310 relations: Abundance of elements in Earth's crust, Adventure Cycling Association, Airbus A320 family, Airbus A330, Airbus A340, Airbus A380, Akaogiite, Alfa-class submarine, Alkoxide, Allotropy, Alloy, Aluminium, Anatase, Anodizing, Anton Eduard van Arkel, Apollo 17, Apple Inc., Aqua regia, Argon, Asterism (gemology), ASTM International, Atmosphere of Earth, Atomic number, Australia, Bar stock, Barium titanate, Batch production, Beta decay, Bioaccumulation, Biocompatibility, Bloomberg Businessweek, Body piercing, Boeing 737, Boeing 747, Boeing 777, Brookite, Calcium, Canada, Carbohydrate, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Carbothermic reaction, Catalysis, Cerritos Millennium Library, Chemical element, Chemical transport reaction, Chevrolet Corvette, China, Chlorine, Cisplatin, ..., Clergy, Coal, Coke (fuel), Color, Columbia Encyclopedia, Columbia University Press, Copper, Cornwall, Corrosion, Corundum, Covalent bond, Creep (deformation), Crell's Annalen, Crust (geology), Crystal bar process, Crystallite, DARPA, Decay product, Defense National Stockpile Center, Density, Dental implant, Desalination, Deuterium, Diamond, Dispersion (optics), Drill bit, Ductility, Earth, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electricity, Electron capture, Embrittlement, Equisetum, Farrier, Fatigue limit, Ferromagnetism, Ferrotitanium, FFC Cambridge process, Fineness, Fire class, Fractional distillation, Franz-Joseph Müller von Reichenstein, Galling, Gamma ray, Glass, Gold Coast Titans, Greek mythology, Group (periodic table), Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, Half-life, Heat capacity, Heat exchanger, Helium, HSAB theory, Human, Human body, Hunter process, Hydrochloric acid, Hydrogen, Hydrometallurgy, Hypholoma capnoides, Igneous rock, Ilmenite, Image-guided surgery, Implant (medicine), Incandescent light bulb, Inclusion (mineral), India, Internal fixation, Iron, Iron oxide, Isotope, Jan Hendrik de Boer, Jet engine, John F. Hartwig, Joint replacement, Juno Radiation Vault, Kingdom of Great Britain, Kroll process, Landing gear, Lewis acids and bases, Liquid oxygen, List of countries by titanium production, Lithium battery, Lithosphere, Lockheed A-12, Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird, LS based GM small-block engine, Magnesium, Magnet, Magnetic resonance imaging, Manganese, Marasmius oreades, Martin Heinrich Klaproth, Mass, Mass production, Matthew Hunter, Medication, Melting, Memorial Museum of Cosmonautics, Metal, Metal aquo complex, Metal carbonyl, Metal foam, Meteorite, Mineral, Missile, Mobile phone, Mohs scale of mineral hardness, Molybdenum, Monument to the Conquerors of Space, Monument to Yuri Gagarin, Moon, Mozambique, Mukaiyama aldol addition, Nacelle, Nanometre, Nanoparticle, Natural abundance, Nature (journal), New Zealand, Nickel, Nitrogen, North American F-100 Super Sabre, Norway, Octahedral molecular geometry, Orenda Iroquois, Organic chemistry, Osseointegration, Oxford University Press, Oxidation state, Oxide, Oxygen, Paramagnetism, Parts-per notation, Pascal (unit), Passivation (chemistry), Periodic table, Periodic Videos, Periprosthetic, Perovskite, Petasis reagent, Photocatalysis, Piezoelectricity, Pigment, Plant, Plasma (physics), Plating, Platinum, Polymerization, Polymorphism (materials science), Polyolefin, Polypropylene, Popular Science, Positron, Pounds per square inch, Powder metallurgy, Prosthesis, Prussia, Pulp and paper industry, Pyrotechnics, Radioactive decay, Radionuclide, Reagent, Redox, Refractive index, Refractory metals, Relative atomic mass, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rock (geology), Royal Geological Society of Cornwall, Ruby, Rutile, Salt, Sapphire, Scandium, Seawater, Sedimentary rock, Semiconductor device fabrication, Sharpless epoxidation, Sheet metal, Sierra Leone, Silicon carbide, Silicon dioxide, Smoke screen, Sodium, Sol–gel process, Solder, Solderability, Sound, South Africa, Soviet submarine K-278 Komsomolets, Soviet Union, Spacecraft, Specific