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Index Tin

Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50. [1]

231 relations: Acid, Algaecide, Alkali, Alkene, Allotropy, Alloy, Alluvium, Amine, Amphoterism, Antimony, Arsenic poisoning, Arsenical bronze, Atmosphere of Earth, Atomic number, Australia, Babbitt (alloy), Bank (geography), Bell metal, Beta decay, Biocide, Biofouling, Bismuth, Brittleness, Bronze, Bronze Age, Canfieldite, Carbene, Carbon, Carbon group, Carbothermic reaction, Cassiterides, Cassiterite, Casting, Catalysis, Celtic languages, Chemical compound, Chemical element, Chemical shift, Chloride, Chlorine, Cognate, Comproportionation, Copper, Cornish language, Cornwall, Corrosion, Crust (geology), Crystal, Crystal structure, Crystal twinning, ..., Culture, Cyanide, Cylindrite, Diamond, Diamond cubic, Dog whelk, Dredging, Ductility, Dutch language, Earth, Education in Chemistry, Edward Frankland, Electric arc furnace, Electrical network, Electromagnet, Electromagnetic coil, Eutectic system, Float glass, Food preservation, Franckeite, Fungicide, Gallium, German language, Germanic languages, Germanium, Gingivitis, Glass, Gold, Gold panning, Grande Armée, Granite, Grignard reaction, Half-life, Halide, Hydraulic mining, Immediately dangerous to life or health, INATIN, Indium, Indium tin oxide, Indo-European languages, Inert pair effect, International Maritime Organization, International Tin Council, Irish language, Iron, Isotope, Isotopes of indium, Isotopes of tin, Journal of Organometallic Chemistry, Kelvin, Kilogram, Latin, Lauric acid, Lead, Lester R. Brown, Linguistic reconstruction, Liquid-crystal display, List of countries by tin production, List of elements by stability of isotopes, Loanword, London Metal Exchange, Magic number (physics), Mass number, Meissner effect, Metal, Meyers Konversations-Lexikon, Mineral, Minsur, Molding (process), Mongolia, Mosaic gold, Napoleon, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Niobium, Niobium–tin, Nitro compound, Nuclear isomer, Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Open-pit mining, Optoelectronics, Orders of magnitude (mass), Ore, Organ pipe, Organic chemistry, Organogermanium compound, Organosilicon, Organotin chemistry, Oxidation state, Oxime, Oxygen, P-nuclei, Parts-per notation, Pascal (unit), Passivation (chemistry), Paul Revere, Periodic table, Periodic Videos, Permissible exposure limit, Persistent organic pollutant, Pesticide, Pewter, Phosphor bronze, Photodisintegration, Pie safe, Pipe organ, Placer deposit, Placer mining, Plumbing, Polymetal, Polyvinyl chloride, Post-transition metal, Proto-Germanic language, Pseudohalogen, R-process, Reagent, Recommended exposure limit, Redistribution (chemistry), Redox, Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive, Reverberatory furnace, Romance languages, Royal Society of Chemistry, S-process, Semiconductor, Silicon, Smelting, Sodium fluoride, Solder, Spin (physics), Stable isotope ratio, Stannane, Stannary, Stannite, Star, Steel, Stellar nucleosynthesis, Stille reaction, Sulfide, Sun, Superconducting magnet, Superconductivity, Supernova, Swedish language, Tableware, Teallite, Terne, Tesla (unit), Thallium, The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Tin can, Tin cry, Tin mining in Britain, Tin pest, Tin whistle, Tin(II) bromide, Tin(II) chloride, Tin(II) fluoride, Tin(II) iodide, Tin(II) sulfide, Tin(IV) bromide, Tin(IV) chloride, Tin(IV) fluoride, Tin(IV) iodide, Tin(IV) Oxide, Tin(IV) sulfide, Tinnie, Tinning, Tonne, Trade, Tributyltin, Tributyltin hydride, Tributyltin oxide, U.S. National Geodetic Survey, Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive, Water, Whisker (metallurgy), Wood preservation, Yunnan Tin, Zinc, Zirconium alloy. Expand index (181 more) »


An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).

