131 relations: Alhambra Decree, AMIA bombing, Amidah, Ancient Rome, Anno Mundi, Av, Babylonia, Babylonian captivity, Bar Kokhba revolt, Beit Yosef (book), Betar (fortress), Bobov (Hasidic dynasty), Book of Jeremiah, Book of Job, Book of Lamentations, Caleb, Canaan, Conservative Judaism, Crusades, David Lau, Dirge, Edict of Expulsion, Eleazar ben Killir, England, English language, Ezra, Fast of Gedalia, Fasting, Final Solution, Five Megillot, France, Francesco Hayez, Gaza Strip, Gedaliah, Gregorian calendar, Gush Katif, Halakha, Havdalah, Hayim David HaLevi, Hebrew language, Hebrew numerals, Heinrich Himmler, Holocaust Memorial Days, Israel, Israeli disengagement from Gaza, Israelites, Jerusalem, Jewish diaspora, Jewish Encyclopedia, Jewish history, ..., Jewish holidays, Jewish prayer, Jews, Joseph Breuer, Joseph Karo, Joshua, Judah ha-Nasi, Judah Halevi, Judaism, Judea, Julian calendar, Kingdom of Judah, Kinnot, Maimonides, Megillah (Talmud), Menachem Begin, Messiah in Judaism, Mincha, Mishnah, Mishneh Torah, Missing years (Jewish calendar), Moses, Moses ben Jacob of Coucy, Moses Isserles, Mourning, Names of God in Judaism, Nebuchadnezzar II, Nehemiah, Orach Chayim, Orthodox Judaism, Parochet, Posek, Prayer, Promised Land, Rabbi, Religious Zionism, Rhineland, Rhineland massacres, Ritual washing in Judaism, Second Temple, Sefer Torah, Sephardi Jews, Seventeenth of Tammuz, Shabbat, Shehecheyanu, Shimon Schwab, Shiva (Judaism), Shlomo Goren, Shlomo Halberstam (third Bobover rebbe), Shulchan Aruch, Siege of Jerusalem (587 BC), Siege of Jerusalem (70 CE), Six-Day War, Solomon, Solomon's Temple, Spain, Synagogue, Ta'anit, Ta'anit (Talmud), Tallit, Talmud, Targum Press, Tefillin, Temple in Jerusalem, Ten Martyrs, Tenth of Tevet, The Holocaust, The Nine Days, The Three Weeks, The Twelve Spies, Torah, Torah ark, Treblinka extermination camp, Warsaw Ghetto, West Bank, World War I, Yitzhak Yosef, Yom HaShoah, Yom Hazikaron, Yom Kippur, 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict. Expand index (81 more) » « Shrink index
The Alhambra Decree (also known as the Edict of Expulsion; Spanish: Decreto de la Alhambra, Edicto de Granada) was an edict issued on 31 March 1492, by the joint Catholic Monarchs of Spain (Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon) ordering the expulsion of practicing Jews from the Kingdoms of Castile and Aragon and its territories and possessions by 31 July of that year.
The AMIA bombing was an attack on the Asociación Mutual Israelita Argentina (AMIA; Argentine Israelite Mutual Association) building.
The Amidah (תפילת העמידה, Tefilat HaAmidah, "The Standing Prayer"), also called the Shmoneh Esreh ("The Eighteen", in reference to the original number of constituent blessings: there are now nineteen), is the central prayer of the Jewish liturgy.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Anno Mundi (Latin for "in the year of the world"; Hebrew:, "to the creation of the world"), abbreviated as AM or A.M., or Year After Creation, is a calendar era based on the biblical accounts of the creation of the world and subsequent history.
Av (אָב, Standard Av Tiberian ʾĀḇ Aramaic אבא Abba; from Akkadian abu; "father") is the eleventh month of the civil year and the fifth month of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar.
Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).
The Babylonian captivity or Babylonian exile is the period in Jewish history during which a number of people from the ancient Kingdom of Judah were captives in Babylonia.