strength, Sputtering, Stainless steel, Star, Steel, Stellar classification, Strategic material, Structural steel, Sulfuric acid, Sun, Surgical instrument, Tebbe's reagent, Thermal conductivity, Timeline of chemical element discoveries, Titan (mythology), Titanate, Titanite, Titanium alloy, Titanium Beta C, Titanium carbide, Titanium dioxide, Titanium disulfide, Titanium gold, Titanium in Africa, Titanium in zircon geothermometry, Titanium isopropoxide, Titanium Man, Titanium Metals Corporation, Titanium nitride, Titanium ring, Titanium sublimation pump, Titanium tetrachloride, Titanium tetraiodide, Titanium(II) oxide, Titanium(III) chloride, Titanium(III) oxide, Titanocene dicarbonyl, Titanocene dichloride, Transition metal, Tube (fluid conveyance), Ukraine, Ultimate tensile strength, Ultra-high vacuum, Ultrasonic welding, Unified atomic mass unit, United States Department of Defense, United States Geological Survey, Urtica, Valence electron, Vanadium, Vietnam, VSMPO-AVISMA, Watch, Wave interference, Wave soldering, Welding, West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania, Westport, Connecticut, William Gregor, William Justin Kroll, Yellow nail syndrome, Young's modulus, Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie, Ziegler–Natta catalyst, Zirconium, 6061 aluminium alloy. Expand index (260 more) » « Shrink index
The abundance of elements in Earth's crust is shown in tabulated form with the estimated crustal abundance for each chemical element shown as either percentage or parts per million (ppm) by mass (10,000 ppm.
Adventure Cycling Association is a nonprofit member organization focused on travel by bicycle.
The Airbus A320 family consists of short- to medium-range, narrow-body, commercial passenger twin-engine jet airliners manufactured by Airbus.
The Airbus A330 is a medium- to long-range wide-body twin-engine jet airliner made by Airbus.
The Airbus A340 is a long-range, four-engine, wide-body commercial passenger jet airliner that was developed and produced by the European aerospace company Airbus.
The Airbus A380 is a double-deck, wide-body, four-engine jet airliner manufactured by multi-national manufacturer Airbus.
Akaogiite is an exceedingly rare mineral, one of natural forms of titanium dioxide.
The Soviet Union/Russian Navy Project 705 (Лира/Lira, "Lyre") was a class of hunter/killer nuclear-powered submarines.
An alkoxide is the conjugate base of an alcohol and therefore consists of an organic group bonded to a negatively charged oxygen atom.
Allotropy or allotropism is the property of some chemical elements to exist in two or more different forms, in the same physical state, known as allotropes of these elements.
An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Anatase is a mineral form of titanium dioxide (TiO2).
Anodizing (spelled anodising in British English) is an electrolytic passivation process used to increase the thickness of the natural oxide layer on the surface of metal parts.
Anton Eduard van Arkel, ('s-Gravenzande Netherlands, 19 November 1893 – Leiden, 14 March 1976) was a Dutch chemist.
Apollo 17 was the final mission of NASA's Apollo program.
Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services.
Aqua regia (from Latin, "royal water" or "king's water") is a mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid, optimally in a molar ratio of 1:3.
Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18.
Asterism (from ἀστήρ star), the property of a star stone (asteria), is the phenomenon of gemstones exhibiting a star-like concentration of reflected or refracted light when cut en cabochon (shaped and polished rather than faceted).
ASTM International is an international standards organization that develops and publishes voluntary consensus technical standards for a wide range of materials, products, systems, and services.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Bar stock, also (colloquially) known as blank, slug or billet, is a common form of raw purified metal, used by industry to manufacture metal parts and products.