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Algaecide or algicide is a biocide used for killing and preventing the growth of algae.

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In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.

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In organic chemistry, an alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon–carbon double bond.

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Allotropy or allotropism is the property of some chemical elements to exist in two or more different forms, in the same physical state, known as allotropes of these elements.

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An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.

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Alluvium (from the Latin alluvius, from alluere, "to wash against") is loose, unconsolidated (not cemented together into a solid rock) soil or sediments, which has been eroded, reshaped by water in some form, and redeposited in a non-marine setting.

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In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.

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In chemistry, an amphoteric compound is a molecule or ion that can react both as an acid as well as a base.

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Antimony is a chemical element with symbol Sb (from stibium) and atomic number 51.

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Arsenic poisoning

Arsenic poisoning is a medical condition that occurs due to elevated levels of arsenic in the body.

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Arsenical bronze

Arsenical bronze is an alloy in which arsenic, as opposed to or in addition to tin or other constituent metals, is added to copper to make bronze.

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Atmosphere of Earth

The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.

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Atomic number

The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.

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Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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Babbitt (alloy)

Babbitt, also called Babbitt metal or bearing metal, is any of several alloys used for the bearing surface in a plain bearing.

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Bank (geography)

In geography, the word bank generally refers to the land alongside a body of water.

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Bell metal

Bell metal is a hard alloy used for making bells and related instruments, such as cymbals.

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Beta decay

In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.

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A biocide is defined in the European legislation as a chemical substance or microorganism intended to destroy, deter, render harmless, or exert a controlling effect on any harmful organism by chemical or biological means.

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Biofouling or biological fouling is the accumulation of microorganisms, plants, algae, or animals on wetted surfaces.

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Bismuth is a chemical element with symbol Bi and atomic number 83.

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# A material is brittle if, when subjected to stress, it breaks without significant plastic deformation.

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Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.

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Bronze Age

The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.

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Canfieldite is a rare silver tin sulfide mineral with formula: Ag8SnS6.

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In chemistry, a carbene is a molecule containing a neutral carbon atom with a valence of two and two unshared valence electrons.

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Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.

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Carbon group

The carbon group is a periodic table group consisting of carbon (C), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), tin (Sn), lead (Pb), and flerovium (Fl).

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Carbothermic reaction

Carbothermic reactions involve the reduction of substances, often metal oxides (O2^2-), using carbon as the reducing agent.

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The Cassiterides (“Tin Islands”, from Greek κασσίτερος, kassíteros “tin”), are an ancient geographical name of islands that were regarded as situated somewhere near the west coasts of Europe.

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Cassiterite is a tin oxide mineral, SnO2.

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Casting is a manufacturing process in which a liquid material is usually poured into a mold, which contains a hollow cavity of the desired shape, and then allowed to solidify.

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Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.

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Celtic languages

The Celtic languages are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.

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Chemical compound

A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.

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Chemical element

A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).

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Chemical shift

In nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, the chemical shift is the resonant frequency of a nucleus relative to a standard in a magnetic field.

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The chloride ion is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−.

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Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.

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In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.

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Comproportionation or synproportionation is a chemical reaction where two reactants, each containing the same element but with a different oxidation number, form a product in which the elements involved reach the same oxidation number.

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Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.

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Cornish language

Cornish (Kernowek) is a revived language that became extinct as a first language in the late 18th century.

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Cornwall (Kernow) is a county in South West England in the United Kingdom.

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Corrosion is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more chemically-stable form, such as its oxide, hydroxide, or sulfide.

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Crust (geology)

In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.

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A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.

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Crystal structure

In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material.

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Crystal twinning

Crystal twinning occurs when two separate crystals share some of the same crystal lattice points in a symmetrical manner.

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Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.

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A cyanide is a chemical compound that contains the group C≡N.

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Cylindrite is a sulfosalt mineral containing tin, lead, antimony and iron with formula: Pb3Sn4FeSb2S14.

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Diamond is a solid form of carbon with a diamond cubic crystal structure.

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Diamond cubic

The diamond cubic crystal structure is a repeating pattern of 8 atoms that certain materials may adopt as they solidify.