The Bar Kokhba revolt (מרד בר כוכבא; Mered Bar Kokhba) was a rebellion of the Jews of the Roman province of Judea, led by Simon bar Kokhba, against the Roman Empire.
Beit Yosef (בית יוסף) — also transliterated Beth Yosef — is a book by Rabbi Joseph Caro.
Betar fortress was an ancient, terraced farming village in the Judean highlands.
Bobov (or Bobover Hasidism) (חסידות באבוב) is a Hasidic community within Haredi Judaism originating in Bobowa, Galicia, in southern Poland, and now headquartered in the neighborhood of Borough Park in Brooklyn, New York.
The Book of Jeremiah (ספר יִרְמְיָהוּ; abbreviated Jer. or Jerm. in citations) is the second of the Latter Prophets in the Hebrew Bible, and the second of the Prophets in the Christian Old Testament.
The Book of Job (Hebrew: אִיוֹב Iyov) is a book in the Ketuvim ("Writings") section of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh), and the first poetic book in the Old Testament of the Christian Bible.
The Book of Lamentations (אֵיכָה, ‘Êykhôh, from its incipit meaning "how") is a collection of poetic laments for the destruction of Jerusalem.
Caleb, sometimes transliterated as Kaleb (Kalev; Tiberian vocalization: Kālēḇ; Hebrew Academy: Kalev), is a figure who appears in the Hebrew Bible as a representative of the Tribe of Judah during the Israelites' journey to the Promised Land.
Canaan (Northwest Semitic:; Phoenician: 𐤊𐤍𐤏𐤍 Kenā‘an; Hebrew) was a Semitic-speaking region in the Ancient Near East during the late 2nd millennium BC.
Conservative Judaism (known as Masorti Judaism outside North America) is a major Jewish denomination, which views Jewish Law, or Halakha, as both binding and subject to historical development.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
David Baruch Lau (דוד לאו; born 13 January 1966) is the Ashkenazi Chief Rabbi of Israel.
A dirge is a somber song or lament expressing mourning or grief, such as would be appropriate for performance at a funeral.
The Edict of Expulsion was a royal decree issued by King Edward I of England on 18 July 1290, expelling all Jews from the Kingdom of England.
Eleazar ben Killir, also known as Eleazar Kalir, Eleazar Qalir or El'azar HaKalir (c. 570 – c. 640) was a Byzantine Jew and a Hebrew poet whose classical liturgical verses, known as piyut, have continued to be sung through the centuries during significant religious services, including those on Tisha B'Av and on the sabbath after a wedding.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Ezra (עזרא,; fl. 480–440 BCE), also called Ezra the Scribe and Ezra the Priest in the Book of Ezra, was a Jewish scribe and a priest.
The Fast of Gedaliah (צוֹם גְּדַלְיָה Tzom Gedalya), also transliterated from the Hebrew language as Gedalia, or Gedalya(h), is a minor Jewish fast day from dawn until dusk to lament the assassination of the righteous governor of Judah.
Fasting is the willing abstinence or reduction from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time.
The Final Solution (Endlösung) or the Final Solution to the Jewish Question (die Endlösung der Judenfrage) was a Nazi plan for the extermination of the Jews during World War II.
The Five Scrolls or The Five Megillot (חמש מגילות, Hamesh Megillot or Chomeish Megillos) are parts of the Ketuvim ("Writings"), the third major section of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible).
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Francesco Hayez (10 February 1791 – 21 December 1882) was an Italian painter, the leading artist of Romanticism in mid-19th-century Milan, renowned for his grand historical paintings, political allegories and exceptionally fine portraits.
The Gaza Strip (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p.761 "Gaza Strip /'gɑːzə/ a strip of territory under the control of the Palestinian National Authority and Hamas, on the SE Mediterranean coast including the town of Gaza...". قطاع غزة), or simply Gaza, is a self-governing Palestinian territory on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, that borders Egypt on the southwest for and Israel on the east and north along a border.