Barium titanate is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula BaTiO3.
Batch production is a technique used in manufacturing, in which the object in question is created stage by stage over a series of workstations, and different batches of products are made.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.
Bioaccumulation is the accumulation of substances, such as pesticides, or other chemicals in an organism.
Biocompatibility is related to the behavior of biomaterials in various contexts.
Bloomberg Businessweek is an American weekly business magazine published by Bloomberg L.P. Businessweek was founded in 1929.
Body piercing, a form of body modification, is the practice of puncturing or cutting a part of the human body, creating an opening in which jewelry may be worn.
The Boeing 737 is a short- to medium-range twinjet narrow-body airliner developed and manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes in the United States.
The Boeing 747 is an American wide-body commercial jet airliner and cargo aircraft, often referred to by its original nickname, "Jumbo Jet".
The Boeing 777 is a family of long-range wide-body twin-engine jet airliners developed and manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes.
Brookite is the orthorhombic variant of titanium dioxide, TiO2, which occurs in four natural polymorphic forms (minerals with the same composition but different structure).
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbothermic reactions involve the reduction of substances, often metal oxides (O2^2-), using carbon as the reducing agent.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
The Cerritos Library, the New Cerritos Library, or the Cerritos Public Library is the civic library for the City of Cerritos, California.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
In chemistry, a chemical transport reaction describes a process for purification and crystallization of non-volatile solids.
The Chevrolet Corvette, known colloquially as the Vette or Chevy Corvette, is a sports car manufactured by Chevrolet.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Cisplatin is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of cancers.
Clergy are some of the main and important formal leaders within certain religions.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
Coke is a fuel with a high carbon content and few impurities, usually made from coal.
Color (American English) or colour (Commonwealth English) is the characteristic of human visual perception described through color categories, with names such as red, orange, yellow, green, blue, or purple.
The Columbia Encyclopedia is a one-volume encyclopedia produced by Columbia University Press and in the last edition, sold by the Gale Group.
Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Cornwall (Kernow) is a county in South West England in the United Kingdom.
Corrosion is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more chemically-stable form, such as its oxide, hydroxide, or sulfide.
Corundum is a crystalline form of aluminium oxide typically containing traces of iron, titanium, vanadium and chromium.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
In materials science, creep (sometimes called cold flow) is the tendency of a solid material to move slowly or deform permanently under the influence of mechanical stresses.
Crell's Annalen is a German chemistry journal.
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.
The crystal bar process (also known as iodide process or the van Arkel–de Boer process) was developed by Anton Eduard van Arkel and Jan Hendrik de Boer in 1925.
A crystallite is a small or even microscopic crystal which forms, for example, during the cooling of many materials.
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of emerging technologies for use by the military.
In nuclear physics, a decay product (also known as a daughter product, daughter isotope, radio-daughter, or daughter nuclide) is the remaining nuclide left over from radioactive decay.
The Defense National Stockpile Center (DNSC) is a branch of the United States' Defense Logistics Agency, whose purpose it is to store, secure, and sell raw materials.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
A dental implant (also known as an endosseous implant or fixture) is a surgical component that interfaces with the bone of the jaw or skull to support a dental prosthesis such as a crown, bridge, denture, facial prosthesis or to act as an orthodontic anchor.
Desalination is a process that extracts mineral components from saline water.
Deuterium (or hydrogen-2, symbol or, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen (the other being protium, or hydrogen-1).
Diamond is a solid form of carbon with a diamond cubic crystal structure.
In optics, dispersion is the phenomenon in which the phase velocity of a wave depends on its frequency.
Drill bits are cutting tools used to remove material to create holes, almost always of circular cross-section.
Ductility is a measure of a material's ability to undergo significant plastic deformation before rupture, which may be expressed as percent elongation or percent area reduction from a tensile test.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.
Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.
Electron capture (K-electron capture, also K-capture, or L-electron capture, L-capture) is a process in which the proton-rich nucleus of an electrically neutral atom absorbs an inner atomic electron, usually from the K or L electron shell.
Embrittlement is a loss of ductility of a material, making it brittle.