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Dog whelk

The dog whelk, dogwhelk, or Atlantic dogwinkle, scientific name Nucella lapillus, is a species of predatory sea snail, a carnivorous marine gastropod mollusc in the family Muricidae, the rock snails.

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Dredging is an excavation activity usually carried out underwater, in harbours, shallow seas or freshwater areas with the purpose of gathering up bottom sediments to deepen or widen the sea bottom / channel.

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Ductility is a measure of a material's ability to undergo significant plastic deformation before rupture, which may be expressed as percent elongation or percent area reduction from a tensile test.

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Dutch language

The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.

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Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.

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Education in Chemistry

Education in Chemistry is a magazine covering all areas of chemistry education, concentrating on the teaching of chemistry in secondary schools and universities.

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Edward Frankland

Sir Edward Frankland, (18 January 1825 – 9 August 1899) was a British chemist.

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Electric arc furnace

An electric arc furnace (EAF) is a furnace that heats charged material by means of an electric arc.

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Electrical network

An electrical network is an interconnection of electrical components (e.g. batteries, resistors, inductors, capacitors, switches) or a model of such an interconnection, consisting of electrical elements (e.g. voltage sources, current sources, resistances, inductances, capacitances).

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An electromagnet is a type of magnet in which the magnetic field is produced by an electric current.

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Electromagnetic coil

An electromagnetic coil is an electrical conductor such as a wire in the shape of a coil, spiral or helix.

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Eutectic system

A eutectic system from the Greek "ευ" (eu.

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Float glass

Float glass is a sheet of glass made by floating molten glass on a bed of molten metal, typically tin, although lead and various low melting point alloys were used in the past.

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Food preservation

Food preservation prevents the growth of microorganisms (such as yeasts), or other microorganisms (although some methods work by introducing benign bacteria or fungi to the food), as well as slowing the oxidation of fats that cause rancidity.

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Franckeite, chemical formula Pb5Sn3Sb2S14, belongs to a family of complex sulfide minerals.

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Fungicides are biocidal chemical compounds or biological organisms used to kill parasitic fungi or their spores.

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Gallium is a chemical element with symbol Ga and atomic number 31.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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Germanic languages

The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.

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Germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32.

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Gingivitis is a non-destructive disease that occurs around the teeth.

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Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.

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Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.

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Gold panning

Gold panning, or simply panning, is a form of placer mining and traditional mining that extracts gold from a placer deposit using a pan.

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Grande Armée

The Grande Armée (French for Great Army) was the army commanded by Napoleon during the Napoleonic Wars.

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Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture.

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Grignard reaction

The Grignard reaction (pronounced) is an organometallic chemical reaction in which alkyl, vinyl, or aryl-magnesium halides (Grignard reagents) add to a carbonyl group in an aldehyde or ketone.

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Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.

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A halide is a binary phase, of which one part is a halogen atom and the other part is an element or radical that is less electronegative (or more electropositive) than the halogen, to make a fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, astatide, or theoretically tennesside compound.

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Hydraulic mining

Hydraulic mining, or hydraulicking, is a form of mining that uses high-pressure jets of water to dislodge rock material or move sediment.

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Immediately dangerous to life or health

The term immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) is defined by the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) as exposure to airborne contaminants that is "likely to cause death or immediate or delayed permanent adverse health effects or prevent escape from such an environment." Examples include smoke or other poisonous gases at sufficiently high concentrations.

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INATIN stands for Indonesian Tin Exchange which agreed to settle with the coordination of the Indonesia Commodity Derivative Exchange (ICDX) and PT Banda Graha Reksa.

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Indium is a chemical element with symbol In and atomic number 49.

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Indium tin oxide

Indium tin oxide (ITO) is a ternary composition of indium, tin and oxygen in varying proportions.

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Indo-European languages

The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.

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Inert pair effect

The inert pair effect is the tendency of the two electrons in the outermost atomic ''s'' orbital to remain unionized or unshared in compounds of post-transition metals.

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International Maritime Organization

The International Maritime Organization (IMO), known as the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO) until 1982, is a specialised agency of the United Nations responsible for regulating shipping.