Gedaliah, Gedalia, or Gedalya(h) (or; גְּדַלְיָּה G'dalyyâh or G'dalyyâhû, meaning Jah has become great) was, according to the Hebrew Bible, appointed by Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon as governor of Yehud province, which was formed after the defeat of the Kingdom of Judah and the destruction of Jerusalem, in a part of the territory that previously formed the kingdom.
The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used civil calendar in the world.
Gush Katif (גוש קטיף, lit. Harvest Bloc) was a bloc of 17 Israeli settlements in the southern Gaza strip.
Halakha (הֲלָכָה,; also transliterated as halacha, halakhah, halachah or halocho) is the collective body of Jewish religious laws derived from the Written and Oral Torah.
Havdalah (Hebrew: הַבְדָּלָה, "separation") is a Jewish religious ceremony that marks the symbolic end of Sabbath and ushers in the new week.
Rabbi Hayim David HaLevi (24 January 1924 – 10 March 1998), also written Haim David ha-Levi, etc.
The system of Hebrew numerals is a quasi-decimal alphabetic numeral system using the letters of the Hebrew alphabet.
Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was Reichsführer of the Schutzstaffel (Protection Squadron; SS), and a leading member of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) of Germany.
Holocaust Memorial Day or Holocaust Remembrance Day refers to various countries' designated annual day of commemoration honoring the victims, survivors and rescuers of the Holocaust during the Nazi regime As of 2004, twelve countries observed January 27, the day of the liberation of the Auschwitz concentration camp, including Germany, Britain, France, Italy and Scandinavian countries.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
The Israeli disengagement from Gaza (תוכנית ההתנתקות,; in the Disengagement Plan Implementation Law), also known as "Gaza expulsion" and "Hitnatkut", was the withdrawal of the Israeli army from inside the Gaza Strip, and the dismantling of all Israeli settlements in the Gaza Strip in 2005.
The Israelites (בני ישראל Bnei Yisra'el) were a confederation of Iron Age Semitic-speaking tribes of the ancient Near East, who inhabited a part of Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tfutza, תְּפוּצָה) or exile (Hebrew: Galut, גָּלוּת; Yiddish: Golus) is the dispersion of Israelites, Judahites and later Jews out of their ancestral homeland (the Land of Israel) and their subsequent settlement in other parts of the globe.
The Jewish Encyclopedia is an English encyclopedia containing over 15,000 articles on the history, culture, and state of Judaism and the Jews up to the early 20th century.
Jewish history is the history of the Jews, and their religion and culture, as it developed and interacted with other peoples, religions and cultures.
Jewish holidays, also known as Jewish festivals or Yamim Tovim ("Good Days", or singular Yom Tov, in transliterated Hebrew), are holidays observed in Judaism and by JewsThis article focuses on practices of mainstream Rabbinic Judaism.
Jewish prayer (תְּפִלָּה, tefillah; plural תְּפִלּוֹת, tefillot; Yiddish תּפֿלה tfile, plural תּפֿלות tfilles; Yinglish: davening from Yiddish דאַוון daven ‘pray’) are the prayer recitations and Jewish meditation traditions that form part of the observance of Rabbinic Judaism.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Joseph Breuer (March 20, 1882 – April 19, 1980) was a rabbi and community leader in Germany and the United States.
Joseph ben Ephraim Karo, also spelled Yosef Caro, or Qaro (1488 – March 24, 1575, 13 Nisan 5335 A.M.), was author of the last great codification of Jewish law, the Shulchan Aruch, which is still authoritative for all Jews pertaining to their respective communities.
Joshua or Jehoshua (יְהוֹשֻׁעַ Yehōšuʿa) or Isho (Aramaic: ܝܼܫܘܿܥ ܒܲܪ ܢܘܿܢ Eesho Bar Non) is the central figure in the Hebrew Bible's Book of Joshua.
Judah ha-Nasi (יהודה הנשיא, Yehudah HaNasi or Judah the Prince) or Judah I, also known as Rabbi or Rabbenu HaQadosh ("our Master, the holy one"), was a second-century rabbi and chief redactor and editor of the Mishnah.
