of the Second World War.
The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly the Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath) is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725.
A patron saint, patroness saint, patron hallow or heavenly protector is a saint who in Roman Catholicism, Anglicanism, Eastern Orthodoxy, or particular branches of Islam, is regarded as the heavenly advocate of a nation, place, craft, activity, class, clan, family or person.
The Peninsular War (1807–1814) was a military conflict between Napoleon's empire (as well as the allied powers of the Spanish Empire), the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Kingdom of Portugal, for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars.
The People's Party (Partido Popular; known mostly by its acronym, PP) is a conservative and Christian democratic political party in Spain.
Peter Alexander Rupert Carington, 6th Baron Carrington, (born 6 June 1919) is a British Conservative politician and hereditary peer who served as Defence Secretary between 1970 and 1974, Foreign Secretary between 1979 and 1982, chairman of General Electric between 1983 and 1984, and Secretary General of NATO from 1984 to 1988.
Sir Peter Richard Caruana, (born 15 October 1956) is a former Gibraltarian politician, former leader of the Gibraltar Social Democrats (GSD) and former Chief Minister of Gibraltar, holding office from 1996 to 2011.
Vice Admiral Sir Peter William Gretton & Two Bars, (27 August 1912 – 11 November 1992) was an officer in the Royal Navy.
Peter Joseph Isola, OBE, GMH (Gibraltar, 1929 – 28 January 2006), was a Gibraltarian politician and lawyer.
Peter (Pedro; 30 August 133423 March 1369), called the Cruel (el Cruel) or the Just (el Justo), was the king of Castile and León from 1350 to 1369.
Philip I (22 July 1478 – 25 September 1506) called the Handsome or the Fair, was the first member of the house of Habsburg to be King of Castile.
Philip III (Felipe; 14 April 1578 – 31 March 1621) was King of Spain.
Philip V (Felipe V, Philippe, Filippo; 19 December 1683 – 9 July 1746) was King of Spain from 1 November 1700 to his abdication in favour of his son Louis on 15 January 1724, and from his reascendancy of the throne upon his son's death on 6 September 1724 to his own death on 9 July 1746.
Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.
The Pillars of Hercules (Latin: Columnae Herculis, Greek: Ἡράκλειαι Στῆλαι, Arabic: أعمدة هرقل / Aʿmidat Hiraql, Spanish: Columnas de Hércules) was the phrase that was applied in Antiquity to the promontories that flank the entrance to the Strait of Gibraltar.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
Pope Pius II (Pius PP., Pio II), born Enea Silvio Bartolomeo Piccolomini (Aeneas Silvius Bartholomeus; 18 October 1405 – 14 August 1464) was Pope from 19 August 1458 to his death in 1464.
Portland stone is a limestone from the Tithonian stage of the Jurassic period quarried on the Isle of Portland, Dorset.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
Prince George Louis of Hessen-Darmstadt (1669 – 13 September 1705) was a Field Marshal in the Austrian army. He is known for his career in Habsburg Spain, as Viceroy of Catalonia (1698–1701), head of the Austrian army in the War of Spanish Succession (1701–1705) and governor of Gibraltar in 1704. He was killed during the Siege of Barcelona the following year. He was known in Spanish as Jorge de Darmstadt and in Catalan as Jordi Darmstadt.
The Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA or Provisional IRA) was an Irish republican revolutionary organisation that sought to end British rule in Northern Ireland, facilitate the reunification of Ireland and bring about an independent socialist republic encompassing all of Ireland.
Qaid (قائد, "commander"; pl.), also spelled kaid or caïd, is a word meaning "commander" or "leader." It was a title in the Norman kingdom of Sicily, applied to palatine officials and members of the curia, usually to those who were Muslims or converts from Islam.
A race track (or "racetrack", "racing track" or "racing circuit") is a facility built for racing of vehicles, athletes, or animals (e.g. horse racing or greyhound racing).
The Reconquista (Spanish and Portuguese for the "reconquest") is a name used to describe the period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula of about 780 years between the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711 and the fall of the Nasrid kingdom of Granada to the expanding Christian kingdoms in 1492.
A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is invited to vote on a particular proposal.