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International Tin Council

The International Tin Council (ITC) was an organisation which acted on behalf of major tin producers and consumers to control the international tin market.

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Irish language

The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.

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Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

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Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.

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Isotopes of indium

Indium (49In) consists of two primordial nuclides, with the most common (~ 95.7%) nuclide (115In) being measurably though weakly radioactive.

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Isotopes of tin

Tin (50Sn) is the element with the greatest number of stable isotopes (ten; three of them are potentially radioactive but have not been observed to decay), which is probably related to the fact that 50 is a "magic number" of protons.

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Journal of Organometallic Chemistry

The Journal of Organometallic Chemistry is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Elsevier, covering research on organometallic chemistry.

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The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.

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The kilogram or kilogramme (symbol: kg) is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI), and is defined as being equal to the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilogram (IPK, also known as "Le Grand K" or "Big K"), a cylinder of platinum-iridium alloy stored by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures at Saint-Cloud, France.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Lauric acid

Lauric acid or systematically, dodecanoic acid, is a saturated fatty acid with a 12-carbon atom chain, thus having many properties of medium chain fatty acids, is a white, powdery solid with a faint odor of bay oil or soap.

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Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.

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Lester R. Brown

Lester Russel Brown (born March 28, 1934) is a United States environmental analyst, founder of the Worldwatch Institute, and founder and former president of the Earth Policy Institute, a nonprofit research organization based in Washington, D.C. BBC Radio commentator Peter Day referred to him as "one of the great pioneer environmentalists." Brown is the author or co-author of over 50 books on global environmental issues and his works have been translated into more than forty languages.

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Linguistic reconstruction

Linguistic reconstruction is the practice of establishing the features of an unattested ancestor language of one or more given languages.

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Liquid-crystal display

A liquid-crystal display (LCD) is a flat-panel display or other electronically modulated optical device that uses the light-modulating properties of liquid crystals.

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List of countries by tin production

This is a list of countries by tin production in 2016.

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List of elements by stability of isotopes

Atomic nuclei consist of protons and neutrons, which attract each other through the nuclear force, while protons repel each other via the electric force due to their positive charge.

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A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.

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London Metal Exchange

The London Metal Exchange (LME) is the futures exchange with the world's largest market in options and futures contracts on base and other metals.

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Magic number (physics)

In nuclear physics, a magic number is a number of nucleons (either protons or neutrons, separately) such that they are arranged into complete shells within the atomic nucleus.

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Mass number

The mass number (symbol A, from the German word Atomgewichte (atomic weight), also called atomic mass number or nucleon number, is the total number of protons and neutrons (together known as nucleons) in an atomic nucleus. It determines the atomic mass of atoms. Because protons and neutrons both are baryons, the mass number A is identical with the baryon number B as of the nucleus as of the whole atom or ion. The mass number is different for each different isotope of a chemical element. This is not the same as the atomic number (Z) which denotes the number of protons in a nucleus, and thus uniquely identifies an element. Hence, the difference between the mass number and the atomic number gives the number of neutrons (N) in a given nucleus:. The mass number is written either after the element name or as a superscript to the left of an element's symbol. For example, the most common isotope of carbon is carbon-12, or, which has 6 protons and 6 neutrons. The full isotope symbol would also have the atomic number (Z) as a subscript to the left of the element symbol directly below the mass number:. This is technically redundant, as each element is defined by its atomic number, so it is often omitted.

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Meissner effect

The Meissner effect (or Meissner–Ochsenfeld effect) is the expulsion of a magnetic field from a superconductor during its transition to the superconducting state.

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A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.

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Meyers Konversations-Lexikon

Meyers Konversations-Lexikon or Meyers Lexikon was a major encyclopedia in the German language that existed in various editions, and by several titles, from 1839 to 1984, when it merged with the Brockhaus Enzyklopädie.

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A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.

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Minsur is a Peru-based mining company engaged in the extraction, foundation and refining of tin and copper.

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Molding (process)

Molding or moulding (see spelling differences) is the process of manufacturing by shaping liquid or pliable raw material using a rigid frame called a mold or matrix.

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Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.