Judah Halevi (also Yehuda Halevi or ha-Levi; יהודה הלוי and Judah ben Shmuel Halevi; يهوذا اللاوي; 1075 – 1141) was a Spanish Jewish physician, poet and philosopher.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Judea or Judæa (from יהודה, Standard Yəhuda, Tiberian Yəhûḏāh, Ἰουδαία,; Iūdaea, يهودا, Yahudia) is the ancient Hebrew and Israelite biblical, the exonymic Roman/English, and the modern-day name of the mountainous southern part of Canaan-Israel.
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.
The Kingdom of Judah (מַמְלֶכֶת יְהוּדָה, Mamlekhet Yehudāh) was an Iron Age kingdom of the Southern Levant.
Kinnot (קינות; also kinnos, kinoth, qinot, qinoth; singular kinah or kinnah) are dirges (sad poems) or elegies traditionally recited by Jews on Tisha B'Av to mourn the destruction of both the First and Second Temple in Jerusalem and other tragedies in Jewish history, including the Crusades and the Holocaust.
Moses ben Maimon (Mōšeh bēn-Maymūn; موسى بن ميمون Mūsā bin Maymūn), commonly known as Maimonides (Μαϊμωνίδης Maïmōnídēs; Moses Maimonides), and also referred to by the acronym Rambam (for Rabbeinu Mōšeh bēn Maimun, "Our Rabbi Moses son of Maimon"), was a medieval Sephardic Jewish philosopher who became one of the most prolific and influential Torah scholars of the Middle Ages.
Megillah is the tenth Tractate of Mishnah in the Order Moed.
Menachem Begin (Menaḥem Begin,; Menakhem Volfovich Begin; 16 August 1913 – 9 March 1992) was an Israeli politician, founder of Likud and the sixth Prime Minister of Israel.
The messiah in Judaism is a savior and liberator of the Jewish people.
Mincha (מִנחַה, pronounced as; sometimes spelled Minchah or Minha) is the afternoon prayer service in Judaism.
The Mishnah or Mishna (מִשְׁנָה, "study by repetition", from the verb shanah, or "to study and review", also "secondary") is the first major written collection of the Jewish oral traditions known as the "Oral Torah".
The Mishneh Torah (מִשְׁנֵה תּוֹרָה, "Repetition of the Torah"), subtitled Sefer Yad ha-Hazaka (ספר יד החזקה "Book of the Strong Hand"), is a code of Jewish religious law (Halakha) authored by Maimonides (Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, also known as RaMBaM or "Rambam").
The missing years in the Hebrew calendar refer to a chronological discrepancy between Talmudic chronologists for the destruction of the First Temple in 423 BCE (3338 AM) and the modern secular dating for it in 587 BCE.
Mosesמֹשֶׁה, Modern Tiberian ISO 259-3; ܡܘܫܐ Mūše; موسى; Mωϋσῆς was a prophet in the Abrahamic religions.
Moses ben Jacob of Coucy, also known as Moses Mikkotsi (משה בן יעקב מקוצי; Moses Kotsensis), was a French Tosafist and authority on Halakha (Jewish law).
Moses Isserles (משה בן ישראל איסרלישׂ, Mojżesz ben Israel Isserles) (February 22, 1530 / Adar I, 5290 – May 11, 1572 / Iyar), was an eminent Polish Ashkenazic rabbi, talmudist, and posek.
Mourning is, in the simplest sense, grief over someone's death.
The name of God most often used in the Hebrew Bible is the Tetragrammaton (YHWH). It is frequently anglicized as Jehovah and Yahweh and written in most English editions of the Bible as "the " owing to the Jewish tradition viewing the divine name as increasingly too sacred to be uttered.
Nebuchadnezzar II (from Akkadian dNabû-kudurri-uṣur), meaning "O god Nabu, preserve/defend my firstborn son") was king of Babylon c. 605 BC – c. 562 BC, the longest and most powerful reign of any monarch in the Neo-Babylonian empire.
Nehemiah is the central figure of the Book of Nehemiah, which describes his work in rebuilding Jerusalem during the Second Temple period.