René de Froulay, Comte de Tessé (14 May 1648 – 30 March 1725) was a French soldier and diplomat during the reign of Louis XIV and the 1715-1723 Regency.
Sir Robert John "Bob" Peliza KBE GMH ED (16 November 1920 – 12 December 2011) was a Gibraltarian politician.
The Rock of Gibraltar, also known as the Pillars of Hercules, is a monolithic limestone promontory located in the British overseas territory of Gibraltar, near the southwestern tip of Europe on the Iberian Peninsula.
Major General Roger Elliott (1665 – 16 May 1714) was one of the earliest British Governors of Gibraltar.
Roy Sydney George Hattersley, Baron Hattersley, PC, FRSL (born 28 December 1932) is a British Labour politician, author and journalist from Sheffield.
The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.
The Royal Gibraltar Police (RGP) is, along with the H.M.Customs Gibraltar, the principal civilian law enforcement agency in the British overseas territory of Gibraltar.
The Royal Gibraltar Regiment is the home defence unit for the British overseas territory of Gibraltar.
The Corps of Royal Marines (RM) is the amphibious light infantry of the Royal Navy.
The Royal Mint is a government-owned mint that produces coins for the United Kingdom.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
Saint Roch or Rocco (lived c. 1348 – 15/16 August 1376/79 (traditionally c. 1295 – 16 August 1327)) was a Catholic saint, a confessor whose death is commemorated on 16 August and 9 September in Italy; he is specially invoked against the plague.
San Roque is a small town and municipality in the south of Spain.
The Spanish Republic (República Española), commonly known as the Second Spanish Republic (Segunda República Española), was the democratic government that existed in Spain from 1931 to 1939.
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, normally referred to as the Foreign Secretary, is a senior, high-ranking official within the Government of the United Kingdom and head of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office.
The right of people to self-determination is a cardinal principle in modern international law (commonly regarded as a jus cogens rule), binding, as such, on the United Nations as authoritative interpretation of the Charter's norms.
Self-governance, self-government, or autonomy, is an abstract concept that applies to several scales of organization.
Semtex is a general-purpose plastic explosive containing RDX and PETN.
The Siege of Algeciras was a battle of the Spanish Reconquista that occurred between July 1309 and January 1310.
The Siege of Algeciras (1342–44) was undertaken during the Reconquest of Spain by the Castillian forces of Alfonso XI assisted by the fleets of the Kingdom of Aragon and the Republic of Genoa.
The Siege of Algeciras (1369) was undertaken during the period of the Reconquest of Spain by Muhammed V, Sultan of Granada to reclaim the city of Al-Hadra Al-Yazirat, called Algeciras by the Christians, in the Kingdom of Castile.
Simón Rodríguez Susarte, commonly known as Simón Susarte, was a Spanish goatherd from Gibraltar, who in 1704 aided a Bourbon Spanish attempt to seize Gibraltar during the Twelfth Siege of Gibraltar by revealing a concealed path to the attackers which led to the top of the Rock of Gibraltar.
General Sir William Green, 1st Baronet, of Marass, Kent (4 April 1725 – 10 January 1811) was an officer in the British Army.
Sky News is a 24-hour international multimedia news organisation based in the UK that started as a 24-hour television news channel.
Spaniards are a Latin European ethnic group and nation.
The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.
José Luis Díez was a in the Spanish Republican Navy.
Spanish Netherlands (Países Bajos Españoles; Spaanse Nederlanden; Pays-Bas espagnols, Spanische Niederlande) was the collective name of States of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries, held in personal union by the Spanish Crown (also called Habsburg Spain) from 1556 to 1714.
The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (Partido Socialista Obrero Español; PSOE) is a social-democraticThe PSOE is described as a social-democratic party by numerous sources.
The Special Air Service (SAS) is a special forces unit of the British Army.
St Bernard's Hospital is the only civilian general hospital in the British overseas territory of Gibraltar.
thumb The Suez Canal (قناة السويس) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez.
In the history of the Iberian Peninsula, a taifa (from طائفة ṭā'ifa, plural طوائف ṭawā'if) was an independent Muslim-ruled principality, of which a number were formed in Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia) after the final collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in 1031.