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Mosaic gold

Mosaic gold or bronze powder refers to tin(IV) sulfide as used as a pigment in bronzing and gilding wood and metal work.

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Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.

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National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness.

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Niobium, formerly known as columbium, is a chemical element with symbol Nb (formerly Cb) and atomic number 41.

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Niobium-tin (Nb3Sn) or triniobium-tin is an intermetallic compound of niobium (Nb) and tin (Sn), used industrially as a type II superconductor.

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Nitro compound

Nitro compounds are organic compounds that contain one or more nitro functional groups (−2).

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Nuclear isomer

A nuclear isomer is a metastable state of an atomic nucleus caused by the excitation of one or more of its nucleons (protons or neutrons).

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Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, most commonly known as NMR spectroscopy or magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), is a spectroscopic technique to observe local magnetic fields around atomic nuclei.

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Occupational Safety and Health Administration

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor.

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Open-pit mining

Open-pit, open-cast or open cut mining is a surface mining technique of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open pit or borrow.

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Optoelectronics is the study and application of electronic devices and systems that source, detect and control light, usually considered a sub-field of photonics.

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Orders of magnitude (mass)

To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following lists describe various mass levels between 10−40 kg and 1053 kg.

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An ore is an occurrence of rock or sediment that contains sufficient minerals with economically important elements, typically metals, that can be economically extracted from the deposit.

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Organ pipe

An organ pipe is a sound-producing element of the pipe organ that resonates at a specific pitch when pressurized air (commonly referred to as wind) is driven through it.

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Organic chemistry

Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.

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Organogermanium compound

Organogermanium compounds are organometallic compounds containing a carbon to germanium or hydrogen to germanium chemical bond.

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Organosilicon compounds are organometallic compounds containing carbon–silicon bonds.

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Organotin chemistry

Organotin compounds or stannanes are chemical compounds based on tin with hydrocarbon substituents.

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Oxidation state

The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.

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An oxime is a chemical compound belonging to the imines, with the general formula R1R2C.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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p-nuclei (p stands for proton-rich) are certain proton-rich, naturally occurring isotopes of some elements between selenium and mercury inclusive which cannot be produced in either the s- or the r-process.

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Parts-per notation

In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.

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Pascal (unit)

The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength.

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Passivation (chemistry)

Passivation, in physical chemistry and engineering, refers to a material becoming "passive," that is, less affected or corroded by the environment of future use.

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Paul Revere

Paul Revere (December 21, 1734 O.S.May 10, 1818) was an American silversmith, engraver, early industrialist, and Patriot in the American Revolution.

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Periodic table

The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, whose structure shows periodic trends.

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Periodic Videos

The Periodic Table of Videos (usually shortened to Periodic Videos) is a series of videos about chemical elements and the periodic table.

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Permissible exposure limit

The permissible exposure limit (PEL or OSHA PEL) is a legal limit in the United States for exposure of an employee to a chemical substance or physical agent such as loud noise.

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Persistent organic pollutant

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, biological, and photolytic processes.

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Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.

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Pewter is a malleable metal alloy.

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Phosphor bronze

Phosphor bronze is an alloy of copper with 0.5–11% of tin and 0.01–0.35% phosphorus.

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Photodisintegration (also called phototransmutation) is a nuclear process in which an atomic nucleus absorbs a high-energy gamma ray, enters an excited state, and immediately decays by emitting a subatomic particle.

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Pie safe

A pie safe, also called a pie chest, pie cupboard, kitchen safe, and meat safe, is a piece of furniture designed to store pies and other food items.

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Pipe organ

The pipe organ is a musical instrument that produces sound by driving pressurized air (called wind) through organ pipes selected via a keyboard.

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Placer deposit

In geology, a placer deposit or placer is an accumulation of valuable minerals formed by gravity separation from a specific source rock during sedimentary processes.

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Placer mining

Placer mining is the mining of stream bed (alluvial) deposits for minerals.

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Plumbing is any system that conveys fluids for a wide range of applications.

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In chemistry or mining, polymetal or polymetallic is a substance composed of a combination of different metals.