Equisetum (horsetail, snake grass, puzzlegrass) is the only living genus in Equisetaceae, a family of vascular plants that reproduce by spores rather than seeds.
A farrier is a specialist in equine hoof care, including the trimming and balancing of horses' hooves and the placing of shoes on their hooves, if necessary.
Fatigue limit, endurance limit, and fatigue strength are all expressions used to describe a property of materials: the amplitude (or range) of cyclic stress that can be applied to the material without causing fatigue failure.
Ferromagnetism is the basic mechanism by which certain materials (such as iron) form permanent magnets, or are attracted to magnets.
Ferrotitanium is a ferroalloy, an alloy of iron and titanium with between 10–20% iron and 45–75% titanium and sometimes a small amount of carbon.
The FFC Cambridge Process is an electrochemical method in which solid metal compounds, particularly oxides, are cathodically reduced to the respective metals or alloys in molten salts.
The fineness of a precious metal object (coin, bar, jewelry, etc.) represents the weight of fine metal therein, in proportion to the total weight which includes alloying base metals and any impurities.
Fire class is a term used to denote the type of fire, in relation to the combustion materials which have (or could be) ignited.
Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions.
Franz-Joseph Müller, Freiherr von Reichenstein or Franz-Joseph Müller von Reichenstein (1 July 1740 or 4 October 1742 – 12 October 1825 or 1826) was an Austrian mineralogist and mining engineer. Müller held several positions in the Habsburg Empire administration of mines and coinage in the Banat, Transylvania, and Tyrol. During his time in Transylvania he discovered tellurium in 1782. In his later career he became a member of the imperial council in Vienna and was knighted and elevated to the rank Freiherr in 1820.
Galling is a form of wear caused by adhesion between sliding surfaces.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.
The Gold Coast Titans are a professional rugby league football club, based on the Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia.
Greek mythology is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices.
In chemistry, a group (also known as a family) is a column of elements in the periodic table of the chemical elements.
The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao is a museum of modern and contemporary art designed by Canadian-American architect Frank Gehry, and located in Bilbao, Basque Country, Spain.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
Heat capacity or thermal capacity is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ratio of the heat added to (or removed from) an object to the resulting temperature change.
A heat exchanger is a device used to transfer heat between two or more fluids.
Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.
HSAB concept is an initialism for "hard and soft (Lewis) acids and bases".
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
The human body is the entire structure of a human being.
The Hunter process was the first industrial process to produce pure ductile metallic titanium.
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hydrometallurgy is a method for obtaining metals from their ores.
Hypholoma capnoides is an edible mushroom in the family Strophariaceae.
Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ignis meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic.
Ilmenite, also known as Manaccanite, is a titanium-iron oxide mineral with the idealized formula.
Image-guided surgery (IGS) is any surgical procedure where the surgeon uses tracked surgical instruments in conjunction with preoperative or intraoperative images in order to directly or indirectly guide the procedure.
An implant is a medical device manufactured to replace a missing biological structure, support a damaged biological structure, or enhance an existing biological structure.
An incandescent light bulb, incandescent lamp or incandescent light globe is an electric light with a wire filament heated to such a high temperature that it glows with visible light (incandescence).
In mineralogy, an inclusion is any material that is trapped inside a mineral during its formation.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Internal fixation is an operation in orthopedics that involves the surgical implementation of implants for the purpose of repairing a bone, a concept that dates to the mid-nineteenth century and was made applicable for routine treatment in the mid-twentieth century.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Iron oxides are chemical compounds composed of iron and oxygen.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Jan Hendrik de Boer (19 March 1899 – 25 April 1971) was a Dutch physicist and chemist.
A jet engine is a type of reaction engine discharging a fast-moving jet that generates thrust by jet propulsion.
John F. Hartwig is the Henry Rapoport Professor of Chemistry at the University of California, Berkeley.
Replacement arthroplasty (from Greek arthron, joint, limb, articulate, + plassein, to form, mould, forge, feign, make an image of), or joint replacement surgery, is a procedure of orthopedic surgery in which an arthritic or dysfunctional joint surface is replaced with an orthopedic prosthesis.