Orach Chayim (אורח חיים; manner of life) is a section of Rabbi Jacob ben Asher's compilation of Halakha (Jewish law), Arba'ah Turim.
Orthodox Judaism is a collective term for the traditionalist branches of Judaism, which seek to maximally maintain the received Jewish beliefs and observances and which coalesced in opposition to the various challenges of modernity and secularization.
The parochet (Hebrew: פרוכת) (also paroches; from the Aramaic parokta meaning "curtain" or "screen" Sonne Isaiah (1962) 'Synagogue' in The Interpreter's dictionary of the Bible vol 4, New York: Abingdon Press pp 476-491) is the curtain that covers the Aron Kodesh (Torah Ark) containing the Sifrei Torah (Torah scrolls) in a synagogue.
Posek (פוסק, pl. Poskim) is the term in Jewish law for "decisor"—a legal scholar who decides the Halakha in cases of law where previous authorities are inconclusive or in those situations where no halakhic precedent exists.
Prayer is an invocation or act that seeks to activate a rapport with an object of worship, typically a deity, through deliberate communication.
The Promised Land (הארץ המובטחת, translit.: Ha'Aretz HaMuvtahat; أرض الميعاد, translit.: Ard Al-Mi'ad; also known as "The Land of Milk and Honey") is the land which, according to the Tanakh (the Hebrew Bible), was promised and subsequently given by God to Abraham and his descendants, and in modern contexts an image and idea related both to the restored Homeland for the Jewish people and to salvation and liberation is more generally understood.
In Judaism, a rabbi is a teacher of Torah.
Religious Zionism (צִיּוֹנוּת דָּתִית, translit. Tziyonut Datit, or Dati Leumi "National Religious", or Kippah seruga, literally, "knitted skullcap") is an ideology that combines Zionism and Orthodox Judaism.
The Rhineland (Rheinland, Rhénanie) is the name used for a loosely defined area of Western Germany along the Rhine, chiefly its middle section.
The Rhineland massacres, also known as the persecutions of 1096 or Gzerot Tatenu (גזרות תתנ"ו Hebrew for "Edicts of 856"), were a series of mass murders of Jews perpetrated by mobs of German Christians of the People's Crusade in the year 1096, or 4856 according to the Jewish calendar.
In Judaism, ritual washing, or ablution, takes two main forms.
The Second Temple (בֵּית־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי, Beit HaMikdash HaSheni) was the Jewish Holy Temple which stood on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem during the Second Temple period, between 516 BCE and 70 CE.
A Sefer Torah (ספר תורה; "Book of Torah" or "Torah scroll"; plural: Sifrei Torah) is a handwritten copy of the Torah, the holiest book in Judaism.
Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic Jews or Sephardim (סְפָרַדִּים, Modern Hebrew: Sefaraddim, Tiberian: Səp̄āraddîm; also Ye'hude Sepharad, lit. "The Jews of Spain"), originally from Sepharad, Spain or the Iberian peninsula, are a Jewish ethnic division.
The Seventeenth of Tammuz (שבעה עשר בתמוז Shiv'ah Asar b'Tammuz) is a Jewish fast day commemorating the breach of the walls of Jerusalem before the destruction of the Second Temple.
Shabbat (שַׁבָּת, "rest" or "cessation") or Shabbos (Ashkenazi Hebrew and שבת), or the Sabbath is Judaism's day of rest and seventh day of the week, on which religious Jews, Samaritans and certain Christians (such as Seventh-day Adventists, the 7th Day movement and Seventh Day Baptists) remember the Biblical creation of the heavens and the earth in six days and the Exodus of the Hebrews, and look forward to a future Messianic Age.
The Shehecheyanu blessing (שהחינו, "Who has given us life") is a common Jewish prayer said to celebrate special occasions.
Shimon (Simon) Schwab (December 30, 1908 – February 13, 1995) was an Orthodox rabbi and communal leader in Germany and the United States.
Shiva (שבעה, literally "seven") is the week-long mourning period in Judaism for first-degree relatives.