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Polyvinyl chloride

Polyvinyl chloride, also known as polyvinyl or '''vinyl''', commonly abbreviated PVC, is the world's third-most widely produced synthetic plastic polymer, after polyethylene and polypropylene.

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Post-transition metal

Post-transition metals are a set of metallic elements in the periodic table located between the transition metals to their left, and the metalloids to their right.

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Proto-Germanic language

Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; German: Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German: Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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The pseudohalogens are polyatomic analogues of halogens, whose chemistry, resembling that of the true halogens, allows them to substitute for halogens in several classes of chemical compounds.

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The rapid neutron-capture process, or so-called r-process, is a set of nuclear reactions that in nuclear astrophysics is responsible for the creation (nucleosynthesis) of approximately half the abundances of the atomic nuclei heavier than iron, usually synthesizing the entire abundance of the two most neutron-rich stable isotopes of each heavy element.

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A reagent is a substance or compound added to a system to cause a chemical reaction, or added to test if a reaction occurs.

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Recommended exposure limit

A recommended exposure limit (REL) is an occupational exposure limit that has been recommended by the United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for adoption as a permissible exposure limit.

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Redistribution (chemistry)

In chemistry, redistribution usually refers to the exchange of anionic ligands bonded to metal and metalloid centers.

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Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.

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Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive

The Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive 2002/95/EC, (RoHS 1), short for Directive on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment, was adopted in February 2003 by the European Union.

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Reverberatory furnace

A reverberatory furnace is a metallurgical or process furnace that isolates the material being processed from contact with the fuel, but not from contact with combustion gases.

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Romance languages

The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.

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Royal Society of Chemistry

The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) is a learned society (professional association) in the United Kingdom with the goal of "advancing the chemical sciences".

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The slow neutron-capture process or s-process is a series of reactions in nuclear astrophysics that occur in stars, particularly AGB stars.

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A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.

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Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.

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Smelting is a process of applying heat to ore in order to melt out a base metal.

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Sodium fluoride

Sodium fluoride (NaF) is an inorganic compound with the formula NaF.

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Solder (or in North America) is a fusible metal alloy used to create a permanent bond between metal workpieces.

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Spin (physics)

In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.

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Stable isotope ratio

The term stable isotope has a meaning similar to stable nuclide, but is preferably used when speaking of nuclides of a specific element.

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Stannane or tin hydride is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula.

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The word stannary is historically applied to.

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Stannite is a mineral, a sulfide of copper, iron, and tin.

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A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.

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Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.

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Stellar nucleosynthesis

Stellar nucleosynthesis is the theory explaining the creation (nucleosynthesis) of chemical elements by nuclear fusion reactions between atoms within the stars.

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Stille reaction

The Stille reaction, or the Migita–Kosugi–Stille coupling, is a chemical reaction widely used in organic synthesis which involves the coupling of an organotin compound (also known as organostannanes) with a variety of organic electrophiles via palladium-catalyzed coupling reaction.

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Sulfide (systematically named sulfanediide, and sulfide(2−)) (British English sulphide) is an inorganic anion of sulfur with the chemical formula S2− or a compound containing one or more S2− ions.

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The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.

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Superconducting magnet

A superconducting magnet is an electromagnet made from coils of superconducting wire.

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Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic flux fields occurring in certain materials, called superconductors, when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.

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A supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas, abbreviations: SN and SNe) is a transient astronomical event that occurs during the last stellar evolutionary stages of a star's life, either a massive star or a white dwarf, whose destruction is marked by one final, titanic explosion.

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Swedish language

Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.

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Tableware are the dishes or dishware used for setting a table, serving food and dining.

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Teallite is a sulfide mineral of tin and lead with chemical formula: PbSnS2.

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Terne plate is a form of tinplate: a thin steel sheet coated with an alloy of lead and tin.

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Tesla (unit)

The tesla (symbol T) is a derived unit of magnetic flux density (informally, magnetic field strength) in the International System of Units.

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Thallium is a chemical element with symbol Tl and atomic number 81.

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The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language

The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (AHD) is an American dictionary of English published by Boston publisher Houghton Mifflin, the first edition of which appeared in 1969.