Juno Radiation Vault is a compartment inside the Juno spacecraft that houses much of the probe's electronics and computers, and is intended to offer increased protection of radiation to the contents as the spacecraft endures the radiation environment at planet Jupiter.
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.
The Kroll process is a pyrometallurgical industrial process used to produce metallic titanium.
Landing gear is the undercarriage of an aircraft or spacecraft and may be used for either takeoff or landing.
A Lewis acid is a chemical species that contains an empty orbital which is capable of accepting an electron pair from a Lewis base to form a Lewis adduct.
Liquid oxygen—abbreviated LOx, LOX or Lox in the aerospace, submarine and gas industries—is one of the physical forms of elemental oxygen.
This is a list of countries by titanium sponge production in 2010–2016 based on USGS figures.
Lithium batteries are primary batteries that have lithium as an anode.
A lithosphere (λίθος for "rocky", and σφαίρα for "sphere") is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial-type planet, or natural satellite, that is defined by its rigid mechanical properties.
The Lockheed A-12 was a reconnaissance aircraft built for the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) by Lockheed's Skunk Works, based on the designs of Clarence "Kelly" Johnson.
The Lockheed SR-71 "Blackbird" is a long-range, Mach 3+ strategic reconnaissance aircraft that was operated by the United States Air Force.
The LS based GM small-block engine is the primary V-8 used in General Motors' line of rear-wheel-drive cars and trucks.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
A magnet is a material or object that produces a magnetic field.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
Marasmius oreades, the Scotch bonnet, is also known as the fairy ring mushroom or fairy ring champignon.
Martin Heinrich Klaproth (1 December 1743 – 1 January 1817) was a German chemist who discovered uranium (1789), zirconium (1789), and cerium (1803), and named titanium (1795) and tellurium (1798).
Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.
Mass production, also known as flow production or continuous production, is the production of large amounts of standardized products, including and especially on assembly lines.
Matthew Albert Hunter (1878-1961) was a metallurgist and inventor of the Hunter process for producing titanium metal.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Melting, or fusion, is a physical process that results in the phase transition of a substance from a solid to a liquid.
The Memorial Museum of Cosmonautics (Russian Музей космонавтики, also known as the Memorial Museum of Astronautics (in English) or Memorial Museum of Space Exploration) is a museum in Moscow, Russia, dedicated to space exploration.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
Metal aquo complexes are coordination compounds containing metal ions with only water as a ligand.
Metal carbonyls are coordination complexes of transition metals with carbon monoxide ligands.
Regular foamed aluminium A metal foam is a cellular structure consisting of a solid metal (frequently aluminium) with gas-filled pores comprising a large portion of the volume.
A meteorite is a solid piece of debris from an object, such as a comet, asteroid, or meteoroid, that originates in outer space and survives its passage through the atmosphere to reach the surface of a planet or moon.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
In modern language, a missile is a guided self-propelled system, as opposed to an unguided self-propelled munition, referred to as a rocket (although these too can also be guided).
A mobile phone, known as a cell phone in North America, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area.
The Mohs scale of mineral hardness is a qualitative ordinal scale characterizing scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of harder material to scratch softer material.
Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42.
The Monument to the Conquerors of Space (p) was erected in Moscow in 1964 to celebrate achievements of the Soviet people in space exploration.
Monument to Yuri Gagarin is a 42.5-meter high pedestal and statue of Yuri Gagarin, the first person to travel in space.
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique (Moçambique or República de Moçambique) is a country in Southeast Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, and Swaziland and South Africa to the southwest.
The Mukaiyama aldol addition is an organic reaction and a type of aldol reaction between a silyl enol ether and an aldehyde or formate.
A nacelle is a housing, separate from the fuselage, that holds engines, fuel, or equipment on an aircraft.
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).
Nanoparticles are particles between 1 and 100 nanometres (nm) in size with a surrounding interfacial layer.