Shlomo Goren (שלמה גורן) (February 3, 1917 – October 29, 1994), was an Orthodox Religious Zionist rabbi in Israel, a Talmudic scholar and foremost authority on Jewish law.
Shlomo Halberstam (1907 - August 2, 2000) (ר' שלמה הלברשטאם), was the third Rebbe of Bobov who re-established the Hasidic dynasty in the United States after World War II.
The Shulchan Aruch (שֻׁלְחָן עָרוּך, literally: "Set Table"), sometimes dubbed in English as the Code of Jewish Law, is the most widely consulted of the various legal codes in Judaism.
In 589 BC, Nebuchadnezzar II laid siege to Jerusalem, culminating in the destruction of the city and its temple in the summer of 587 or 586 BC.
The Siege of Jerusalem in the year 70 CE was the decisive event of the First Jewish–Roman War.
The Six-Day War (Hebrew: מלחמת ששת הימים, Milhemet Sheshet Ha Yamim; Arabic: النكسة, an-Naksah, "The Setback" or حرب ۱۹٦۷, Ḥarb 1967, "War of 1967"), also known as the June War, 1967 Arab–Israeli War, or Third Arab–Israeli War, was fought between 5 and 10 June 1967 by Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt (known at the time as the United Arab Republic), Jordan, and Syria.
Solomon (שְׁלֹמֹה, Shlomoh), also called Jedidiah (Hebrew Yədidya), was, according to the Hebrew Bible, Quran, Hadith and Hidden Words, a fabulously wealthy and wise king of Israel who succeeded his father, King David. The conventional dates of Solomon's reign are circa 970 to 931 BCE, normally given in alignment with the dates of David's reign. He is described as the third king of the United Monarchy, which would break apart into the northern Kingdom of Israel and the southern Kingdom of Judah shortly after his death. Following the split, his patrilineal descendants ruled over Judah alone. According to the Talmud, Solomon is one of the 48 prophets. In the Quran, he is considered a major prophet, and Muslims generally refer to him by the Arabic variant Sulayman, son of David. The Hebrew Bible credits him as the builder of the First Temple in Jerusalem, beginning in the fourth year of his reign, using the vast wealth he had accumulated. He dedicated the temple to Yahweh, the God of Israel. He is portrayed as great in wisdom, wealth and power beyond either of the previous kings of the country, but also as a king who sinned. His sins included idolatry, marrying foreign women and, ultimately, turning away from Yahweh, and they led to the kingdom's being torn in two during the reign of his son Rehoboam. Solomon is the subject of many other later references and legends, most notably in the 1st-century apocryphal work known as the Testament of Solomon. In the New Testament, he is portrayed as a teacher of wisdom excelled by Jesus, and as arrayed in glory, but excelled by "the lilies of the field". In later years, in mostly non-biblical circles, Solomon also came to be known as a magician and an exorcist, with numerous amulets and medallion seals dating from the Hellenistic period invoking his name.
According to the Hebrew Bible, Solomon's Temple, also known as the First Temple, was the Holy Temple (בֵּית־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ: Beit HaMikdash) in ancient Jerusalem before its destruction by Nebuchadnezzar II after the Siege of Jerusalem of 587 BCE and its subsequent replacement with the Second Temple in the 6th century BCE.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
A synagogue, also spelled synagog (pronounced; from Greek συναγωγή,, 'assembly', בית כנסת, 'house of assembly' or, "house of prayer", Yiddish: שול shul, Ladino: אסנוגה or קהל), is a Jewish house of prayer.
A ta'anit, or taanis (in Ashkenaz pronunciation), or taʿanith in Classical Hebrew is a fast in Judaism in which one abstains from all food and drink, including water.
Ta'anit or Taanis is a volume (or "tractate") of the Mishnah, Tosefta, and both Talmuds.
A tallit (טַלִּית talit in Modern Hebrew; tālēt in Sephardic Hebrew and Ladino; tallis in Ashkenazic Hebrew and Yiddish) (pl. tallitot, talleisim, tallism in Ashkenazic Hebrew and Yiddish; ṭālēth/ṭelāyōth in Tiberian Hebrew) is a fringed garment traditionally worn by religious Jews.