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Tin can

A tin can, tin (especially in British English, Australian English and Canadian English), steel can, steel packaging or a can, is a container for the distribution or storage of goods, composed of thin metal.

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Tin cry

A tin cry is the characteristic sound heard when a bar of tin is bent.

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Tin mining in Britain

Tin mining in Britain took place from prehistoric times, during Bronze Age Britain, and until the 20th century.

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Tin pest

Tin pest is an autocatalytic, allotropic transformation of the element tin, which causes deterioration of tin objects at low temperatures.

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Tin whistle

The tin whistle, also called the penny whistle, English flageolet, Scottish penny whistle, tin flageolet, Irish whistle, Belfast Hornpipe, feadóg stáin (or simply feadóg) and Clarke London FlageoletThe Clarke Tin Whistle By Bill Ochs is a simple, six-holed woodwind instrument.

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Tin(II) bromide

Tin(II) bromide is a chemical compound of tin and bromine with a chemical formula of SnBr2.

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Tin(II) chloride

Tin(II) chloride, also known as stannous chloride, is a white crystalline solid with the formula 2.

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Tin(II) fluoride

Tin(II) fluoride, commonly referred to commercially as stannous fluoride (from Latin stannum, 'tin') is a chemical compound with the formula SnF2.

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Tin(II) iodide

Tin(II) iodide, also known as stannous iodide, is an ionic tin salt of iodine with the formula SnI2.

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Tin(II) sulfide

Tin(II) sulfide is a chemical compound of tin and sulfur.

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Tin(IV) bromide

Tin(IV) bromide is the chemical compound SnBr4.

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Tin(IV) chloride

Tin(IV) chloride, also known as tin tetrachloride or stannic chloride, is an inorganic compound with the formula SnCl4.

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Tin(IV) fluoride

Tin(IV) fluoride is a chemical compound of tin and fluorine with the chemical formula SnF4 and is a white solid with a melting point above 700 °C.

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Tin(IV) iodide

Tin(IV) iodide, also known as stannic iodide, is the chemical compound with the formula SnI4.

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Tin(IV) Oxide

Tin(IV) Oxide, also known as stannic oxide, is the inorganic compound with the formula SnO2.

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Tin(IV) sulfide

Tin(IV) sulfide is a compound with the formula.

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The slang or colloquial term tinnie or tinny has a variety of meanings, generally derived from some association with the metal tin, or aluminium foil which has a loose allusion to tin.

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Tinning is the process of thinly coating sheets of wrought iron or steel with tin, and the resulting product is known as tinplate.

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The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.

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Trade involves the transfer of goods or services from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money.

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Tributyltin (TBT) is an umbrella term for a class of organotin compounds which contain the (C4H9)3Sn group, with a prominent example being tributyltin oxide.

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Tributyltin hydride

Tributyltin hydride is an organotin compound with the formula (C4H9)3SnH.

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Tributyltin oxide

Tributyltin oxide (TBTO) is an organotin compound chiefly used as a biocide (fungicide and molluscicide), especially a wood preservative.

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U.S. National Geodetic Survey

The National Geodetic Survey (NGS), formerly the United States Survey of the Coast (1807–1836), United States Coast Survey (1836–1878), and United States Coast and Geodetic Survey (USC&GS) (1878–1970), is a United States federal agency that defines and manages a national coordinate system, providing the foundation for transportation and communication; mapping and charting; and a large number of applications of science and engineering.

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Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive

The Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive (WEEE Directive) is the European Community Directive 2012/19/EU on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) which, together with the RoHS Directive 2002/95/EC, became European Law in February 2003.

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Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.

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Whisker (metallurgy)

Metal whiskering is a phenomenon which occurs in electrical devices when metals form long whisker-like projections over time.

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Wood preservation

All measures that are taken to ensure a long life of wood fall under the definition wood preservation (timber treatment).

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Yunnan Tin

Yunnan Tin Group (Holding) Company Limited (YTC) is the largest tin producer and exporter in China and the world.

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Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.

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Zirconium alloy

Zirconium alloys are solid solutions of zirconium or other metals, a common subgroup having the trade mark Zircaloy.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tin

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