In physics, natural abundance (NA) refers to the abundance of isotopes of a chemical element as naturally found on a planet.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
The North American F-100 Super Sabre is an American supersonic jet fighter aircraft that served with the United States Air Force (USAF) from 1954 to 1971 and with the Air National Guard (ANG) until 1979.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
In chemistry, octahedral molecular geometry describes the shape of compounds with six atoms or groups of atoms or ligands symmetrically arranged around a central atom, defining the vertices of an octahedron.
The Orenda PS.13 Iroquois was an advanced turbojet engine designed for military use.
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.
Osseointegration (from Latin ossum "bone" and integrare "to make whole") is the direct structural and functional connection between living bone and the surface of a load-bearing artificial implant ("load-bearing" as defined by Albrektsson et al. in 1981).
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.
An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Paramagnetism is a form of magnetism whereby certain materials are weakly attracted by an externally applied magnetic field, and form internal, induced magnetic fields in the direction of the applied magnetic field.
In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.
The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength.
Passivation, in physical chemistry and engineering, refers to a material becoming "passive," that is, less affected or corroded by the environment of future use.
The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, whose structure shows periodic trends.
The Periodic Table of Videos (usually shortened to Periodic Videos) is a series of videos about chemical elements and the periodic table.
Periprosthetic in medicine refers to a structure in close relation to an implant.
Perovskite (pronunciation) is a calcium titanium oxide mineral composed of calcium titanate (Ca Ti O3).
The Petasis reagent is an organotitanium compound with the formula Cp2Ti(CH3)2.
In chemistry, photocatalysis is the acceleration of a photoreaction in the presence of a catalyst.
Piezoelectricity is the electric charge that accumulates in certain solid materials (such as crystals, certain ceramics, and biological matter such as bone, DNA and various proteins) in response to applied mechanical stress.
A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.
Plating is a surface covering in which a metal is deposited on a conductive surface.
Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.
In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.
In materials science, polymorphism is the ability of a solid material to exist in more than one form or crystal structure.
A polyolefin is any of a class of polymers produced from a simple olefin (also called an alkene with the general formula CnH2n) as a monomer.
Polypropylene (PP), also known as polypropene, is a thermoplastic polymer used in a wide variety of applications.
Popular Science (also known as PopSci) is an American quarterly magazine carrying popular science content, which refers to articles for the general reader on science and technology subjects.
The positron or antielectron is the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron.
The pound per square inch or, more accurately, pound-force per square inch (symbol: lbf/in2; abbreviation: psi) is a unit of pressure or of stress based on avoirdupois units.
Powder metallurgy (PM) is a term covering a wide range of ways in which materials or components are made from metal powders.
In medicine, a prosthesis (plural: prostheses; from Ancient Greek prosthesis, "addition, application, attachment") is an artificial device that replaces a missing body part, which may be lost through trauma, disease, or congenital conditions.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
The pulp and paper industry comprises companies that use wood as raw material and produce pulp, paper, paperboard and other cellulose-based products.
Pyrotechnics is the science of using materials capable of undergoing self-contained and self-sustained exothermic chemical reactions for the production of heat, light, gas, smoke and/or sound.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
A reagent is a substance or compound added to a system to cause a chemical reaction, or added to test if a reaction occurs.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.
Refractory metals are a class of metals that are extraordinarily resistant to heat and wear.
Relative atomic mass (symbol: A) or atomic weight is a dimensionless physical quantity defined as the ratio of the average mass of atoms of a chemical element in a given sample to one unified atomic mass unit.
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, or RPI, is a private research university and space-grant institution located in Troy, New York, with two additional campuses in Hartford and Groton, Connecticut.
Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.
The Royal Geological Society of Cornwall is a geological society based in Penzance, Cornwall in the United Kingdom.
A ruby is a pink to blood-red colored gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum (aluminium oxide).
Rutile is a mineral composed primarily of titanium dioxide (TiO2).
Salt, table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.
Sapphire is a precious gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum, an aluminium oxide.
Scandium is a chemical element with symbol Sc and atomic number 21.
Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean.
Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water.
Semiconductor device fabrication is the process used to create the integrated circuits that are present in everyday electrical and electronic devices.