The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד talmūd "instruction, learning", from a root LMD "teach, study") is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law and theology.
Targum Press is an Orthodox Jewish English-language publishing company based in Jerusalem.
Tefillin (Askhenazic:; Israeli Hebrew:, תפילין), also called phylacteries, are a set of small black leather boxes containing scrolls of parchment inscribed with verses from the Torah.
The Temple in Jerusalem was any of a series of structures which were located on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem, the current site of the Dome of the Rock and Al-Aqsa Mosque.
The Ten Martyrs (עשרת הרוגי מלכות Aseret Harugei Malchut) were ten rabbis living during the era of the Mishnah who were martyred by the Romans in the period after the destruction of the second Temple.
Tenth of Tevet (עשרה בטבת, Asarah BeTevet), the tenth day of the Hebrew month of Tevet, is a fast day in Judaism.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
The Nine Days of Av are a religious observance in Judaism that takes place during the first nine days of the Jewish month of Av (corresponding to July/August).
The Three Weeks or Bein ha-Metzarim (Hebrew: בין המצרים, "Between the Straits") (cf "dire straits") is a period of mourning commemorating the destruction of the first and second Jewish Temples.
The Twelve Spies (Hebrew: שנים עשר המרגלים), as recorded in the Book of Numbers, were a group of Israelite chieftains, one from each of the Twelve Tribes, who were dispatched by Moses to scout out the Land of Canaan for 40 days as a future home for the Israelite people, during the time when the Israelites were in the wilderness following their Exodus from Ancient Egypt.
Torah (תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings.
The ark in a synagogue (also called the Torah ark or holy ark) is generally a receptacle, or ornamental closet, which contains each synagogue's Torah scrolls (Sifrei Torah in Hebrew).
Treblinka was an extermination camp, built and operated by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland during World War II.
The Warsaw Ghetto (Warschauer Ghetto, officially Jüdischer Wohnbezirk in Warschau Jewish Residential District in Warsaw; getto warszawskie) was the largest of all the Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Europe during World War II.
The West Bank (الضفة الغربية; הגדה המערבית, HaGadah HaMa'aravit) is a landlocked territory near the Mediterranean coast of Western Asia, the bulk of it now under Israeli control, or else under joint Israeli-Palestinian Authority control.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
Yitzhak Yosef (יצחק יוסף, born January 16, 1952) is the Sephardi Chief Rabbi of Israel, also known as the Rishon LeZion, the rosh yeshiva of Yeshivat Hazon Ovadia, and the author of a set of books on Jewish law called Yalkut Yosef.
Yom Hazikaron laShoah ve-laG'vurah (יום הזיכרון לשואה ולגבורה; "Holocaust and Heroism Remembrance Day"), known colloquially in Israel and abroad as Yom HaShoah (יום השואה) and in English as Holocaust Remembrance Day, or Holocaust Day, is observed as Israel's day of commemoration for the approximately six million Jews who perished in the Holocaust as a result of the actions carried out by Nazi Germany and its collaborators, and for the Jewish resistance in that period.
Yom Hazikaron (יוֹם הַזִּכָּרוֹן; lit. "Memorial Day"), in full Yom Hazikaron l'Chalalei Ma'arachot Yisrael ul'Nifge'ei Pe'ulot Ha'eivah (Hebrew:; lit. "Memorial Day for the Fallen Soldiers of Israel and Victims of Terrorism"), is Israel's official remembrance day, enacted into law in 1963.
Yom Kippur (יוֹם כִּיפּוּר,, or), also known as the Day of Atonement, is the holiest day of the year in Judaism.
The 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict also known as Operation Protective Edge (מִבְצָע צוּק אֵיתָן, Miv'tza Tzuk Eitan, lit. "Operation Strong Cliff") and sometimes referred to as the 2014 Gaza war, was a military operation launched by Israel on 8 July 2014 in the Hamas-ruled Gaza Strip.
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