Tangier (طَنجة Ṭanjah; Berber: ⵟⴰⵏⴵⴰ Ṭanja; old Berber name: ⵜⵉⵏⴳⵉ Tingi; adapted to Latin: Tingis; Tanger; Tánger; also called Tangiers in English) is a major city in northwestern Morocco.
Tarifa is a small town in the province of Cádiz, Andalusia, on the southernmost coast of mainland Spain.
āriq ibn Ziyād (طارق بن زياد) was a Muslim commander who led the Islamic Umayyad conquest of Visigothic Hispania in 711–718 A.D. Under the orders of the Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid I he led a large army and crossed the Strait of Gibraltar from the North African coast, consolidating his troops at what is today known as the Rock of Gibraltar.
Direct telephone connections between Gibraltar and Spain were severed in 1969, when land communications between both territories were halted by the Spanish leader Francisco Franco, and were not restored until 1986.
The Gibraltar telephone numbering plan is the system used for assigning telephone numbers in Gibraltar.
Territorial integrity is the principle under international law that prohibits states from the use of force against the "territorial integrity or political independence" of another state.
The Convent has been the official residence of the Governor of Gibraltar since 1728.
The Siege of Gibraltar of 1727 (thirteenth siege of Gibraltar, second by Spain) saw Spanish forces besiege the British garrison of Gibraltar as part of the Anglo-Spanish War.
Brigadier General Thomas Stanwix (1670 – 14 March 1725) was a British Army officer, politician and Governor of Gibraltar.
Tito Mesod Benady (born 17 July 1930 in Gibraltar), MBE, is a Gibraltarian historian of Sephardic Jewish descent.
Toledo is a city and municipality located in central Spain; it is the capital of the province of Toledo and the autonomous community of Castile–La Mancha.
A Tory is a person who holds a political philosophy, known as Toryism, based on a British version of traditionalism and conservatism, which upholds the supremacy of social order as it has evolved throughout history.
The Trafalgar Cemetery is a cemetery in the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar.
The Transport and General Workers' Union (TGWU or T&G) was one of the largest general trade unions in the United Kingdom and Ireland - where it was known as the Amalgamated Transport and General Workers' Union (ATGWU) to differentiate itself from the Irish Transport and General Workers' Union - with 900,000 members (and was once the largest trade union in the world).
The Treaty of Paris, signed in Paris by representatives of King George III of Great Britain and representatives of the United States of America on September 3, 1783, ended the American Revolutionary War.
The Treaty of Paris, signed on 30 May 1814, ended the war between France and the Sixth Coalition, part of the Napoleonic Wars, following an armistice signed on 23 April between Charles, Count of Artois, and the allies.
The Treaty of Seville was signed on 9 November 1729 between Great Britain, France, and Spain, concluding the Anglo-Spanish War (1727).
The Treaty of Den Haag (1701) or Treaty of The Hague (1701) was signed on 7 September, 1701 between Great Britain, the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I, and the United Provinces.
The Treaty of Utrecht, which established the Peace of Utrecht, is a series of individual peace treaties, rather than a single document, signed by the belligerents in the War of the Spanish Succession, in the Dutch city of Utrecht in March and April 1713.
Typhus, also known as typhus fever, is a group of infectious diseases that include epidemic typhus, scrub typhus and murine typhus.
The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.
The United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories is a list of places that the United Nations General Assembly deems to be "non-self-governing" and subject to the decolonization process.
The Vandals were a large East Germanic tribe or group of tribes that first appear in history inhabiting present-day southern Poland.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi; Visigoti) were the western branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths.
The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was a European conflict of the early 18th century, triggered by the death of the childless Charles II of Spain in November 1700.
A warrant is generally an order that serves as a specific type of authorization, that is, a writ issued by a competent officer, usually a judge or magistrate, which permits an otherwise illegal act that would violate individual rights and affords the person executing the writ protection from damages if the act is performed.
The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".
General Sir William Godfrey Fothergill Jackson, (28 August 1917 – 12 March 1999) was a British Army officer, military historian, author and Governor of Gibraltar.