The Sharpless epoxidation reaction is an enantioselective chemical reaction to prepare 2,3-epoxyalcohols from primary and secondary allylic alcohols.
Sheet metal is metal formed by an industrial process into thin, flat pieces.
Sierra Leone, officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, is a country in West Africa.
Silicon carbide (SiC), also known as carborundum, is a semiconductor containing silicon and carbon.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
A smoke screen is smoke released to mask the movement or location of military units such as infantry, tanks, aircraft or ships.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
In materials science, the sol–gel process is a method for producing solid materials from small molecules.
Solder (or in North America) is a fusible metal alloy used to create a permanent bond between metal workpieces.
The solderability of a substrate is a measure of the ease with which a soldered joint can be made to that material.
In physics, sound is a vibration that typically propagates as an audible wave of pressure, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
K-278 Komsomolets was the only Project 685 Plavnik (Плавник, meaning "fin", also known by its NATO reporting name of "Mike"-class) nuclear-powered attack submarine of the Soviet Navy.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space.
The specific strength is a material's strength (force per unit area at failure) divided by its density.
Sputtering is a process whereby particles are ejected from a solid target material due to bombardment of the target by energetic particles, particularly gas ions in a laboratory.
In metallurgy, stainless steel, also known as inox steel or inox from French inoxydable (inoxidizable), is a steel alloy with a minimum of 10.5% chromium content by mass.
A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
In astronomy, stellar classification is the classification of stars based on their spectral characteristics.
Strategic material is any sort of raw material that is important to an individual's or organization's strategic plan and supply chain management.
Structural steel is a category of steel used for making construction materials in a variety of shapes.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
A surgical instrument is a specially designed tool or device for performing specific actions or carrying out desired effects during a surgery or operation, such as modifying biological tissue, or to provide access for viewing it.
The Tebbe reagent is the organometallic compound with the formula (C5H5)2TiCH2ClAl(CH3)2.
Thermal conductivity (often denoted k, λ, or κ) is the property of a material to conduct heat.
The discovery of the 118 chemical elements known to exist today is presented here in chronological order.
In Greek mythology, the Titans (Greek: Τιτάν, Titán, Τiτᾶνες, Titânes) and Titanesses (or Titanides; Greek: Τιτανίς, Titanís, Τιτανίδες, Titanídes) were members of the second generation of divine beings, descending from the primordial deities and preceding the Olympians.
In chemistry, titanate usually refers to inorganic compounds composed of titanium oxides.
Titanite, or sphene (from the Greek sphenos (σφηνώ), meaning wedge), is a calcium titanium nesosilicate mineral, CaTiSiO5.
Titanium alloys are metals that contain a mixture of titanium and other chemical elements.
Titanium Beta C refers to Ti Beta-C, a trademark for an alloy of titanium originally filed by RTI International.
Titanium carbide, TiC, is an extremely hard (Mohs 9–9.5) refractory ceramic material, similar to tungsten carbide.
Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV) oxide or titania, is the naturally occurring oxide of titanium, chemical formula.
Titanium disulfide is an inorganic compound with the formula TiS2.
In metallurgy, titanium gold (Ti-Au or Au-Ti) refers to an alloy consisting of titanium and gold.
Titanium mining in Africa has been beset by environmental problems due to the polluting nature of processing rutile, a principal titanium ore.
Titanium in zircon geothermometry is a form of a geothermometry technique by which the crystallization temperature of a zircon crystal can be estimated by the amount of titanium atoms which can only be found in the crystal lattice.
Titanium isopropoxide, also commonly referred to as titanium tetraisopropoxide or TTIP, is a chemical compound with the formula.
The Titanium Man ("Chelovek-Titan") is the name of two fictional supervillains appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics.
Titanium Metals Corporation, founded in 1950, is an American manufacturer of titanium-based metals products, focusing primarily on the aerospace industry.
Titanium nitride (sometimes known as tinite) is an extremely hard ceramic material, often used as a coating on titanium alloys, steel, carbide, and aluminium components to improve the substrate's surface properties.
Titanium rings are jewelry rings or bands which have been primarily constructed from titanium.
A titanium sublimation pump (TSP) is a type of vacuum pump used to remove residual gas in ultra high vacuum systems, maintaining the vacuum.
Titanium tetrachloride is the inorganic compound with the formula TiCl4.
Titanium tetraiodide is an inorganic compound with the formula TiI4.
Titanium(II) oxide (TiO) is an inorganic chemical compound of titanium and oxygen.
Titanium(III) chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula TiCl3.
Titanium(III) oxide (Ti2O3) is a chemical compound of titanium and oxygen.
Dicarbonylbis(cyclopentadienyl)titanium is the chemical compound with the formula (η5-C5H5)2Ti(CO)2, abbreviated Cp2Ti(CO)2.
Titanocene dichloride is the organotitanium compound with the formula (''η''5-C5H5)2TiCl2, commonly abbreviated as Cp2TiCl2.
In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.
A tube, or tubing, is a long hollow cylinder used for moving fluids (liquids or gases) or to protect electrical or optical cables and wires.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), often shortened to tensile strength (TS), ultimate strength, or Ftu within equations, is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate, as opposed to compressive strength, which withstands loads tending to reduce size.
Ultra-high vacuum (UHV) is the vacuum regime characterised by pressures lower than about 10−7 pascal or 100 nanopascals (10−9 mbar, ~10−9 torr).
Ultrasonic welding is an industrial technique whereby high-frequency ultrasonic acoustic vibrations are locally applied to workpieces being held together under pressure to create a solid-state weld.
The unified atomic mass unit or dalton (symbol: u, or Da) is a standard unit of mass that quantifies mass on an atomic or molecular scale (atomic mass).
The Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD, or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government of the United States charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
Urtica is a genus of flowering plants in the family Urticaceae.
In chemistry, a valence electron is an outer shell electron that is associated with an atom, and that can participate in the formation of a chemical bond if the outer shell is not closed; in a single covalent bond, both atoms in the bond contribute one valence electron in order to form a shared pair.
Vanadium is a chemical element with symbol V and atomic number 23.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
VSMPO-AVISMA Corporation (ВСМПО-АВИСМА) is the world's largest titanium producer.
A watch is a timepiece intended to be carried or worn by a person.
In physics, interference is a phenomenon in which two waves superpose to form a resultant wave of greater, lower, or the same amplitude.
Wave soldering is a bulk soldering process used in the manufacture of printed circuit boards.
Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing fusion, which is distinct from lower temperature metal-joining techniques such as brazing and soldering, which do not melt the base metal.
West Conshohocken is a borough in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, United States.
Westport is an affluent town located in Connecticut, along Long Island Sound within Connecticut's Gold Coast in Fairfield County, Connecticut.
William Gregor (25 December 1761 – 11 June 1817) was the British clergyman and mineralogist who discovered the elemental metal titanium.
William Justin Kroll (born Guillaume Justin Kroll; November 24, 1889 – March 30, 1973) was a Luxembourgish metallurgist.
Yellow nail syndrome, also known as "primary lymphedema associated with yellow nails and pleural effusion", is a very rare medical syndrome that includes pleural effusions, lymphedema (due to under development of the lymphatic vessels) and yellow dystrophic nails.
Young's modulus, also known as the elastic modulus, is a measure of the stiffness of a solid material.
Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie (Journal of Inorganic and General Chemistry) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal dealing with inorganic chemistry, published by Wiley-VCH.
A Ziegler–Natta catalyst, named after Karl Ziegler and Giulio Natta, is a catalyst used in the synthesis of polymers of 1-alkenes (alpha-olefins).
Zirconium is a chemical element with symbol Zr and atomic number 40.
6061 is a precipitation-hardened aluminum alloy, containing magnesium and silicon as its major alloying elements.
Applications of titanium and titanium alloys, Element 22, Menachite, Ti (element), Titaniferous, Titanium Processing, Titanium bolts, Titanium jewelry, Titanium metallurgy, Titanium ore, Titanium sponge.